Military Review

EON-18: a secret expedition of the Northern Fleet

14



In just a month, seven transport vessels of the first allied convoy arrived in Arkhangelsk. Until the end of the year, the ports of the USSR accepted seven such caravans - from “PQ.0” to “PQ.6”, consisting of 52 ships. Thus, only in 1941 a year, 699 aircraft, 466, were delivered from England and the USA to Arkhangelsk. tanks, 330 wedges and many other military cargo. In the opposite direction during the same period 136 tons of timber, ore and other raw materials were sent (a total of four caravans - from “QP.000” to “QP.1” with a total of 4 vessels).

Maxim on a trawler

Allied help came from the shores of England and Iceland. Approximately before Spitsbergen, the caravans were guarded by the Navy of the United Kingdom and the United States, and in the Barents Sea, Soviet ships and planes took the baton, along with British warships based in the north of the USSR since the summer of 1941. And yet, at the beginning of the war, our Northern Fleet was extremely weak. Formally, he counted 51 pennants, although only 8 destroyers and 15 submarines could be considered a real force. Large ships in its composition at that time were not at all. Therefore, already in the summer of 1941, the most modern civil vessels of the Northern Shipping Company began hastily arming, installing on them several 75-mm or 45-mm guns and machine guns of the Vickers, Hotchkiss, or even just Maxim systems. After that, the former fishing trawlers and steamers were transferred to the North the fleet already like minesweepers or patrol ships. That’s how the Fedor Litke icebreaker became the SKR-18 patrol boat, the Semyon Dezhnev icebreaker steamer became the SKR-19, and ordinary trawlers such as the RT-33 and RT-76 became the T-894 and T-911 minesweepers . Of course, these ships could be considered full-fledged combat units only with a very big stretch, which means that the Far North was in dire need of real warships.


Hero ships
The memory of the ships participating in the secret expedition “EON-18” is stored in the form of a few surviving photographs and modern models. In the photo the destroyer "Reasonable".


Destroyers in the winter "coat"

That is why the order of the People's Commissar of the Navy No. 00192 from 19.06.1942 approved a plan for transferring several warships from the Pacific Fleet to the Northern Fleet. The operation under the code “EON-18” (a special purpose expedition) was carried out in conditions of maximum secrecy, and the entire transition of ships along the Northern Sea Route was required to be completed before the end of navigation.

Such operations on the secret transfer of warships from one fleet to another were carried out before. The first of these, EON-1, took place as early as the summer of 1933, when the destroyers Uritsky and Rykov, Smerch and Uragan patrol ships, submarines D were carried out along the White Sea-Baltic Canal from Kronstadt to Murmansk -1 and D-2. Passed ships of the Navy and the Northern Sea Route. So, in 1936, the destroyers Stalin and Voikov (Operation EON-3) were transferred to the Pacific Ocean, and in 1940, the submarine U-423 (EON-10) was transferred. Now it's time to transfer the ships in the opposite direction - from the Pacific Ocean to the Barents Sea.

According to the plans of EON-18, the leader of “Baku” and three destroyers went to the Northern Fleet: “Reasonable”, “Enraged” and “Revious”. The main advantage of such ships has always been considered a high speed (up to 40 knots!) And high maneuverability, which was achieved due to the very weak armor protection. Their hull maintained water pressure only in 2 t / m2, therefore the thickness of the skin in some places did not exceed 10 mm. But the destroyers were never intended for navigation in the Arctic, where ice pressure could reach 10 − 12 t / m2. That is why, at the docks of Vladivostok, all EON-18 ships were dressed in a special “ice coat” made of boards and wooden bars 100 x 100 mm, sheathed with steel sheets from 3 − 5 mm thick along the sides to 15 mm in the vicinity of the stem. Such a “fur coat” protected destroyers on 3 m below the waterline and 1 m above it. To imagine the amount of work done, it should be noted that the “dressing” had not tiny little ships, but full-fledged warships with a displacement from 1700 to 2500 and a hull length from 113 to 127.

All the interior of the destroyers were insulated for future frosts and seriously reinforced with additional internal struts made of box-shaped metal beams and 250 bar x 250 mm. In addition, many of the mechanisms have also been specially refined, taking into account the expected low temperatures and strong vibrations of the hull due to a collision with ice. Bronze propellers received reinforcement in the form of a special steel lining, and some of them were simply replaced by folding steel propellers with removable blades, which allowed them to be repaired during sailing. All these works were carried out almost around the clock under the direction of the flagship ship engineer, captain of the 2 rank A.I. Dubrovin, who already had experience of participation in Operation EON-3. In order to comply with the secrecy regime, the ships were preparing for a long voyage under the legend of the official relocation of the destroyers division to Kamchatka.

Fog accident

July 15 ships "EON-18" were removed from the anchor and out of Peter the Great Bay in the Sea of ​​Japan. The leader of "Baku" was commanded by the captain of the 3 rank B.P. Belyaev. The destroyers are captain of the 3 rank V.K. Nikiforov (“Zealous”) and lieutenant commander V.V. Fedorov (“Reasonable”) and N.I. Nikolsky ("Enraged"). The captain of the 1 rank V.N. Obukhov, who commanded the destroyer “Stalin” in 1936 during its transition along the Northern Sea Route as part of EON-3. Together with the warships, the tanker Lok-Batan and the transport vessels providing the Volga and the Blacksmith of the Forests set off.

Two days later, the caravan passed through the Tatar Strait and arrived at De-Kastri Bay (now - Chikhachev Bay). At that time, the southern part of Sakhalin and all the Kuril Islands belonged to Japan, so for the USSR warships this was the only possible way to the Bering Sea. Having replenished supplies of fuel oil and water to De-Kastri, the caravan continued moving, but the next day in the Amur estuary the destroyer “Zealous” had an accident. Moving in a thick fog, he broke down the caravan and collided with the Terney transport. The destroyer's entire nose was crumpled and rolled to the right by about 10 m in length. Ships EON-18 stood at anchor until July 19, until the Navy Commissar decided to reduce the caravan.


One of the memorable characters
released to the 30 anniversary of the heroic transition from Vladivostok to Murmansk. This sign is dedicated to the destroyer "Reasonable".

The damaged Revolutionary was towed to Sovetskaya Gavan, where in the dock the warped bow of the ship was cut off and made anew from three new sections. On the tenth day after the accident, the destroyer had already left the dock, but the command decided that the “Zealous” was hopelessly behind the caravan, so he was left in the Pacific Ocean. In August, 1945, during the war against Japan, the ship took part in the landing of Soviet troops on Sakhalin in the port of Maoku (now - Kholmsk).

And the caravan passed through the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, passed the Soviet and Japanese minefields and on July 22 reached the First Kuril Strait, along which the border between Japan and the USSR passed. At that time, Japanese destroyers were constantly on duty there, in full view of whom the ships and ships of EON-18 and proceeded to the Pacific Ocean. It is believed that it was after this meeting that the Japanese intelligence reported to Berlin about the relocation of warships from the Pacific Ocean to Murmansk. In the evening of the same day, the Soviet destroyers entered Avacha Bay and anchored in Tarja Bay (now the city of Vilyuchinsk), where a diesel submarine base was deployed since 1938. Three days later, the ships replenished stocks of fuel oil, which was supplied from coastal tanks by gravity through hoses carried by rafts on 200 meters from the coast. Refueling, the destroyers left the base and continued to move north.

In the morning of July 30, the ships came to Chukotka, having overcome almost all the way from Kamchatka to Providence Bay in dense fog. There was another incident: when approaching the pier, “Furious” caught the ground, damaging the screws and bending the tip of the right propeller shaft. Repair work was carried out afloat, taking a whole week, but it was not possible to get rid of the shaft beat. Later, the destroyer course had to be limited to eight nodes, and later (already in Dixon) the right screw from the damaged shaft was removed altogether.


The destroyer "Reasonable"

Attention - the raider!

The icebreaker Mikoyan joined the caravan in Providence Bay. From November 1941, he made an unparalleled round-the-world voyage from Batumi through the Bosphorus and the Suez Canal to the Cape of Good Hope, and then, passing Cape Horn, he passed through the entire Pacific Ocean to Chukotka. Moreover, in the Aegean Sea, the icebreaker was forced to actually make its way through the zone of operations of the naval and air forces of Italy and Germany.

On August 14, the destroyer convoy again set sail and near the village of Whalen met the first ice. The next day, already in the Chukchi Sea, the ships entered the ice with a density from 7 to 9 points. Destroyers could move through such ice only with the help of the icebreakers Mikoyan and Kaganovich, which simultaneously with the caravan EON-18 provided navigation for five transport ships with strategic cargo. It was the Chukchi Sea that became the most difficult part of the entire transition. At some moments, the pressure of the ice fields became critical, while the shipborne instruments fixed the deflection of the sides more than 100 mm.

True, the destroyers were disturbed not only by the polar ice. So on August 26, EON-18 received a message about the appearance of the German heavy cruiser Admiral Scheer in the Kara Sea. The command of the Navy ordered urgently to take all measures to increase combat readiness, and in the case of meeting with the enemy ships they were required to attack and destroy. It is curious that before the area of ​​the German raider's actions our ships had been going for another month, and three of our destroyers were simply unable to render him at least some serious resistance. But in the last days of August, the Admiral Scheer himself returned to Norway, and the EON-18 ships at that time were still off the coast of Chukotka.

Slowly advancing in heavy ice, icebreakers conducted each destroyer separately, so the caravan in the Chukchi Sea was forced to temporarily separate.

For this reason, “Baku” and “Enraged” have already arrived at Tiksi Bay on 15 September, while “Reasonable” is still going through the East Siberian Sea at the same time. Only in Tiksi the ships again gathered into a single detachment and subsequently moved only together.

By September 24, the caravan completed the overcoming of the most difficult and dangerous section of the Northern Sea Route and, accompanied by the icebreaker Krasin, arrived in Dickson.

After a heavy transition destroyers looked quite satisfactory, although their hull and got a small dent from the compression in the ice. True, the screws “Baku” and “Enraged” had curvatures and cracks, while the beating of the shaft on the “Enraged” caused a very strong vibration of the whole body. Visibly reduced the speed of the ships and the "ice coat." Thus, the maximum speed of the leader of “Baku” was 26 nodes, “Reasonable” - 18, and “Enraged” - total 8 nodes in clear water.


In the grip of ice
The destroyer "Reasonable" sneaks through the Chukchi Sea. After completing the EON-18, the ship actively participated in the military campaigns, including the 14 escort of the Arctic convoys. He was in service until the end of the war (with a break for repairs).

Interestingly, after the caravan arrived in Dickson, the headquarters of the White Sea military flotilla tried to use the destroyers EON-18 as an escort for icebreakers and transports returning from the Arctic to Arkhangelsk. The command of the Navy was even sent a special request, which immediately came a categorical refusal.

New warships were urgently waiting in Murmansk. October 9 destroyers left Dickson and the next day arrived in the Strait of Yugorsky Ball. In the Varnek bay, the ships replenished fuel supplies and in the evening of October 12 safely passed into the Barents Sea, miraculously avoiding death on German mines. The fact is that German intelligence knew about the transfer of Soviet destroyers through the Yugorsky Shar Strait, although the exact schedule of their movement was unknown to the enemy. The covert mining of the strait was completed by a U-592 submarine, putting mines of various types at the exit of the Yugorsky Ball 24. But the German submarine was late for a day, having mined the strait already after the caravan passed into the Barents Sea. Nevertheless, 14 of October on one of these mines nevertheless the Shchors transport, which was going through the strait to the western coast of Novaya Zemlya, was blown up.

The destroyer caravan arrived safely in Vaenga Bay (now the city of Severomorsk) in the early hours of October 14. On the approach to the Kola Bay, they were met by the commander of the Northern Fleet, Vice-Admiral A.G. Golovko, taken to sea on board the destroyer "Gremyashchy". Thus, in three months the detachment of the ships “EON-18” passed from Vladivostok to the main SF base almost 7360 miles per 762 running hours at an average speed around the 9,6 node. When the destroyers were autonomous about 2000 miles, the ships had to replenish fuel supplies from the coast several times and from the Lok-Batan tanker accompanying the caravan. A significant part of this long journey damaged destroyer "Enraged" was towed by the leader of "Baku".

Thus, the most difficult operation was successfully completed, and after two days the caravan "EON-18" was officially disbanded. As a result, the Northern Fleet was replenished with the most modern ships built at the shipyards of Nikolaev and Komsomolsk-on-Amur in 1938 — 1941.
Author:
Originator:
http://www.popmech.ru/history/238053-eon-18-sekretnaya-ekspeditsiya-severnogo-flota/
14 comments
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  1. ICT
    ICT 14 May 2016 07: 21
    +7
    the final
    On October 14, the commander met the leader "Baku" and the destroyers "Reasonable" and "Enraged", which came from the Pacific Ocean along the Northern Sea Route. So the dream of S.O. Makarov and other Russian naval commanders about the possibility of maneuvering forces between the naval theaters of Russia in the days of the war came true. The arriving ships proved to be the necessary reinforcements.

  2. ICT
    ICT 14 May 2016 07: 26
    +5
    dressed in a special "ice coat" of boards and wooden beams 100 x 100 mm, sheathed with steel sheets from a thickness of 3 − 5 mm on the sides to 15 mm in the area of ​​the stem. Such a "fur coat" protected the destroyers at 3 m below the waterline and at 1 m above it.


    hard to imagine, but like that
  3. ICT
    ICT 14 May 2016 07: 39
    +8
    so simple line
    1. Freelancer7
      Freelancer7 14 May 2016 13: 50
      +5
      Thank! A cool scheme, I never understood why geo-data is rarely applied to the text. With an understanding of the places, an understanding of the whole action comes, and the article is perceived not just as a reference article, but as an interesting and informative story.
  4. fransys.drake
    fransys.drake 14 May 2016 07: 40
    +6
    Thanks, interesting article! Saturday started useful))
  5. faiver
    faiver 14 May 2016 09: 49
    +3
    really a military campaign, in such conditions, but on such ships, it is a real feat ...
  6. Verdun
    Verdun 14 May 2016 10: 39
    +1
    The fact that the most important strategic fleets at the time of the beginning of WWII, as indeed now, were the North and the Pacific, in my opinion, is pretty obvious. Even if we don’t think of battleships, destroyers and submarines locked in the Baltic Sea could be of great help in the conduct of hostilities in the northwest. If the leadership of the USSR Navy had realized this beforehand, expanding the service base in Murmansk and transferring at least part of the available ships there, such extreme trips as EON-18 would not be required. And thanks to the author for the article!
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 14 May 2016 12: 47
      +1
      Quote: Verdun
      If the leadership of the USSR Navy had realized this beforehand, expanding the service base in Murmansk and transferring at least part of the available ships there, such extreme trips as EON-18 would not be required. And thanks to the author for the article!

      The leadership of the Navy under Kuznetsov, realized the mistake with the choice of the location for the main base in Polyarny, but it was too late. Before the war, they were going to transfer a number of ships to the Northern Fleet, including the battleship October Revolution. "But it turned out that there was nowhere to base the ships. The base in Vaenga was not ready. Difficulties and desertion of the North affected. http://wikimapia.org/915618/ru/%D0%A1%D0%B5%D0%B2%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BC
      % D0% BE% D1% 80% D1% 81% D0% BA If N.G. Kuznetsov is deceiving, I am deceiving too, but before the blockade of Leningrad, in the summer of 1941, some of the ships and submarines should be transferred to the North. EON-11 and EON-15
      1. Verdun
        Verdun 14 May 2016 13: 16
        +1
        The leadership of the Navy under Kuznetsov realized the mistake with the choice of location for the main base in Polyarny, but it was already too late
        So that's it. What were the translation plans - I know. But the fact that in the event of war the Baltic Fleet is quite easily blocked, it became clear back to the First World War.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 14 May 2016 14: 41
          +1
          Quote: Verdun
          But the fact that in the event of war the Baltic Fleet is quite easily blocked, it became clear back to the First World War.

          But it became so clear that Murmansk and Arkhangelsk became strategic ports for European Russia. And let's judge A.V. Kolchak, not as the Supreme Ruler of Siberia, but as a polar scientist. Studies of Kolchak, Vilkitsky and other polar explorers at the beginning The 20th century gave an impetus to the development of the Northern Sea Route. You can write a lot about these studies and researchers, but only the Second World War showed the strategic importance of the North Sea theater of war. But World War I already showed the possibility of blockade of the Baltic Fleet and the importance of the northern routes.
  7. sohosha
    sohosha 14 May 2016 11: 31
    +1
    Tarja and Vilyuchinsk are different settlements.
  8. King, just king
    King, just king 14 May 2016 14: 34
    +1
    Quote: Verdun
    The fact that the most important strategic fleets at the time of the beginning of WWII, as indeed now, were the North and the Pacific, in my opinion, is pretty obvious. Even if we don’t think of battleships, destroyers and submarines locked in the Baltic Sea could be of great help in the conduct of hostilities in the northwest. If the leadership of the USSR Navy had realized this beforehand, expanding the service base in Murmansk and transferring at least part of the available ships there, such extreme trips as EON-18 would not be required. And thanks to the author for the article!


    Here is how? And how do you prove that at the beginning of the Second World War or WWII - SF, and even more so Pacific Fleet were more important? Did someone prepare or promise a land lease, or convoys from England? I personally do not recall. With Japan - non-aggression, in the North there was nothing but a polar night in general. There is nothing obvious and there wasn’t; you are strong with your back mind.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 14 May 2016 15: 37
      +1
      Quote: King, just king

      Here is how? And how do you prove that at the beginning of the Second World War or WWII - SF, and even more so Pacific Fleet were more important? Did someone prepare or promise a land lease, or convoys from England? I personally do not recall. With Japan - non-aggression, in the North there was nothing but a polar night in general. There is nothing obvious and there wasn’t; you are strong with your back mind.

      About Lend-Lease and the convoys, here you are right, no one thought. But England’s attacks in the north were feared. Not Germany, but England. In the 30s of the last century, joint research was conducted with Germany on the polar basin. But with Japan, everything was The relationship has remained unchanged since the beginning of the 20th century. Yet with the Port Arthur events and the boxing uprising in China. And the chain of these events looks like this: the loss of Port Arthur by the Japanese in 1898 and its transfer to Russia for rent. The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905 The chain of subsequent events in the Far East led to the need to create Pacific Fleet.http: //maxpark.com/community/129/content/4957099.
      And if you mean this pact, then it did not stop the provocations of the Japanese on our borders. Http://biofile.ru/his/30963.html The provocations only stopped after the denunciation of this pact on April 5, 1945. And the importance of creating the MSDV from which then the Pacific Fleet was clearly realized by the leaders of the USSR. The whole problem was that there was not enough ship personnel. And the plans of Japan are well described in the book by A. Koshkin. << Cantokuen-Barbarossa in Japanese. >>
      1. King, just king
        King, just king 14 May 2016 16: 46
        0
        England in the North? Look-you, what news. And what was England to attack in the far North? By what forces and with what such further consequences and with what sense? Where does the data come from? Kapets, the Grand Fleet had nothing else to do, how to shoot at the huts of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk, and apart from huts and barracks there was nothing special ... Yeah, the Murmansk-Moscow landing party.

        About the Pacific Fleet, yes, it was just stupid there were no ships and facilities for construction. In my distant childhood, I read the book “The Adventures of the Boat“ Brave. ”Read how the Japs felt at ease in our D.Vostok.

        But the point is not, but why did the Northern Fleet and the Pacific Fleet suddenly become a priority for the BF and the Black Sea Fleet for the citizen of "Verdun"?
        1. Verdun
          Verdun 15 May 2016 20: 29
          +1

          But the point is not, but why did the Northern Fleet and the Pacific Fleet suddenly become a priority for the BF and the Black Sea Fleet for the citizen of "Verdun"?
          Yes, at least from the point of view that, unlike the Baltic Fleet and the Black Sea Fleet, the Northern Fleet and the Pacific Fleet cannot be blocked by relatively small forces. There are no narrow straits at the exit, such as the Kattegat and the Bosphorus. If you regard the fleet as a means of protecting the coast, then yes, it can be grouped in small areas. And if, as an active means of influencing the enemy, the fleet needs operational space.
  9. AllXVahhaB
    AllXVahhaB 14 May 2016 14: 39
    0
    HM interesting. I did not know that the German fleet, in the area of ​​Novaya Zemlya, felt at home ...
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 14 May 2016 16: 04
      +1
      Quote: AllXVahhaB
      HM interesting. I did not know that the German fleet, in the area of ​​Novaya Zemlya, felt at home ...

      There are several books about the war in the Arctic. Kovalev. * Arctic Odyssey. * P. Smith. * Victory in the Arctic *. O. Tonina * War in the Arctic. 1942 *. Koryakin. * War in the Arctic * Information can be found if you wish.
  10. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 14 May 2016 19: 33
    0
    Thank you with pleasure I read about the destroyers - the legendary - 7 series.
  11. Amurets
    Amurets 15 May 2016 00: 49
    +1
    Quote: King, just king

    About the Pacific Fleet, yes, it was just stupid there were no ships and facilities for construction. In my distant childhood, I read the book “The Adventures of the Boat“ Brave. ”Read how the Japs felt at ease in our D.Vostok.

    But the point is not, but why did the Northern Fleet and the Pacific Fleet suddenly become a priority for the BF and the Black Sea Fleet for the citizen of "Verdun"?

    Read Shirokorad: The cruisers that Khrushchev destroyed ". Here are really facts and justifications for the construction of fleets. Now, regarding the priority of the Northern Fleet and Pacific Fleet, these theaters give access to the open ocean. In the north, this is an outlet to the Atlantic and, accordingly, England: the United States and other markets , Pacific Fleet exit to the United States and Southeast Asia. As the experience of the two world wars showed, the Black Sea Fleet and the Baltic Fleet were practically blocked. Even the British in World War II built special blockade-breaker ships in order to receive the necessary strategic materials from Sweden.
    And further! With the beginning of the Second World War, in the ports of Germany, there were several transport ships from the USSR, not only those that passed to Germany, but also those that went from England to the Soviet ports of the Baltic Sea. If you like to read so much, read the book by Yu. Klemenchenko: "Ship goes further. "It describes well the internment camp of Soviet seamen of the merchant fleet. I am not talking about the Black Sea, there were also some troubles with Turkey. That is why Verdun gives priority to the SF and the Pacific Fleet. And S. Dikovsky's book about the border guards of the Far East lies with me since childhood. It's a pity the author died in 1940 in the Finnish war. But the book "Adventures of the boat" Brave "cannot serve as documentary evidence of what the Japanese were doing in our Far East, thanks, among other things, to the lack of a fleet. The same picture was happening and in the Arctic, only civilized Europeans created it: the British, the Norwegians, and who else was there? Since the wealth of the North was not protected at all until 1933.
    1. King, just king
      King, just king 15 May 2016 11: 02
      0
      Citizen "Amurets" why blunt?

      And then Shirokorad, Khrushchev, transports, captivity and other British?
      Substitution of concepts. The question is the priority of the Northern Fleet and Pacific Fleet over the Black Sea Fleet and Baltic Fleet at the beginning of WWII and WWII, and not on June 23.06.41, 60 and not in the XNUMXs.
      If you cannot clearly state your position, why and because of what these fleets should be of paramount importance at that time (gr. "Verdun" is generally silent), let's end the dialogue.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 15 May 2016 23: 57
        +1
        http
        Quote: King, just king
        Citizen "Amurets" why blunt?

        Khrushchev has nothing to do with it. In this book, Shirokorad gives documents and links to documents in the archives, as the Japanese, Norwegians, and the British ruined in our northern and Far Eastern seas in the 20-30s of the 1th century. He quotes and links to documents of the NKVD border guard, reports from the field and other examples of the atrocities of foreigners in the USSR. The priorities of the Northern Fleet and Pacific Fleet are that the 30116489994st World War showed how easily the fleets of the Black Sea Fleet and the Baltic Fleet are blocked. Moreover, the Bosphorus blockage created problems for both Turks and Russia. During the Second World War, the whole burden of accepting goods received through foreign trade fell on the ports of the North and Far East. But there was nothing to protect transports. If we had sufficiently powerful fleets of the Northern Fleet and Pacific Fleet, I admit, but not I affirm that the loss of transport and cargo in the North would be much less, and the Japanese would not dare to close the straits. This is a link to how the Japanese behaved on DV.http: //s43918461337.mirtesen.ru/blog/XNUMX/Moskva-prinimayet- reshenie
        -vyistupit-protiv-YAponii
        1. King, just king
          King, just king 16 May 2016 00: 03
          0
          Yes, my! A conversation between a blind man and a deaf man, again about convoys. That's it, I curved.