Military Review

Battle of Repeated Field (5 May 1151)

21
In the middle of the XII century, an internecine war unprecedented in scale broke out in Russia, in which not only almost all Russian principalities were involved, but also the Polovtsy, Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, and indirectly also the Byzantine Empire and the Sicilian kingdom. The subject of the conflict was, of course, the "Golden Kiev Table", claimed by Vladimir Monomakh's son Yury (from the 19th century, known as Dolgoruky) and his nephew Izyaslav-Panteleimon Mstislavich. The first of them headed a coalition of princes, which we conditionally call the Chernihiv-Suzdal, and the second was the leader of the Volyn-Smolensk coalition.


In 1146, Izyaslav, who reigned then in Pereyaslavl, smashed Igor Olgovich unpopular among Kiev residents under the walls of the capital city and for the first time became a Kiev prince, and Igor was in his captivity. His brother, Svyatoslav Olgovich of Chernigov, stood up for Igor, but was defeated and, having lost Chernigov, turned to Yuri, the prince in Suzdal, for help.

Involved in the conflict, Yuri soon became the main competitor of Izyaslav. In September, 1149 Izyaslav suffered a defeat at Pereyaslavl and gave Kiev to Yuri, but in August 1150 became Kiev Prince again, but only for a week. But in March — April, 1151, the city of Izyaslav, made a swift march from Vladimir (Volynsky) and, catching Yuri by surprise, forced him to flee from Kiev a second time. Having occupied the capital, Izyaslav made the right move, yielding the “table” to his uncle Vyacheslav Vladimirovich, the oldest in terms of age and descent count among the Monomakhs. Aged and soft-tempered Vyacheslav suggested that the energetic Izyaslav rule together. Thus, Yury’s legal trump, the “eldership” in relation to Izyaslav, was knocked out of Yury’s hands.

Easily settling political issues, Izyaslav had to return to military matters, since Yuri was not going to concede. He settled in Gorodtsa-Ostersky (now the city of Oster) - a powerful base in 90 km from Kiev - and began to prepare for revenge. His allies and vassals gathered here: sons Andrei and Gleb, nephew Vladimir Andreevich, Vladimir Davydovich Chernigov and Svyatoslav Olgovich Novgorod-Seversky with his nephew Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich. Yuri's troops marched to Kiev by river (along the Desna) and by dry road, and on April 24 approached Gorodets, a guard fortress on the left bank of the Dnieper, from where a panorama of the capital city opened. Here Yury was joined by the “wild” Polovtsy (they were called “wild” not by virtue of their low cultural level, but because this nomadic union was formed by the Polovtsy who were not part of the “traditional” hordes).

Battle of Repeated Field (5 May 1151)

Eastern Europe. Military-political situation in mid-April 1151


Apart from the detachments of Izyaslav Mstislavich and Vyacheslav Vladimirovich, the forces of Rostislav Mstislavich of Smolensk, Izyaslav Davydovich of Starodubsky, Boris Gorodensky, the Kiev militia and the black klobuk (the Turkic tribes who formed the “shield of Russia” from Husbands) were in the ranks; Torquay, Berendey, Pechenegs and Kovui are mentioned). Very rough estimates allow us to estimate the forces of the Volyn-Smolensk coalition in 15 thousands, including about 4 thousands of Kiev militias (in the chronicle it is mentioned that they were both horsemen and pedestrians, and that the veche decided to send everyone who “can I would take the club in my hands ") and at least 5 thousands of black hoods. The forces of the other side can be estimated in 6 thousands of warriors and 3-4 thousands of Polovtsians.

Perhaps Yuri was counting on approaching Kiev earlier than his loyal vassals, the black hoods, joined Izyaslav. In this case, given the low combat effectiveness of the Kiev militia, Yuri would have a significant advantage. There was another reason to hurry: the army was sent to the aid of Izyaslav, sent by his son-in-law - the Hungarian king Geisa II. True, Yuri was expecting reinforcements in the person of his matchmaker, the Galician prince Vladimir Volodarevich. But Galicians, it seems, was no more than Hungarians (if you believe the chronicles, the latter were over 10 thousands of "valiant men").


Russian princes in April 1151


All adult princes-Rurikovichi, which operated in April 1151 (on a white background within the framework), and their ancestors are shown.

Yuri faced a difficult task - to overcome the Dnieper in view of the enemy army. Already at the mouth of the Desna battle took place between flotilla Yuri, and the ships of Izyaslav, better adapted to river battle. Yuri was forced to seek a crossing far from Kiev. After his attack through Witchevsky ford was repelled, Yuri decided to try his luck on Zarubsky ford. Here, the Chernihiv-Suzdal troops were opposed only by a small detachment of the governor of Shvarn. "And then the Polovtsi ... wade against them on horses, with shields, and with spears, and in armor to fight. And they covered the Dnieper with many soldiers, and Russia moved in the boats. Schwarn, having seen this, ran and ran to Izyaslav. After all, he [Izyaslav], at that time sent his son Mstislav to Ugra [ie, Hungary], and therefore the ford was unreliable, since the prince was not here, and not everyone was listening to the boyar. "


The fighting in late April - early May 1151.


Izyaslav hurried to the defense of Kiev. He placed all his forces around the city. Soon here came the shelves of the enemy. The clashes, in which the forward detachments of Yuri were repelled with significant losses (among the dead were the son of the famous Khan Bonyak), forced him to retreat and head towards the union with Vladimir Galitsky. Izyaslav moved next, trying to prevent it. Yuri went to Belgorod - the fortress that controlled the bridge over Irpin and served as the western "gate" of Kiev. Obviously, Yuri intended to hide behind the powerful and extensive Belgorod fortifications and wait for his ally here. But Belgorod residents did not open the gates to the Suzdal prince, saying: “How did Kiev open for you? And our princes are Vyacheslav, and Izyaslav, and Rostislav.” Then Yuri turned south to reach the Vasilevskaya road, going from Kiev to Galich, bypassing the headwaters of Irpin. In the evening of May 1, Yuri camped on the northern edge of the Perepetov field, at the Perepetovyh graves - two Scythian burial mounds, which kept this name to our time. Yuri was hoping for the quick arrival of Vladimir Galitsky, but already on the night of May 3 his “watchmen” were attacked by the forward detachments of Izyaslav. On the morning of May 3, the main forces of the Volyn-Smolensk coalition entered the Perepetovo field. The day passed in fruitless negotiations. Opponents had to figure out the relationship in the general battle, which was seen as the judgment of God. Let's give the word to the chronicler.

"On Thursday’s day, before [the sun rises], both Vyacheslav, and Izyaslav, and Rostislav marched on an open field and moved to fight [there] where Yuri stood. For they sent messengers among themselves about the world, but Olhovichi and Polovtsy didn’t they gave up to be reconciled because they were quick for bloodshed, and they stood until the evening. Yuri [also], having passed for Ruth, became.

When Friday [4 May] was getting light, Izyaslav, having prepared all his regiments for the battle, moved towards him. But Yuri did not want to fight yet, but waited for Vladimir [Volodarevich]. Izyaslav, meanwhile, got closer and closer, and then God made [such] darkness that he was not visible anywhere, only to the end of the spear [it was] visible. And [they] caught rain, and they both rested against it into the lake, and separated their lake, and therefore it was not possible [to go] to those [them] or those.

The mist rose in the afternoon, and the sky cleared. And they saw the troops of each other on both sides of the lake; and therefore they fought on the wings of both troops. and the troops themselves could not move together. And in the evening Yuri went over the hills with his shelves. Vyacheslav, Izyaslav and Rostislav followed them to the upper reaches of the lake, with the intention to fight him. But Yuri went ahead of them with his own shelves for the Maly Rutets and, crossing the mud, there he stood for the night. Vyacheslav, Izyaslav and Rostislav, having passed, stood right in front of him for the night. They stood so one against the other, that the arrows did not reach.

And on the second day, on Saturday [May 5], when the dawn began, first in the army, Yuri was struck in tambourines and sounded the pipes, and the shelves began to be prepared. Also, Vyacheslav, Izyaslav, and Rostislav began to beat tambourines and trumpet pipes, and the shelves began to be prepared. Yuri then with his sons, and Vladimir Davydovich, and Svyatoslav Olgovich, and Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich, having prepared their regiments, moved to the headwaters of Rutz. And Vyacheslav, Izyaslav and Rostislav also went their own regiments against them. When it was close to the headwaters of the Rutz, then Yuri, and Vladimir Davydovich, and Svyatoslav Olgovich, and the Polovtsians were wild, and Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich, turning their regiments, went to the Great [16] Ruth, not wanting to fight, because they were trying to go beyond Ruth , and here wait for Vladimir Galitsky. Vyacheslav, Izyaslav and Rostislav, seeing this - that they were moving away from them - sent their archers, black hoods and Rus, behind them, and then they began to run into the rear of their regiments, shoot with them and began to take away their carts. When Yuri, and his sons, and Vladimir Davydovich, and Svyatoslav Olgovich, and Svyatoslav Vsevolodovich, saw that they could not go beyond Ruth, when they saw that they were hitting their rear regiments and carts were taken away, then, turning their regiments, they became against them.

And when they went to fight, Andrew began to lead the regiment of his father, because he was then the eldest between the brothers. Seeing that the Polovtsians were standing behind them, he rode up to them and strengthened them into battle, and from there entered his regiment and strengthened his squad.

At the same time, Izyaslav and Rostislav rushed to their father, Vyacheslav, saying: "You wanted a lot of good things, but your brother did not want it. But now, father, we will lay down our heads for you, or we will earn your honor." Vyacheslav said: “Brother and son! I didn’t like bloodshed from my birth, but my brother brought me to this. When we are in this place, it’s already God’s judgment.” And then they both bowed to him, and drove to their shelves. And Izyaslav drove into his army, and sent to all his regiments, saying: "Look at my regiment. And as my regiment will go, so do you go." And then the shelves moved one to another.

When more regiments came alone to meet others, Andrei Yuryevich, taking a spear, drove forward, and collided before everyone else, and broke his spear. Then a horse was struck under his nostrils, and the horse began to rush under him, and the helmet fell from him, and the shield on him was cut off. But thanks to God's intercession and the prayers of his parents, he remained intact. And just in front of all the regiments, Izyaslav drove in, alone, broke his enemy troops and spear. And then they slashed him in the arm, and they hit him in the thigh, and from this he flew off his horse.

When the shelves were stepped down, there was a fierce and evil feud. God, and the holy Mother of God, and the power of an honest life-giving cross helped Vyacheslav, and Izyaslav, and Rostislav, and then they defeated Yuri. And the Polovtsy Yuryevs, not even letting in an arrow, then ran, and then the Ol'govichi, and then Yury ran with the children. And when they fled through Ruth, a lot of the squad was drowned in Ruth, for he was swampy. And when they fled, they beat some and captured others. Here they killed Vladimir Davydovich, the prince of Chernigov, kind and gentle, and many others were beaten, and the Polovtsian princes captured many, and others were beaten.


Fighting at the end of 1-5 in May 1151


When the troops came together, both horse and foot, Izyaslav lay wounded. And then he raised himself, and here the footmen of Kiev wanted to kill him, taking him for the enemy and not recognizing him. Izyaslav said: "I am a prince!" And one of them said: "Oh, so we need you!" And taking out the sword, he began to chop the helmet. The holy martyr Panteleimon was written in gold on the helmet above the brow. And he struck him with a sword, and so he made his way to his forehead. Izyaslav said: "I am Izyaslav, your prince." And he took off his helmet, and they recognized him. And when they saw this, many took it with their own hands, with joy, as the king and his prince. And then all the troops exclaimed: "Kyrie eleison!" ["Lord have mercy!" - Greek], - rejoicing that they won the regiments of the opponents, and seeing their prince alive. "

The chronicle passage is rich in curious enough details: we will find out what tools we used to give signals; We see the use of light cavalry to pin down the enemy, realistically described (for example, it is worth noting that according to archaeological data, injuries to the thigh and arm were most typical for European knights) were adventures that were not energetic (he was 55 years) Izyaslav Mstislavich and the young, the reckless Andrei Yurevich (before that, he almost died during the siege of Lutsk and when crossing the Lybid in the battle near Kiev), and even read an old Russian anecdote about how inexperienced Kievans nearly killed their beloved prince by mistake ( probably his helmet had a mask - a metal mask). However, the death of the prince was a rare phenomenon - the armor was fairly reliably protected from the vicissitudes of the battle, and from the words "hit a horse under his nostrils" it can be assumed that the prince's horse was protected by an iron headband. The words "and the shield on it was cut off" are also not interesting - it seems that the shield had a neck strap.


Helmet from Chingul barrow, Ukraine, 12 c.


But the chronicler does not tell us the tactical details of the battle, as usual, the battle was a frontal ram collision between two masses of heavily armed cavalrymen. At the same time, infantry, which is generally characteristic of the Middle Ages, played a supporting role — it often did not enter the field battle, but only followed the mounted regiments, finishing off or taking prisoner hostile fighters. Izyaslav outplayed Yuri strategically - skillfully breaking away from Vladimir Galitsky’s troops, Izyaslav seized Kiev without a fight, securing the help of Kiev warriors, militia and black hoods, and then collecting superior forces, imposed on the enemy a decisive battle on the field bounded almost from all sides by rivers and "serpent shafts," which led Yuri to a catastrophic defeat. Fighting continued after that, but they no longer had any special significance - the outcome of the war for Kiev was decided by a brief but fierce battle on the banks of the rivers Ruth and Rutz, in the vicinity of the modern village of Grebenka in the Kiev region.
Author:
Originator:
http://xlegio.ru/ancient-armies/medieval-warfare/battle-of-perepetovo-field/
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  1. ainur88
    ainur88 14 May 2016 06: 13
    0
    It's hard to read the text, I had to re-read it several times to understand who beat whom and who fought for ... but I still didn’t understand to the end)

    And for some reason there were strange civil strife in Russia - they all fought each other constantly, but the map was not redrawn a little. So the campaign was there, they put a lot of people, but no sense.
    1. Spnsr
      Spnsr 14 May 2016 22: 38
      +1
      Quote: ainur88
      It's hard to read the text, I had to re-read it several times to understand who beat whom and who fought for ... but I still didn’t understand to the end)

      And for some reason there were strange civil strife in Russia - they all fought each other constantly, but the map was not redrawn a little. So the campaign was there, they put a lot of people, but no sense.

      HISTORY is repeated! as now the situation in Ukraine, as well as the beaten "Swede" near Poltava, and every time cross the east and the west! almost every century, and sometimes two for a century ...
    2. dima mzk
      dima mzk 16 May 2016 05: 54
      +2
      What does the map have to do with it? There were principalities, the throne in Kiev passes from an older brother to a younger brother, while the older one also has sons, the younger brother also has sons, while in the other principality an even younger brother is sitting and waiting in the wings. This mess of interests and led to widespread enmity and enmity. So it turned out nephew against uncle. There would be a dynasty and there would be a fist, not a single Mongol would come up.
      1. Spnsr
        Spnsr 16 May 2016 10: 54
        0
        Quote: dima mzk
        What does the map have to do with it? There were principalities, the throne in Kiev passes from an older brother to a younger brother, while the older one also has sons, the younger brother also has sons, while in the other principality an even younger brother is sitting and waiting in the wings. This mess of interests and led to widespread enmity and enmity. So it turned out nephew against uncle. There would be a dynasty and there would be a fist, not a single Mongol would come up.

        here you can add about the Western, Eastern and Southern Slavs! for example, we know the eastern ones, the western ones too, especially in view of the fact that they constantly did not look straight to the east! this explains why all the sections took place precisely in the center of the European part of the continent, and literally in the middle !!! this is Pskov 1242 and this situation, and much more ... and do not limit the space to Russia, and its princes! and that map that we see now also wasn’t, it starts to appear just after some people are tired of fighting for the throne, they began to create their small thrones, and this is more likely to happen already in the 16th century!
    3. Vend
      Vend 16 May 2016 09: 46
      +1
      Quote: ainur88

      And for some reason there were strange civil strife in Russia - they all fought each other constantly, but the map was not redrawn a little. So the campaign was there, they put a lot of people, but no sense.

      Almost every state passed through civil wars. This is part of the story.
  2. ver_
    ver_ 14 May 2016 06: 26
    -11%
    ... Yuri George Dolgoruky could not be a participant in this campaign for the simple reason that he was not in the project either .. - Khan John Rurik Varyag Troyanets - Dolgoruky’s grandfather arrived in Russia after the 2nd crusade ending in the fall of the Empire’s Trinity Capital ..
  3. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 14 May 2016 08: 22
    +3
    Great historical sketch. To the author - respect.
    1. PKK
      PKK 15 May 2016 11: 16
      0
      All these vassals, such as what was in the place of the Czech Republic, Hungary, etc., could not have uttered without the permission of the Tsar of Muscovy.
  4. igorra
    igorra 14 May 2016 08: 28
    +7
    Quote: ver_
    ... Yuri George Dolgoruky could not be a participant in this campaign for the simple reason that he was not in the project either .. - Khan John Rurik Varyag Troyanets - Dolgoruky’s grandfather arrived in Russia after the 2nd crusade ending in the fall of the Empire’s Trinity Capital ..

    In bent! And how to understand this straightener.
  5. ver_
    ver_ 14 May 2016 10: 15
    -11%
    Quote: igorra
    Quote: ver_
    ... Yuri George Dolgoruky could not be a participant in this campaign for the simple reason that he was not in the project either .. - Khan John Rurik Varyag Troyanets - Dolgoruky’s grandfather arrived in Russia after the 2nd crusade ending in the fall of the Empire’s Trinity Capital ..

    In bent! And how to understand this straightener.


    ..Very simple. Christ was crucified on the Bosphorus in 1185. His pupil (courtier) Vanya - Future John Rurik Varyag Troyan was about 16 years old - judging by the picture .. where Jesus is having a meal with the students .. Then the Crusades for the possession of the Emperor’s Throne (Lord’s tomb) and .. the end of Troy - the capital is destroyed , crushing the knights, between fellow soldiers, showdown .. After 15-17 years, Rurik (grandson of Khan Gostomysl) arrives in Russia already a seasoned warrior at the invitation of the princes to rule ..
    1. Chisayna
      Chisayna 14 May 2016 12: 19
      +6
      Yeah, there are fly agarics and LSD and char. That's ver covered.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. Normal ok
        Normal ok 14 May 2016 13: 21
        +2
        Quote: Chisain
        Yeah, there are fly agarics and LSD and char. That's ver covered.

        And not for the first time. This is the famous Fomenkovets on the site)) He has such "historical" pearls that it is dear laughing
    2. creak
      creak 14 May 2016 12: 22
      +5
      Quote: ver_
      ..Very simple. Christ was crucified on the Bosphorus in 1185. His pupil (courtier) Vanya - Future John Rurik Varyag Trojan


      Everything is like the poet's "Horses, people mixed up in a heap ..." or, to put it simply, there is an elder in the garden, and Kiev is uncle ...
    3. Damir
      Damir 1 November 2016 16: 29
      0
      Native!!!! you are her vodka ... vodka ... you look and let go .... and do not forget to have a bite !!!! just not fly agaric !!!!!
  6. parusnik
    parusnik 14 May 2016 10: 58
    +2
    And later, the author of the Word about Igor's regiment wrote: Boys do not shoot at each other ... Battles, the most difficult time in Russia ..
  7. Normal ok
    Normal ok 14 May 2016 13: 24
    +3
    Quote: parusnik
    And later, the author of the Word about Igor's regiment wrote: Boys do not shoot at each other ... Battles, the most difficult time in Russia ..

    So nothing has changed. Now the same thing.
  8. Poplar505
    Poplar505 14 May 2016 14: 11
    -3
    What writes "ver" was not invented by PhiN. And those who only do what scabbling and disgusting in their irony, simply defend their "great scientific" works and places of "feeding".
    Enough to fool the Russian people, not all the chronicles of the Russian people have yet been burned by the enemies of Russia. The adoption of Christianity in Russia was blasphemed (how many Russians were slaughtered !?).
    Soon, if your desires flow, the course of V.O.V 1941-45 will be presented to us in a distorted and perverted form.
    You have already achieved what our children study at school in 4 (four) hours. You- ___ zi !!! I can’t pick up other words.
  9. practus
    practus 14 May 2016 14: 39
    +1
    Thank you, an extremely interesting and controversial period.
  10. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 14 May 2016 20: 52
    +3
    Good stuff.
    Detailed.
    It’s like you are reading a ZhBD. Divisions named after Izyaslav.
    Even the details that the helmet was cut through to the forehead. Izyaslav, Prince of Kiev.
    And after this ... I’m not afraid of the word .. lobotomy, Izyaslav peacefully declares so - yes, I’m your prince, brothers.
    Do not wet too much.
    The brotherhood was delighted, the godfather is alive, hooray.
    And this scumbag that the prince pressed, probably kissed. Or they drew a dot over the eyebrow.
    In order not to get confused further.
    ...
    One annoying. I saw a link to the site. But he didn’t go specifically.
    I am afraid that there will be even more details.
    That, Izyaslav's mare, for example, swore dirty, when her nostrils were torn ... oh, they cut into the snout with a sledgehammer.
    .
    That is what the story is good for.
    A thousand years ago it was all.
    And from the military magazine .. oh, damn it, I’ve made a mistake - the annals of ancient years - all in full view.
    Who, where, why, how much and how much.
    Sorry, the name of the chief of staff ... oh, damn it, the chronicler was never called.
    ...
    Good stuff.
    Vital.
  11. Pomeranian
    Pomeranian 16 May 2016 10: 38
    0
    Great job. I copy it to the archive, it will come in handy. "For they sent ambassadors among themselves for peace, but the Olgovichs and Polovtsians did not allow reconciliation, because they were quick to bloodshed." This is how it happens in the world. Blood pours because of show-offs ...
  12. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 24 May 2016 09: 40
    0
    So! We look at the map !! The basis of the Great Russian nation were Finno-Ugrians! They gave Russians the stamina, courage and ability to survive in the most severe climatic conditions !! (There is no need to tell tales about the mass settlement of Slavs! Archaeologically not confirmed, they haven’t settled practically east of Pskov. It’s ridiculous to imagine how peasants abandoned fertile land and settled forests in 9-11 centuries !!! And then they also adopted Mordovian traditions - national clothes, cuisine, rituals and beliefs !! Even I had to invent a special ethnic group for the Slavophiles - Eastern. Slavs!) All Ukraine is practically the habitat of nomadic Turkic peoples! From a mixture of Tatars and Slavs the inhabitants of Ukraine turned out! Over the past 200 years, the smartest have left for Russia! Remained wild illiterate Selyuki, I sold for a sky cookie!
  13. Damir
    Damir 1 November 2016 16: 28
    0
    You read some comments and understand that the turnover of psychotropic drugs needs to be controlled more tightly !!!!