Military Review

Who defended the Paris Commune. What was the National Guard of the Communards?

35
18 March 1871, exactly 145 years ago, in the French capital Paris, an armed popular uprising took place, which resulted in the proclamation of the Paris Commune. Having existed for two months, the Paris Commune is viewed by historians and political leaders of the left as the first example of the “dictatorship of the proletariat” put into practice. Since 1872, 18 March is celebrated as the Paris Commune Day. Naturally, such an event as an armed uprising in the capital of one of the strongest European powers could not be ignored by the classics of world socialist thought. Of course, this topic was addressed by Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin.


- Montmartre, 18 March 1871 g. Figure D. Deroche

Marxist, socialist, anarchist authors wrote about the Paris Commune. And as one of the important reasons for the defeat of the commune, many of them noted the military weakness of the rebels. The revolutionaries did not succeed in creating a combat-ready armed force that could withstand their political opponents — the Versaillese, not to mention the Prussian army — the strongest in Europe, which stood then at Paris itself. Below we will talk about what the armed forces of the Paris Commune were in the two months when Paris lived under the red flags.

As one would expect, after the seizure of power in Paris by the revolutionary forces, they immediately faced the most difficult issue of organizing the defense of the commune. In fact, only armed detachments of the proletariat and the lumpen-proletariat were united to the National Guard, but did not have either strong discipline, or a developed organizational structure, or an adequate level of military training. If the Paris Commune had more organized armed forces, it is likely that events would have developed in a different way.

29 March 1871, by decree of the Paris Commune, the regular army and general conscription were abolished. Karl Marx in his work “The Civil War in France” writes that since the Commune was viewed as the basic form of political organization of French society, from the village or city block to the entire state, the regular armed forces were subject to dissolution as a mechanism of power of the pre-revolutionary government, and functions were transferred to the people's militia — the armed people.

In the early days of the Paris Commune, its armed forces were represented, firstly, by the National Guard, recruited on a voluntary basis and consisted primarily of Paris workers, and secondly, by small volunteer detachments of revolutionaries who had a clearer discipline and ideological motivation. The National Guard was created in 1870 for the defense of Paris, however, since it was staffed with workers and artisans, it was an extremely unreliable force for the pre-revolutionary government. Actually, it was the absence of regular army units in Paris, replaced by the National Guard, which allowed the Communards to take power into their own hands. From the 270 of the National Guard battalions stationed in Paris, the XMNUMX battalions switched to the side of the Commune.

Thus, the number of personnel of the National Guard, who had sided with the Communards, reached 100 thousand people. Units of the National Guard were recruited on a territorial basis, so the neighbors in the quarter were in the battalions and companies. Friedrich Engels, describing the level of discipline and combat training of the National Guard, noted that discipline depends, first of all, on the personal authority of elected commanders. As for the level of combat training, Engels drew attention to his weakness, the lack of an adequate number of professional soldiers capable of organizing full-fledged training units. The most ideologically motivated were battalions staffed by workers - residents of Paris suburbs.

Who defended the Paris Commune. What was the National Guard of the Communards? The structure of the National Guard of Paris was as follows. The National Guard was commanded by the commander, then the military delegate (Minister of Defense) of the Paris Commune, under which the Central Committee of the National Guard acted - a collegial command body. The battalions formed in the quarters of Paris united in the legions of the National Guard, corresponding to the twenty administrative-territorial districts of the French capital. Each legion comprised from seven to twenty-five battalions of the National Guard, and the legion’s council controlled the legion. The number of the legion was determined by the population of a particular administrative district - hence the significant difference between the legions with the 7-battalion and 25-battalion composition. At the same time, the legions were not operational-tactical units, but represented only military-administrative structures.

At first, military leadership in the Paris Commune was carried out by 47-year-old Gustav Paul Cluseret (1823-1900) - a professional military man, a graduate of the famous Saint-Cyr military school who participated in the Crimean War, and then a volunteer in the army of Giuseppe Garibaldi and who fought during the Civil War US war as part of the army of the northern states, where he rose to the rank of general. Cluserere (in the photo) expected to turn the National Guard into an army of numbers in 50-60 thousand bayonets, but he could not fulfill this task. First of all, he was confronted by the “anarchists” who defended the need for volunteering and election in the organization of the National Guard.

The leadership of the Commune realized the weakness of the National Guard legions by the end of March 1871. First of all, it became obvious that it was impossible to use units of the National Guard outside Paris, which excluded the possibility of conducting full-fledged military operations against the Versailles troops. Therefore, it was decided to reorganize the National Guard. 5 April 1871, in the face of increasing threats from the Versaillese, the Commune decided to impose a universal conscription. In addition, the National Guard was divided into field troops and local troops. The field troops included maneuverable battalions and were staffed from single Parisians aged 17 - 35 years. They were intended for the conduct of hostilities outside the city. Local troops consisted of territorial battalions and were staffed by married residents of Paris and people older than 35 years.

However, given that the majority of Parisian men were married men, 60% of personnel were actually excluded from the National Guard after the reorganization. Moreover, unmarried young men of 17-20 found themselves in maneuverable battalions for years without combat experience and military service experience, while adult men turned out to be members of local battalions. However, the leadership of the Commune almost immediately realized its mistake. Already on April 7 a new decree was adopted, amending the organizational principles of the National Guard. Now, the maneuverable battalions began to call and married men, and the age of service in them was raised to 40 years. But this system of recruitment did not lead to strengthening, but to disorganization of the National Guard, since the battalions already manned were destroyed.

As a military delegate to the Commune, Clusere was replaced by 27-year-old Louis-Nathaniel Rossel (1844-1871), who previously held the post of chief of staff of the National Guard. Like Cluseret, he was a professional soldier - Colonel of the engineering service of the French army. Member of the Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871, Rossel adhered to patriotic convictions and precisely because he joined the Commune, considering it to be more patriotic than the government of “capitulation generals”. From 22 March to 2, April Rossel commanded the XVII Legion of the National Guard, then headed the headquarters of the National Guard. 30 April, he replaced Clusere as the military delegate of the Commune.

Rossel planned to create, in addition to the militia - the National Guard, a small maneuverable and regular army, and if the National Guard was recruited on a territorial basis, the Rossel planned to build maneuverable units in accordance with the rules of military science, having formed not legions, but full-fledged regiments with the clearest hierarchy and maximum restriction of election of bosses. For this it was proposed to choose the best battalions of the National Guard. The composition of the regiment numbering 2 thousand people were to include five battalions, each - with one artillery gun. Total Rossel hoped to create 8 regiments that would be combined into a maneuverable corps. However, as was to be expected, Rossel’s plans were opposed by the Central Committee of the National Guard and the elective command of the legions and battalions.

By the beginning of May 1871, the size of the National Guard was determined in 6500 officers and 162 th. Ordinary soldiers. The maneuverable battalions served as 3413 officers and 85 thousand soldiers, in local battalions - 3094 officers and 77 thousand soldiers. But in reality, the number of actually operating troops of the Commune was significantly lower. So, the Prussian military command spoke about 48 thousand ordinary soldiers and 2225 officers. Many soldiers were listed on the National Guard only on the lists, but in reality they did not serve and did not take part in the hostilities and the defense of Paris. General Yaroslav Dombrovsky was in command of the most efficient units of the National Guard, but under his command no more than 6 thousand soldiers served, even if they were distinguished by high fighting spirit and ideological motivation. After the Paris Commune was suppressed by the Versailles, about 25 thousand communes were captured, and another 30 thousand people died during the defense of Paris. Based on these figures, one can imagine an approximate number of National Guard personnel - about 60 thousand people.

As we noted above, a very important problem of the National Guard was the lack of qualified officers. In reality, the guard served no more than a hundred officers of the old French army, and the revolutionary commanders, despite their personal courage, had large gaps in military knowledge and could not establish good training of personnel. The most obvious lack of qualified personnel manifested itself in those branches of the military, where there was the greatest need for commanders with special education. So, according to the lists, the 2500 man served in the artillery of the Paris Commune, but in reality only 500 gunners participated in the defense of the city. At 500, the man was only an 2 officer — an artillery officer with a military education.

The weakness of the National Guard was explained mainly by the "infantry" composition. The cavalry units of the National Guard were very weak - the Commune managed to form only three squadrons. Moreover, on May 3, it was decided to dismiss them, because in the barricade battles the cavalry was useless. As for the engineering troops, the Commune had only one engineering battalion consisting of 9 combat engineer and 1 electrical engineering companies. However, at the disposal of the Commune were 5 armored trains, an aeronautical squad designed to provide Paris with the outside world, and a river flotilla on the river Seine with 1 floating armored battery, 5 gunboats, 6 steam boats and 1 yacht.

- battle at Mayo's outpost. Engraving 1871

But the main drawback of the National Guard was the extremely low level of discipline. In fact, the guardsmen participated in the battles, if they wanted to, and if they did not, they did not participate. The participation of battalions and companies in the fighting was entirely voluntary. Units were distinguished by the fluidity of personnel. And, nevertheless, it is impossible not to pay tribute to the defenders of the Paris Commune in their ideological and courage. Thousands of national guards fought to the last and fought well, despite the weak military training or lack of it at all. Even the teenagers of 12-13 took part in the hostilities, striking with their courage not only colleagues, but also the enemy.

21 May 1871 The Versaillese forces were able to break into Paris through the half-destroyed Saint-Cloud gate. A week of barricade fighting continued on the streets of Paris, until 28 May Versailles troops could not suppress the resistance of the defenders of the last Communion barricade on Ramponot Street. The Paris Commune ceased to exist, but its political and military experience was subsequently used by revolutionaries in many countries, including during the October revolution of 1917 in Russia.
Author:
Photos used:
http://historic.ru/
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 18 March 2016 07: 44
    +10
    Of the prominent figures of the commune, Florence, Vermorel, Deleklusz, and Dombrowski fell in battle, were shot without trial by Varlen, Miller, Rigaud, and even earlier Duval, and by the court - Rossel and Ferret, Rochefort and Jourd were exiled to New Caledonia. Secretly released by the government to freedom Bele, Malon and Theiss, since they, occupying high positions in the commune, betrayed their comrades ...
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 18 March 2016 10: 27
      +8
      Quote: parusnik
      Of the prominent figures of the commune fell in battle, Florence, Vermorel, Deluxe and Dombrowski, shot without trial, Varlen, Miller, Rigaud and even earlier Duval, in court - Rossel and Ferret, Rochefort and Jourd exiled to New Caledonia


      Correctly shot:

      Here is the order found on the corpse of Delecluse:
      "Citizen Millières, at the head of 150 les fuseens, will light houses and public monuments on the left bank. Citizen Derør is entrusted with the 100st and 1nd arrondissements with 2; Citizen Biore, also with 100 - 9th, 10 th and 20th arrondissements, Citizen Vezigne of 50 is assigned specially the boulevards from Magdalene to Bastille These citizens must enter into an agreement with the chiefs of the barricades to ensure that these orders are put into effect.
      Paris, 3 Prairial, year 79.
      Signed: Delecluse, Director, Ranvier, Joannard, Vezinier, Brunel, Dombrowski.


      And they purposefully burned the huge Louvre Library (the Louvre did not catch fire), Tulri, the town hall, theaters, ministries, houses, shooting firefighters, watchmen and just people trying to put out the fires.

      When the troops occupied the Laroket prison, there were 169 hostages in it, awaiting the fate that had already befallen their comrades: six of them were shot on the evening of 26 on May; 54 - on the night of May 27 and four on the evening of 27. Hundreds of other hostages were shot in other places.

      The "fiery" revolutionary Rochefort fled at the beginning of the assault, but was arrested. From the pockets of Rochefort, they took out many parcels with napoleons and precious things: pins with diamonds, gold watch chains, brooches, bracelets and other accessories of a women's dress.
      "How much money is there?" the director asked.
      “I don’t know, count it,” the prisoner replied carelessly, but when they told him that there were ten thousand francs and something, he cried:
      "I was robbed of twenty francs!"
      1. Rastas
        Rastas 18 March 2016 21: 15
        +4
        Versailles dealt with the families of the rebels, about 13 thousand (MacMahon's estimate) were killed without trial. But regarding the cruelty of the rebels, then you should turn to Victor Hugo, who said that the cruelty was a consequence of their poor life, to which they were brought by the bourgeoisie and the regime of Napoleon. Hugo: "The overthrow of the column is an act of criminal insult to the nation. The defeat of the Louvre would be a crime against civilization. But actions committed unconsciously cannot be regarded as atrocities. First, sort out the case, then pass a sentence, and then carry it out. Then I could blame, but not stigmatize - you acted according to the law. But if you kill without trial, you are murderers. "
      2. 97110
        97110 18 March 2016 22: 05
        +3
        Quote: Aleksander
        Here is the order found on the corpse of Delecluse:

        And he did not plan more terrible atrocities? "Lies must be terrible ..." - Do you remember the author? The winners write history. I cannot defend the moral character of the Communards, but, the poor in their mass, they, by definition, were inferior in villainy to the Versaillese. From your text (given without references - are you the author?) Follows the impeccable snow-white uniforms of the Versailles, surpassing that even among the Prussians.
      3. wax
        wax 18 March 2016 22: 46
        +2
        This is all from the same opera that the winners put on. Self-immolators found themselves in Odessa ... From a Tukhachevsky’s apartment, several trucks took out bottles of alcohol ...
  2. Aleksander
    Aleksander 18 March 2016 10: 04
    +5
    May 21 1871 Versailles troops were able to break into Paris through the dilapidated gate of Saint-Cloud.

    They didn’t burst, but simply entered, because insurgents just ... left the position. The reasons for leaving are called different, from indiscipline to bribery (most likely). Already in the city, resistance was sometimes violent, then weak.
    The communards burned many buildings, but some buildings were saved from extermination by a very simple means. So, one of the officials of the ministry, seeing that the agents of the Commune appeared there and began to pour petroleum on the walls, suggested they leave - for a certain amount, and the Communards, taking the money, calmly left the ministry.
    Some quarters, such as Saint-Honoré and Saint-Germain, accepted the Versailles as deliverers; in the last quarter, even before the soldiers entered it, national guardsmen who did not belong to the Commune began to fight with insurgents.
    1. sherp2015
      sherp2015 18 March 2016 10: 31
      +4
      Quote: Aleksander
      The communards burned many buildings, but some buildings were saved from extermination by a very simple means. So, one of the officials of the ministry, seeing that the agents of the Commune appeared there and began to pour petroleum on the walls, suggested they leave - for a certain amount, and the Communards, taking the money, calmly left the ministry.


      Any revolution will ultimately lead to the destruction of the theft of property. and very often ultimately to roll back decades ago
      1. wax
        wax 18 March 2016 22: 53
        +3
        Any revolution will ultimately lead to the destruction of the theft of property. and very often ultimately to roll back decades ago

        However, it is precisely the violence against the people committed by the owners of this property that leads to revolutions. It’s just that the consequence cannot be put in place of the cause in accordance with the laws of logic.
    2. Generalissimo
      Generalissimo 18 March 2016 11: 12
      +5
      Montmartre is a brothel area, if anyone didn’t know ... it started there and ended
    3. 97110
      97110 18 March 2016 22: 09
      +1
      Quote: Aleksander
      they began to drench the walls with petroleum,

      This is just unbelievable! Douche PETROLEUM - what a terrible villainy! Versailles would never have come to that. Maximum - would be doused with kerosene.
    4. wax
      wax 18 March 2016 23: 07
      0
      Petroleum, i.e. crude oil, it’s not so easy to set fire to it. So poklepe all this on the Communards.
  3. AK64
    AK64 18 March 2016 11: 36
    -1
    To what Alexander said, I will add: these "comrades", even before the start of the war with Prussia, actually entered into an agreement with Prussia and ... Britain (yes, as without them), and sabotaged the military efforts of the royal power with all their might.
    As a result - Sedan, Paris, the loss of Alsace-Lorraine, a huge indemnity, the unification of Germany and two world wars.

    And all this is only because a handful of degenerates the monarchy (for which, remember, voted!) Did not like.

    So let's pour good tears about the "lost comrades"
    1. Pissarro
      Pissarro 18 March 2016 13: 49
      +4
      Yes, okay. Napoleon III’s failure company, Sedan and captivity is entirely the merit of the emperor and his government, and not some rubbish from the Paris slums. At first they organized diplomatic failures of the city rubbish and then painted military maps?
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 18 March 2016 16: 22
        +2
        By the way, the working people demanded the continuation of the war against the German invaders and the organization of elections to the Commune.
        1. Pomeranian
          Pomeranian 20 March 2016 13: 50
          0
          Quote: parusnik
          By the way, the working people demanded the continuation of the war against the German invaders and the organization of elections to the Commune.

          A brilliant remark! This explains the extreme loyalty of the Prussians to the Versailles government
      2. 97110
        97110 18 March 2016 22: 13
        -2
        Quote: Pissarro
        it is entirely the merit of the emperor himself

        Has anyone arrived in a sealed carriage? And before you, the commentator quite definitely accused the French Communards. The class flair for the product of capitalist society is sharpened sharply.
      3. AK64
        AK64 19 March 2016 03: 37
        +1
        and not some garbage from the Parisian slums. Did the city's garbage at first organize diplomatic failures, and then draw military maps?


        And you google the names:

        Flurance, Vermorel, Deleklusz and Dombrowski, Varlene, Miller, Rigaud and Duval, Rossel and Ferret, Rochefort and Jourd


        You take a walk on the names - what are the "scum"? It's not even the Rodziankas and the Milyukovs, half of them are of higher rank, half are from the hereditary aristocracy.
        Poorer by that time, of course - apparently from here and insults to Napoleon -3 (who is neither white nor fluffy, but ... but at least he didn’t betray the country)
    2. Rastas
      Rastas 18 March 2016 20: 18
      +2
      Give links that prove that the Paris Commune was funded by Britain.
    3. Rastas
      Rastas 18 March 2016 20: 58
      +1
      Ahhh! Here it is. Anglo-Saxons are behind everything. Well, it’s necessary, otherwise they’ve been writing and writing for 140 years, and the casket just opened. It turns out that Queen Victoria and the Prime Minister of Great Britain, Sir Gladstone, were hidden communists and, having read Marx, decided to organize the first socialist revolution in the history of mankind. The most disgusting thing is that many people believe in this nonsense, not understanding the essence of the events taking place then.
      1. AK64
        AK64 19 March 2016 03: 40
        +1
        What are the "communists"? Is this Rochefort a "communist"?
        He is a hereditary aristocrat (impoverished by then of course). And the rest of the list is exactly the same: google on the last name.

        Found "Marxists" ....
        1. Rastas
          Rastas 19 March 2016 04: 04
          +1
          And where is the origin? Lenin or Dzerzhinsky were not among the proletarians either. You will pay attention to the very essence of the Commune. This was the first attempt to achieve popular democracy, where the lower classes can directly participate in the activities of the state. bodies through committees, advice. It was generally a unique phenomenon for the 19th century. Could it be that Great Britain or Prussia could finance a phenomenon that, if successful, could already threaten them? Of course not. And they did not betray the country. France had already been defeated by that time. But the bourgeoisie betrayed their people, calling on the Germans to help suppress the commune.
  4. The comment was deleted.
    1. Kenneth
      Kenneth 18 March 2016 12: 34
      +2
      The Germans stood behind his suppression. Unlike the Commune, Versailles did not have its own troops. Troops provided by French prisoners of war
    2. The comment was deleted.
  5. iouris
    iouris 18 March 2016 12: 31
    +1
    I am interested in this question: were the Germans who were behind the leaders of the Paris Commune, who by that time had already successfully completed their military tasks?
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 18 March 2016 16: 27
      +2
      I am interested in this question: were the Germans not behind the leaders of the Paris Commune..... The workers demanded the continuation of the war against the German invaders and the organization of elections to the Commune. And the government of Thiers on January 28 entered into a truce between France and Prussia ..
    2. AK64
      AK64 19 March 2016 04: 00
      +1
      I am interested in this question: were the Germans who were behind the leaders of the Paris Commune, who by that time had already successfully completed their military tasks?


      You jump over a step.
      At first there was their version of the "provisional government" - "the government of national defense." It was precisely these who consisted of half of the anti-Bonapartists.
      And only after the usual failure of the "temporary" ones, after almost 6 months, the power passed to the radicals.
      (And what kind of "power" is there - they controlled the besieged Paris at the most)
  6. Kenneth
    Kenneth 18 March 2016 12: 33
    +1
    Fort Vincennes fell on May 29th.
  7. ALEA IACTA EST
    ALEA IACTA EST 18 March 2016 15: 38
    +2
    The militia cannot resist a real army.
    1. swertalf
      swertalf 18 March 2016 17: 08
      +1
      Events in the DPR refute this thesis.
      1. ALEA IACTA EST
        ALEA IACTA EST 18 March 2016 17: 40
        0
        The Ukrainian "army" is an armed crowd. They do not surpass the forces of the DPR and LPR by their cohesion, discipline, or training.
  8. Cap.Morgan
    Cap.Morgan 18 March 2016 16: 17
    +6
    As George Washington said, "Relying on the militia is like relying on a broken staff."
  9. Koshak
    Koshak 18 March 2016 17: 46
    +3
    But from a contemporary of events:

    Victor Hugo

    Behind the barricades, the street is empty, ...

    Behind the barricades, the street is empty,
    Washed by the blood of the victims, and sinful and holy,
    An eleven-year-old boy was captured!
    “Are you a communard too?” - “Yes, sir, not the last!”
    "Well! - the captain decided. “The end for all is execution.”
    Wait, the turn will come! ” And the little boy looked
    On flashes of shots, on the death of fighters and brothers.
    Suddenly he said, without losing courage:
    “Let mother give me the watch!”
    “Run away?” - “No, I'll be back!” - “Yeah, if you don't believe me,
    You scared, tomboy! Where is your house? ” “At the fountain.”
    And he vowed to return to the captain.
    “Well, hell with you! The trick is not thin! ”
    The platoon burst out laughing over the boy’s flight.
    With the wheezing of those who perish, the laugh of victory was mixed.
    But the laughter ceased when suddenly the boy was pale
    He appeared to them, harsh pride not melting,
    He went up to the wall and shouted: “Here I am!”
    And death was ashamed, and the captive was released.
    Child! May the hurricane raging in the universe
    I mixed good with evil, with the hero of the scoundrel, -
    What made you fight to the end?
    An innocent soul was a beautiful soul.
    You took two steps over the terrible abyss:
    Step to the mother - one and the execution - the second.
    There was an adult shamed, and the boy was a hero.
    Nobody has the right to call you to responsibility.
    But the morning rays, childish fun
    All future life, freedom and spring
    You preferred to come to friends and stand against the wall.
    And eternal glory kissed you.
    In ancient Greece, fans used to
    Names were cut on copper
    And their earthly tribes glorified.
    Parisian tomboy, and you're from that breed!
    And where the blue ones under the sun sparkle with water,
    You could rest at the stone peaks.
    And the young maiden, having lowered her jug
    And forgetting the powerful buffaloes at the watering hole,
    Embarrassed from afar, I would follow you.
  10. Sleepwalker
    Sleepwalker 18 March 2016 18: 03
    +2
    Thousands of national guards fought to the last and fought well, despite poor military training or its complete absence. In the hostilities even teenagers of 12-13 years participated, striking with their courage not only colleagues, but also the enemy.

    ISIS looks like a coincidence?
  11. Rastas
    Rastas 18 March 2016 20: 20
    +2
    N.Nekrasov

    Silent honest, valiantly fallen,
    Their voices were silent lonely
    For the unfortunate people who cried out
    But unbridled passions are cruel.

    A whirlwind of rage and rage is worn
    Above you, the country is unrequited.
    Everything alive, everything good squint ...
    I can only hear about dawnless night
    Amid the gloom you spilled
    Like enemies triumphantly cry
    Like the corpse of a giant slain
    Bloodthirsty birds flock
    Poisonous bastards are sliding!
  12. Nehist
    Nehist 18 March 2016 23: 42
    +3
    Oh sorry Dombrowski did not hang in Russia! The vicissitudes of history, a state criminal in Russia became a hero in France
  13. Tired
    Tired 19 March 2016 05: 07
    +2
    Interestingly, after the outbreak of the civil war, part of the revolutionaries as well as communists from Germany blamed Lenin for authoritarian methods of government. But as can be seen from the experience of the national guard of the Paris Commune, without maintaining strict discipline and precise control in the army, those who rose were not talking about victory. This is of course a difficult turn. Since people brought by the authorities to open resistance can react painfully to the need for submission. But this is still a necessary measure.
  14. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 19 March 2016 17: 21
    0
    Quote: Rastas
    This was the first attempt to achieve popular democracy, where the lower classes can directly participate in the activities of the state. bodies through committees

    No, you are mistaken. The first attempt in France was back in the 1789-1793 years, when the country gradually drowned in the wave of bloody Jacobin (read communist) terror, after which any regime seemed normal - both the morons of the Directory and the tyranny of Napoleon.

    Quote: Rastas
    But the bourgeoisie betrayed their people, calling on the Germans to help suppress the commune.
    Wait a minute, "Versailles" are Germans in your opinion? These are generally professional French troops loyal to the state and government. Which suppressed the armed rebellion of their own brothers.

    And the Germans - what are the Germans? They then very much disliked communist ideas. And at Versailles, relying on the traditions of Charlemagne and Otto I, proclaimed the formation of the Second Reich. That's all ...
  15. Pomeranian
    Pomeranian 20 March 2016 13: 46
    0
    An interesting article, I read it with pleasure. It will be necessary to revise "Dawns of Paris" on occasion.