Military Review

Emergency Committee in German

11
Emergency Committee in German



96 years ago, 13 March 1920, rebels led by General Walter Luttwitz and Prussian landowner Wolfgang Kapp took Berlin without a fight. The troops of the Moscow garrison refused to carry out the order of the Minister of War Gustav Noske and to give armed resistance to the rebels. The chief of staff of the Reichswehr, General Hans von Sekt, stated that "German soldiers will not shoot at German soldiers," ordering his subordinates to remain in the barracks.

Left without protection, the leadership of the Weimar Republic, headed by President Ebert and Prime Minister Bauer, fled to Stuttgart. Having seized the capital, the rebels formed their government, which was headed by Kapp. The new government announced the dissolution of parliament, the resignation of the president and the refusal to comply with the Versailles Treaty. However, the overwhelming majority of German politicians, parties and regional authorities refused to support the coup. The bulk of the population also opposed the coup, fearing the establishment of an authoritarian military dictatorship in the country.

At the call of the trade unions and left-wing parties, a general strike spread to Germany, and the formation of the Red Army began in the Ruhr area, in which 80 thousands of workers and employees were enrolled in a few days. Red Army soldiers took control of a number of major cities, including Düsseldorf, Duisburg and Essen. The orders of the Kappa Cabinet were ignored everywhere, and soon the rebels realized that no one obeyed them outside Berlin. Instead of the promise by the putschists of restoring order and the revival of the greatness of Germany, there was a paralysis of power in the country.

Seeing that events become catastrophic, threatening a full-scale civil war, the German generals made their choice. On March 17, a group of high-ranking officers appealed to Kapp and Luttwitz to demand the resignation of power and the return of power to the legitimate government. Realizing that the game was lost, the leaders of the rebellion ordered the dissolution of their armed formations and fled to Sweden on the same day. Thus, the Kappa-Lutwitz regime lasted less than four days.

In this stories There is one very interesting point. The main striking force of the putschists was the 2-I brigade of marines under the command of Corvette-Captain Hermann Ehrhardt, which was usually called simply the Brigade Ehrhardt. A distinctive sign of this compound numbering about six thousand people was a swastika. She sported a soldier's helmets, car and armored cars belonging to the brigade.

Thanks to journalists, photographs of erhardians with huge swastikas on their foreheads became widespread and it was then that this symbol, previously considered politically neutral, began to be perceived as an emblem of extreme right, anti-liberal and revanchist forces. Four months later, the hackenkreuz became the official emblem of the Nazi Nazi Party, and its use by the putsch undoubtedly influenced this choice. And on the screen saver - one of the guns of the rebels at the Brandenburg Gate. The soldiers posing near him were not part of Ehrhardt’s brigade, so the swastikas were not there.



Left: General Walter Luttwitz and Minister of Defense of the Weimar Republic Gustav Noske. The picture was taken before the rebellion, so they are quite calm talking. Center: participants in the Kappa Luttwitz insurgency. In the middle is Hermann Ehrhardt, and next to him, with a cigarette and a distinctive emblem on his helmet, is a soldier of his brigade. Right: Ehrhardt helmets.



Left: putsch hoisting the naval flag of the German Empire over Berlin. Right: erhardt people distribute their appeals to Berliners.



Improvised armored brigade Ehrhardt.



Order erkhardtovtsev truck. It is curious that the swastikas on helmets and on the car turned in different directions. Obviously, then this did not attach importance.



Not all the putsch techniques were painted with swastikas. This armored car bears the emblems of the Kaiser armored troops troops in the form of an “Adam's head”. By the way, he was also called "Ehrhardt", but not in honor of the fan of curved crosses, but by the name of the developer Heinrich Ehrhardt.



Red Army men partul Dortmund.
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11 comments
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  1. mervino2007
    mervino2007 19 March 2016 07: 47
    +3
    This is the goal of the putschists in 1920, in addition to breaking up the Weimar Republic - refusal to comply with the Treaty of Versailles? The form of the experiences of the German generals, defeated in WWI? It is a pity, the article does not have specific tasks that would be solved by this putsch.
    1. apro
      apro 19 March 2016 07: 59
      +3
      Quote: mervino2007
      The form of the experiences of the German generals, defeated in WWI?

      Germany was not defeated by military means, she fell like Russia from a treacherous blow in the back.
      1. Alex 1972
        Alex 1972 19 March 2016 08: 39
        +2
        Quote: apro
        Germany was not defeated by military means, she fell like Russia from a treacherous blow in the back.

        Who hit her in the back?
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 19 March 2016 08: 05
    +4
    An interesting historical fact: in the days of March 1920, the future head of the left wing of the NSDAP and victim of the "Night of the Long Knives", Chief Lieutenant Gregor Strasser, at the head of the Landsgut volunteer corps formed by him, which soon became the first assault force of the National Socialists outside Munich, with arms in hand, spoke out in Bavaria in support of the "Kapp coup." the union of revolutionary national socialists "Black Front", a participant in the defeat of the Bavarian Soviet Republic in the ranks of the von Epp volunteer corps in 1920, who joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany, became an employee of the SPD newspaper "Forverts" and commanded the Social Democratic armed "red hundred" during the suppression of the "Kapp Putsch"! ...
  3. populist
    populist 19 March 2016 09: 13
    +3
    An interesting analogy from political history.
    There are similar factors with the GKChP events, and differences.
  4. iouris
    iouris 19 March 2016 11: 53
    +1
    This swastika is what a swastika is.
    In Riga, on many monuments of "national importance", in particular, to the participants in the "Christmas battles" for Riga (against the Kaiser's army), one can see images of a swastika. There are different options.
    The swastika is an ancient pagan symbol. The Latvian language is Indo-European. The swastika could have been brought to Germany by the Baltic Germans, i.e. former Russian subjects or their descendants. Probably, she was entrenched as "Hakenkreuz", precisely in memory of the putschists.
    The GKChP analogy is lame, like any historical analogy. And the article is interesting.
  5. Alex
    Alex 19 March 2016 12: 27
    +2
    Order erkhardtovtsev truck. It is curious that the swastikas on helmets and on the car turned in different directions. Obviously, then this did not attach importance.
    Or, as an option, the photo is mirrored.
    1. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 19 March 2016 13: 47
      0
      Quote: Alex
      Order erkhardtovtsev truck. It is curious that the swastikas on helmets and on the car turned in different directions. Obviously, then this did not attach importance.
      Or, as an option, the photo is mirrored.

      For this photo must be cut horizontally and to mirror one of the parts, which is unlikely.
      The symbolism of Nazism was only being developed.
      In general, all of Germany wore a uniform.
      For example, SA detachments were not at all disbanded, but existed perfectly until the 45th, had their own diverse symbolism. Plus auto and air corps, Todt's organization ... An incredible amount of characters.
      1. Alex
        Alex 19 March 2016 17: 29
        +3
        Quote: Cap.Morgan
        For this photo must be cut horizontally and to mirror one of the parts, which is unlikely.

        I am not saying anything, but the steering wheel of the truck is on the right (unless, of course, this is not a distortion in perspective). So, it’s either English (maybe a trophy, or else how did he get into the army), or the Germans did it too (that means they had left-hand traffic), or still a SLR. True, on the truck, the swastika is the opposite of that on helmets.

        Maybe there is something wrong with this photo. Maybe the symbolism was really very different. Maybe some other trick. I will not deal with this further, to me, in general, to a light bulb ...
        1. Cap.Morgan
          Cap.Morgan 19 March 2016 21: 17
          0
          Quote: Alex
          Quote: Cap.Morgan
          For this photo must be cut horizontally and to mirror one of the parts, which is unlikely.

          I am not saying anything, but the steering wheel of the truck is on the right (unless, of course, this is not a distortion in perspective). So, it’s either English (maybe a trophy, or else how did he get into the army), or the Germans did it too (that means they had left-hand traffic), or still a SLR. True, on the truck, the swastika is the opposite of that on helmets.

          Maybe there is something wrong with this photo. Maybe the symbolism was really very different. Maybe some other trick. I will not deal with this further, to me, in general, to a light bulb ...

          I found another picture of this truck in Google. There is also a steering wheel on the right.
          The Germans had many auto manufacturers. Among them are many factories producing electric cars. So it seems that there were no standards at that time. Absolute freedom.
          1. iouris
            iouris 20 March 2016 10: 21
            0
            Not the fact that the car is German. Daimler and Benz, if they produced 300 car chassis ("motors") a year, this year was successful.
            In Italy, at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, in some areas the movement was left-handed, in others - right-handed.
            There were practically no traffic rules yet. There were some "knightly principles". Just before the war, the Imperial Russian Automobile Society (IRAO) developed the first edition of the SDA.
            In this case, the swastika has nothing to do with Nazism, which did not exist at that time as a political movement, therefore it is the "swastika" in the photo, not "Hakenkreuz". And the swastika, as an ancient symbol ("brace"), has nothing to do with Nazism and fascism and, as I understand it, has two variants of the outline.