Military Review

About the scale of human losses of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War

About the scale of human losses of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War

First published in: Militaryhistorical archive. 2012, No. 9. S. 59−71

On this issue, there is a lot of literature, and maybe someone has the impression that it is sufficiently investigated. Yes, indeed, a lot of literature, but there are still a lot of questions and doubts. There are too many unclear, controversial and obviously unreliable. Even the credibility of the current official Soviet casualties in the Great Patriotic War (about 27 million people) raises serious doubts. This article shows the evolution of official statistics on these losses (from 1946 and to the present it has changed several times), and an attempt is made to establish the actual number of casualties for servicemen and civilians in 1941 — 1945. Solving this problem, we relied only on truly reliable information contained in historical sources and literature. The article presents a system of evidence that in fact the direct casualties were about 16 million, of which 11,5 million are military and 4,5 million are civilian.

During the 16 years after the war, all casualties of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War (total military and civilian) were estimated at 7 million. In February 1946, this figure (7 million) was published in the Bolshevik magazine 2. She in March 1946 was named I.V. Stalin in an interview with the newspaper Pravda. This is literally a quote by I.V. Stalin, published in this newspaper: “As a result of the German invasion, the Soviet Union irretrievably lost about seven million people in battles with the Germans, as well as thanks to the German occupation and the hijacking of the Soviet people to German penal servitude.” 3.

In fact, I.V. Stalin was aware of completely different statistics - 15 million 4. This was reported to him at the beginning of 1946 based on the results of the work of the commission, which was headed by the candidate member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B.) Chairman of the USSR State Plan N.A. Voznesensky. So far, little is known about the work of this commission, and it is unclear what method it used in calculating 15 million of casualties. The question is: where are they, these data, gone? It turns out that in the document submitted to him by the commission, I.V. Stalin made an "editorial correction", correcting 15 million for 7 million. Otherwise, how could it be explained that 15 million "disappeared" and 7 million were made public and became official data?

On the motives of the act I.V. Stalin can only guess. Of course, propaganda motives and the desire to conceal from the people and the world community the real scale of the Soviet people's casualties took place here.

In the first half of 1960's. demographic specialists tried to determine the total casualties in the war using the balance method, comparing the results of the All-Union population censuses 1939 and 1959. This was done, of course, with the approval of the CPSU Central Committee. It immediately revealed a lot of difficulties in solving this problem, since with different approaches and methods it was really possible to derive any value in the range from 15 million to 30 million. This required an extremely professional and correct approach. According to the results of calculations made at the beginning of the 1960s, two conclusions followed: 1) the exact number of casualties in 1941 — 1945. impossible to establish; 2) they actually make up approximately 20 million or perhaps even more. Since the specialists understood that this indicator is purely demographic, which includes not only the victims of the war, but also an increased mortality rate due to the deterioration of living conditions in wartime, the correct wording was developed - “the war claimed lives”. In this spirit, all this was reported "upstairs."

At the end of 1961, Stalin's 7 million 5 November 1961 was finally “buried”. Khrushchev, in a letter to the Swedish Prime Minister T. Erlander, noted that the last war “claimed two tens of millions of lives of Soviet people” 5. 9 May 1965, on the day of the 20 anniversary of the Victory, L.I. Brezhnev said in his speech that the country had lost “over 20 million people” 6. A little later, L.I. Brezhnev corrected the wording: "The war claimed more than twenty million lives of Soviet people." Thus, N.S. Khrushchev called 20 million, L.I. Brezhnev - more than 20 million, with the same terminology - “the war claimed lives”.

This statistic is reliable with the proviso that it takes into account not only the direct victims of the war, but also an increased natural mortality rate in excess of the corresponding figures in peacetime. This circumstance made these 20 million (or more 20 million) incomparable with the corresponding statistics of other countries (only direct victims of war are included in casualties). In other words, based on the calculation methods adopted in other countries, the calculation of the USSR human losses, determined by the value of 20 million, can even be called exaggerated. And he exaggerated in this case, according to our estimates, approximately 4 million people.

In fact, 20 million is the total number of direct (16 million) and indirect (4 million) losses. This fact itself speaks of the shortcomings and costs of the balance method of calculation, which can only establish the total number of direct and indirect losses and is not able to isolate them and separate them from each other. And here the methodologically incorrect summation of direct and indirect losses is unwittingly obtained, leading to a certain devaluation of the concept “victims of war” and an exaggeration of their scale. Recall that in the relevant statistics of other countries there are no indirect losses. In fact, the problem of indirect losses is a separate topic, and there should, in theory, separate statistics exist, and if they are included in the total number of casualties in a war, then it must be accompanied by a number of serious reservations. Since no explanations of this kind were ever made, in the public mind the magnitude in 20 million was distortedly perceived as the total number of direct victims of the war.

For a quarter of a century, these 20 million were official data on the Soviet losses in the Great Patriotic War. But at the end of the 1980s, at the height of Gorbachev's perestroika, when many previous stereotypes and ideas were criticized and overthrown, this also affected the official data of the losses. In publicism, they were then branded as “fake” and claimed that in fact the number of victims of the war was much higher (over 40 million). Moreover, these deliberately false claims were actively introduced into the mass consciousness. There were calls to "establish the truth about the losses." In the wake of this “righteousness”, a rather vigorous activity began in 1989 to “recount” Soviet casualties in 1941 — 1945.

In fact, all this was an integral part of the widespread propaganda campaign “to expose Stalinism” inspired by Gorbachev's Politburo. All the then propaganda was built with the expectation that I.V. Stalin looked like the only culprit (A. Hitler was rarely mentioned) of enormous human losses in the Great Patriotic War, and there was a predisposition (to increase the degree of negativeness of the image of IV Stalin and “Stalinism” in the public mind) to “cancel” 20 million and “ Count "much more.

Since March, 1989, on behalf of the Central Committee of the CPSU, has been working a state commission to study the number of human losses of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War. The commission included representatives of the State Statistics Committee, Academy of Sciences, the Ministry of Defense, the Main Archival Administration under the USSR Council of Ministers, the Committee of War Veterans, the Union of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. The peculiarity of the psychological attitude of the members of this commission was the conviction that the then official official casualties of the USSR in the war (20 million) were supposedly “approximate” and “incomplete” (which was their mistake), and she, the commission, should be counted significantly more. They considered the demographic balance method they used as “innovative”, not understanding or not wanting to understand that it was the same method in the first half of the 1960-s. were counted and marked 20 million

The All-Russian Book of Memory, published in 1995, describes in detail the calculation methodology, which resulted in almost 27 million (more precisely, 26,6 million) of all Soviet casualties in the Great Patriotic War. Since even the smallest details and nuances matter for our further conclusions, we give this description verbatim and in full below: “The total human losses, calculated by the commission using the balance method, include all those who died as a result of military and other actions of the enemy who died as a result of the mortality rate during the war in the occupied territory and in the rear, as well as persons who emigrated from the USSR during the war and did not return after it. The number of direct casualties does not include indirect losses: from a decline in the birth rate during the war and an increased mortality rate in the post-war years.

The losses were calculated using the balance method for the period from June 22 1941 to December 31 1945. The upper limit of the period was moved away from the end of the war at the end of the year to take into account those who died from wounds in hospitals, the repatriation of civilian prisoners of war and displaced persons from among civilians population and the repatriation of citizens of the USSR from other countries.

The demographic balance implies a comparison of the population within the same territorial boundaries. For calculations, the USSR borders were taken on 22 June 1941.

The estimated population of the USSR on 22 June 1941 was obtained by moving to a specified date the results of the pre-war census of the country’s population (17 January 1939) adjusted for the numbers of births and deaths for the two and a half years from the census to the attack of Nazi Germany. Thus, the population of the USSR in the middle of 1941 was determined in 196,7 million. At the end of 1945, this number was calculated by moving back the age data of the All-Union 1959 census. The updated information on mortality and external migration data for 1946 – 1958 were used. The calculation was made taking into account the changes in the USSR borders after 1941. As a result, the population on 31 December 1945 was defined in 170,5 million, of whom 159,5 million were born before 22 June 1941.

The total number of dead, dead, missing, and trapped outside the country during the war years was 37,2 million (the difference between 196,7 and 159,5 million). However, this whole value cannot be attributed to casualties caused by the war, as in peacetime (in 4,5 year) the population would be subject to natural loss due to normal mortality. If the mortality rate of the population of the USSR in 1941 — 1945. taking the same as in 1940, the number of deaths would be 11,9 million. Excluding this figure, casualties among citizens born before the outbreak of war are 25,3 million. To this figure it is necessary to add the losses of children born in the war years and at the same time dead due to increased child mortality (1,3 million). As a result, the total human losses of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War, determined by the method of demographic balance, are equal to 26,6 million people »7.

Despite the seeming fundamentality and solidity of these calculations, as we repeatedly tried to double-check them, this kind of suspicion grew steadily: did they, these calculations, result from the correct approach and is there falsification hidden there? Finally, it became clear what the matter was: behind a detailed and outwardly impartial description of the calculation method, a statistical forgery was concealed, designed to increase the previous official loss data by 7 million people (from 20 million to 27 million) by lowering by the same amount (by 7 million) of the scale of natural mortality in 1941 — 1945. based on the mortality rate of the USSR population in 1940 (without specifying the specific number of deaths in 1940). The logic here, apparently, was this: no one knows how many people in the USSR died in 1940, and will not be able to verify.

Check, however, you can. In 1940, 4,2 million people died in the USSR. This figure was published in 1990 in the journal "Journal of Statistics" 8. It also appears in the 2000 volume of the fundamental scientific work “The Population of Russia in the 20th Century” 1 published in 9. This means that for 4,5 of the year (from the middle of 1941 to the end of 1945), if calculated in terms of 1: 1 to the mortality rate of the USSR population in 1940, 18,9 million would die (4,2 million x 4,5 of the year = 18,9 million) . This is the number of people who would still have died in the specified period (1941 − 1945), even if there was no war, and they must be deducted from any calculations by definition of casualties due to war.

The Commission, which worked in 1989 — 1990, understood this and carried out the corresponding operation in its calculations, but deducted (allegedly from the mortality rate in the USSR in 1940) only 11,9 million people. But it was necessary to subtract 18,9 million. In this way, “additional” 7 million losses were obtained (18,9 million - 11,9 million = 7 million). Through this clever statistical fraud in 1990, the official figures of Soviet casualties in the Great Patriotic War were increased from 20 million to 27 million people. In fact, these 27 million are the same profanation as the Stalinist 7 million, only inside out.

Such is the background of the emergence of new official statistics of casualties in the war. All other existing and existing versions of its origin, including the funny “mathematical formula” (Stalin's 7 million + Khrushchev's 20 million = Gorbachev's 27 million), are, of course, erroneous.

8 May 1990, President of the USSR M.S. Gorbachev, in a report on the 45 anniversary of the Victory, said that the war claimed almost 27 millions of Soviet lives10. We note that M.S. Gorbachev used the same wording (“claimed lives”) that N.S. Khrushchev and L.I. Brezhnev. Since that time, that is, since May 1990, to this day, these almost 27 million (sometimes called “more precisely” - 26,6 million) are official figures of Soviet casualties in the Great Patriotic War. Moreover, in propaganda, instead of the fairly correct expression “war took lives”, implying demographic losses in a broad sense, the verb “perish” is used, which is a serious semantic distortion (then direct victims of the war should be singled out as part of general demographic losses).

It is curious that even in 1990, the old Soviet tradition was observed, according to which any new information about the statistics of human losses in 1941 — 1945. proceeded only from the highest officials of the party and the state. Over 1946 − 1990 these statistics were changed and refined 4 times, and they were always voiced by the general secretaries of the CPSU Central Committee - consistently I.V. Stalin, N.S. Khrushchev, L.I. Brezhnev and MS Gorbachev. The last three, apparently, did not doubt the authenticity of the figures referred to (IV Stalin, as you know, consciously falsified the statistics in the direction of lowering its scale).

Despite the prevailing perception of these new official data (27 million) of Soviet casualties in the war as supposed ultimate truth, there was no complete consensus in historical science, and there were evaluations that seriously questioned their authenticity. Thus, the well-known historian A.K. Sokolov in 1995 noted: “... I would like to remind individual authors who are prone to exaggeration that Russia is sparsely populated by world standards and considering its territory. The strange idea of ​​the inexhaustibility of its human resources is a myth that most of the authors use, spreading to the right and left with tens of millions of victims. The number of those killed in the war years is still less than 27 million. ”11.

Since the beginning of the 1990's. In the scientific community, the results of calculating the total military losses, carried out by a team of military historians led by Colonel-General G.F. Krivosheev. According to them, all the losses of soldiers killed and dead (including those killed in captivity) amounted to almost 8,7 million people (more precisely, 8668,4 thousand) 12. All these calculations were published in 1993 in the statistical study "The neck of secrecy was removed: Loss of the Armed Forces of the USSR in wars, hostilities and military conflicts." The specified total loss of soldiers killed and dead was in fact unreliable, significantly lower than real losses, but, nevertheless, quickly entered the scientific revolution.

Thus, during the 1990 − 1993 biennium. for specialists and a wider audience, two actually fake figures were “launched”: overestimated almost 27 million (total human losses) and underestimated almost 8,7 million (general military losses). Moreover, even in the minds of many specialists (not all), these figures were perceived as certain dogmas that were not subject to doubt and challenge. And here began something that went beyond common sense. Immediately identified the total number (18,3 million) civilian casualties killed and tortured (27 million - 8,7 million = 18,3 million), and the most absurd idea about the "special character of the Great Patriotic War, in which civilian losses were significantly superior to the military," was promoted. To any sane person it is clear and understandable that such a relationship between military and civilian casualties could not exist by definition, and that the dead soldiers, of course, prevailed in the overall composition of direct casualties.

Nevertheless, these fantastic 18,3 million began to "walk" through the pages of various publications. Since this value was not documented in any way, there was a tendency to explain this by some virtual underestimation of the death of the civilian population in the territory of the USSR subjected to enemy occupation. So, A.A. Sheviakov confidently stated in an article published in 1991: “As a result of the mass extermination of the civilian population, the deliberate organization of hunger in the occupied Soviet territories themselves and the death of the hijacked population in German penal servitude, the Soviet Union lost 18,3 million of its citizens” 13. A.A. Shevyakov also found an explanation of why before such gigantic proportions of civilian deaths in the occupied territories were not known to anyone and nobody even suspected them. He laid the main “blame” for this on the State Extraordinary Commission on the establishment and investigation of the atrocities of the German fascist invaders and their accomplices (CPG), which, in his words, “often consisted in places of low-skilled people who did not possess political insight and methods of identifying Fascist atrocities »xnumx.

Claims A.A. Shevyakova to the ChGK in this matter is completely unfair. The local commissions of the ChGK carried out painstaking work to establish the losses (killed and tortured) of the civilian population in the former occupied territory. In total, they counted 6,8 million of such victims. Until the end of the 1960's. this figure was strictly classified and first published in 1969 in an article by the former chief prosecutor of the USSR at the Nuremberg trials, R. A. Rudenko15. It is also given in the 1973 volume published in 10, History of the USSR from Ancient Times to the Present, 16. Any serious underestimation, contrary to A.A. Shevyakova, ChGK statistics are not traced, but overstatement of data is undeniably present. So, the local commissions of the ChGK often took into account how all the inhabitants of the burned deserted villages who had lived here before died, and then it turned out that these people did not die at all, but simply moved to live in other areas. The victims included even people who were evacuated. On this occasion, Academician of the RAS Yu.A. Polyakov noted: “It is known, for example, that in many cities immediately after the war people who were evacuated to 1941 and did not return were put on the loss lists, and then they returned from somewhere from Tashkent or Alma-Ata” 17. In practice, the local commissions of the ChGK included in the lists of the dead and tortured many living people who were absent for various other reasons. It is completely clear to us that the ChGK data on the deaths of civilians in the occupied territory (6,8 million) are exaggerated by at least 2 times. Of course, it is impossible to deny the genocide, terror and repression of the invaders and their accomplices, and, according to our estimates, such victims, taking into account the fighting losses of the partisans from among the local residents, amounted to at least 3 million people. This is the main component of the direct victims of the war of the civilian population of the USSR.
The direct civilian victims of the war also include deceased Soviet citizens who were hijacked to forced labor in Germany and were there in the position of the so-called "Eastern workers" ("Ostarbeiter"). If we strictly rely on statistical data available in historical sources (which is our professional duty), then the scale of mortality of “Ostarbeiter” can only be discussed in the following range: from 100 thousand to 200 thousand people. But this is an area where direct testimony from historical sources is completely ignored, and instead of them they are presented with absurd and fantastic “assumptions” and “calculations” with virtual “millions of victims”. A.A. Shevyakov "counted" even two versions of the most absurd "statistics" of the death of Soviet civilians at work in Germany - 2,8 million and 3,4 million. 18. False statistics are also shown in the "All-Russian Book of Memory" - allegedly such victims were 2 164 313 people 19. The "accuracy" of this figure should not be misleading - this is a blind. All this "statistics" does not appear in any documents and is entirely the fruit of copyright fantasies.

However, there is a relatively reliable historical source in the form of consolidated German mortality statistics for "eastern workers" for individual months. Unfortunately, for a number of months, such reports were not revealed by the researchers, but from the available ones one can make a fairly clear picture of the scale of their mortality. We present the number of dead “Ostarbeiter” by individual months 1943 g .: March - 1479, May - 1376, October - 1268, November - 945, December - 899; for 1944 d .: January - 979, February - 1631 people20. Based on these data and using the extrapolation method (taking into account possible jumps in the mortality rate in certain months for which there is no information), PM Polyan determined the total mortality of "Eastern workers" in the range from 80 thousand to 100 thousand 21. In principle, with P.M. We can agree with Polyan, but we are confused by one circumstance - the lack of information in the last months of the war, and due to the transfer of military operations to German territory, the death toll of the “eastern workers” increased for a number of indirect signs. Therefore, we tend to determine the number of dead and deceased Soviet civilians ("Eastern workers") in Germany, about 200 thousand.

Direct civilian casualties include fallen civilian volunteer units - unfinished militia units, city self-defense units, fighter units, party-Komsomol activist groups, special units of various civil agencies, and others (partisan losses are included in the overall statistics of the victims in the occupied territory), as well as the death of the civilian population from bombing, shelling, etc. These sacrifices number in the hundreds of thousands. Part of the direct civilian casualties are the Leningrad blockade (about 0,7 million dead).

Summing up all the above components of direct civilian casualties, to which the term “victims of war” is applied without any exaggeration, we determine their total number by at least 4,5 million people.

As for the military casualties of those killed and dead, they were at least 11,5 million (and not nearly 8,7 million). We are talking about the total number of servicemen who did not live to see the end of the war, and we conditionally divide them into three groups: 1) combat losses; 2) no combat losses; 3) dead in captivity.

We define the combat losses of servicemen as 7 million (most of them died directly on the battlefield). Our estimates regarding the casualties of those killed and deceased somewhat differ from the value indicated in the book “The Vault of Secrecy has been removed” - 6329,6 ths. In one place of this book, it is noted: “About 22 thousand died in battles, although according to reports from the fronts they were counted as missing” 500. But in the total number of combat losses (23 thousand), these about 6329,6 thousand people are not included by the authors of the “Vulture's Secret” book, despite the fact that they died in battles. Therefore, when we claim that the casualties of the dead and the dead were about 500 million, we must bear in mind that this is taking into account the estimated number of those killed in the battles as part of the missing.

The so-called non-combat losses amount to over 0,5 million. These are the servicemen who died from diseases, as well as the depressingly large number of people who died as a result of all sorts of accidents and accidents that are not related to the combat situation. This also includes 160 thousand military tribunals who were executed on sentences and orders of commanders mainly for cowardice and desertion. The total number of all these non-combat casualties is indicated in the book “The Vault of Secrecy” - 555,5 thousand people24.

The total number of military casualties killed and dead also includes almost 4 million Soviet prisoners of war. It may be objected that other numbers are mentioned in domestic and foreign literature, significantly lower than this value. In the book “Grief of secrecy was removed” under the heading “Did not return from captivity (died, died, emigrated to other countries)”, the final figure indicates an incomprehensible and causing acute distrust among specialists - 1783,3 thousand people25. This figure should be immediately discarded because of its obvious absurdity. Much closer to the truth are the data of German summary statistics, according to which 3,3 million Soviet prisoners of war26 died in German captivity. This figure is the most popular in the scientific literature and does not cause much distrust among specialists. However, the study of the calculation method of German summary data revealed their very substantial incompleteness - from 600 to 700, thousands of Soviet prisoners of war, who actually died in captivity, were not included in the German summary mortality statistics. So that these our statements do not look unfounded, we present the following argument. First, the summary German mortality statistics of Soviet prisoners of war (3,3 million) as of 1 in May of 1944, and the war continued for another year, for which there is no relevant information; secondly, the specified summary statistics consists of two parts, as it were, where the data for 1942 − 1944 are. can be considered complete, since the counting was conducted from the moment of capture, but for 1941, the Germans “built in” into it, the summary statistics, only the camp statistics, that is, the prisoners who died in 1941 were not taken into account in the time interval capture until the moment they entered the camps (this is a major undercount - according to our estimates, at least 400 thousand Soviet prisoners were not taken to the camps by the Germans in 1941). Thirdly, the above statistics concerns only German captivity, and the mortality of Soviet prisoners of war in the Finnish and Romanian captivity is not reflected there. Based on this argument, we continue to insist that the scale of mortality of Soviet prisoners of war (summed up in the German, Finnish and Romanian captivity) was almost 4 million.

Thus, the total losses of soldiers killed and dead (including those killed in captivity) were at least 11,5 million. The statement of the authors of the “Grief of Secrecy” has been removed, that all these losses of servicemen in total amounted to almost 8,7 million (more precisely, 8668,4 thousand) is certainly erroneous. This is mainly due to the fact that the authors of this book have completely incorrectly determined the scale of mortality of Soviet prisoners of war, significantly understating it.

Consequently, the method of adding specific losses is approximately 16 million, of which 11,5 million is military, 4,5 million is civilian. And in this way it is customary to calculate the losses in other warring countries. For example, the total human casualties of Japan in World War II (2,5 million people) 27 were calculated based on the specifics of the Japanese losses, by adding their components: war dead + dead in captivity + bomb victims, including American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The so-called balance method for such calculations has not been used either in Japan or in other countries. And this is the correct approach: the total number of war victims must certainly be calculated by adding together the various components of specific casualties.

But it is also possible to prove by the balance method that the direct human losses (war victims) of the USSR were about 16 million. To do this, we must establish the correct ratio of the natural mortality rate between the relatively demographically successful 1940 and the extreme 1941 – 1945. The ratio of 1: 1, established working in 1989 — 1990. Commission, can not be considered correct. After all, it was clear that in 1941 — 1945. due to deterioration of living conditions, lack of scarce drugs, etc. the level of natural mortality of the population will inevitably increase. And here, an upward correction is necessary when calculating this level in relation to extreme 1941-1945. and set it as part of not 18,9 million, but bring it to at least 22 million. This value (22 million) is the minimum acceptable level of natural mortality in 1941 — 1945. According to our estimates and estimates, by the end of 1945, there were no 38 million people alive before the war, as well as those born during the war and at the same time dead (this number also includes people who were actually alive, but were in emigration), and if we deduct the indicated 22 million from this amount, then there remains the 16 million war victims (38 million - 22 million = 16 million).

Let us touch upon a little the problem of the comparability of our losses with the losses of other countries. Japan’s total human losses (2,5 million) are comparable to the 16 million calculated by us, but not comparable with the Khrushchev and Brezhnevsky 20 million. Why is that? And because the Japanese casualties do not take into account the possible increased mortality of the civilian population in the war years compared with peacetime. This is not accounted for either in German, nor in English, nor in French, nor in other common human losses in a war. In other countries, it was direct human casualties that were calculated, and the one named in 1961 was N.S. Khrushchev magnitude in 20 million implied demographic losses in a broad sense, including not only direct casualties, but also a jump in the natural death rate of the population in wartime. By the way, the minimum calculations of German casualties (6,5 million) are comparable to our 16 million, but incomparable to 20 million, because the Germans, without using the balance method and trying not to calculate the natural mortality of the population, tried to scrupulously calculate and summarize all the components of direct military and civilian casualties, including German Jews 28, who became victims of the Holocaust.

Of course, in wartime, the birth rate dropped sharply. In the amateurish environment, there is a tendency to include “unborn children” in the total number of casualties in a war. Moreover, the “authors” usually do not have a clue how many, in fact, children “were not born”, and make extremely dubious “calculations”, being guided by their own “intuition” and sometimes reducing the total human losses of the USSR even to 50 million. Of course, such "statistics" can not be taken seriously. In the scientific demography of the whole world, the inclusion of unborn children in the total number of casualties in a war is considered incorrect. In other words, in world science this is a forbidden method.

There is a rather large layer of all kinds of literature in which, even without “unborn children,” the most improbable and, of course, deliberately false figures of direct losses — from 40 million and above — are derived through incorrect statistical intuitive evaluations. It is impossible to conduct a civilized scientific discussion with these “authors”, because, as we have repeatedly seen, their goal is not to seek historical truth, but lies in a completely different direction: defame and discredit Soviet leaders and military leaders and the Soviet system as a whole; downplay the significance and greatness of the feat of the Red Army and the people in the Great Patriotic War; glorify the successes of the Nazis and their accomplices.

Of course, 16 million direct casualties are huge casualties. But they, in our deep conviction, do not belittle, but, on the contrary, glorify the feat of the peoples of a multinational country (USSR) in the Great Patriotic War.

2 Bolshevik. 1946. No. 5. C. 3.
3 True. 1946. 14 March.
4 Volkogonov D.A. Triumph and tragedy. M., 1990. Prince 2. C. 418.
5 International Life. 1961. No. 12. C. 8.
6 Political self-education. 1988. No. 17. C. 43.
7 All-Russian Book of Memory. 1941 − 1945: Overview Volume. M., 1995. C. 395 − 396.
8 Herald Statistics. 1990. No. 7. C. 34 − 46.
9 Russia's population in the twentieth century: Historical essays / Ed. editors: Yu.A. Polyakov, V.B. Zhiromskaya. M., 2000. T. 1. C. 340.
10 True. 1990. 9 May.
11 Sokolov A.K. Methodological basis for calculating the loss of the population of the USSR during the Great Patriotic War // Human losses of the USSR during the Second World War. SPb., 1995. C. 22.
12 Nexus lifted: Loss of the Armed Forces of the USSR in wars, hostilities and military conflicts: Statistical research / Edited by G.F. Krivosheev. M., 1993. C. 131.
13 Shevyakov A.A. Hitler's genocide in the territories of the USSR // Sociological studies. 1991. No. 12. C. 10.
14 There e. S. 6.
15 Rudenko R.A. Not to be forgotten // True. 1969. 24 March. C. 4.
16 History of the USSR from ancient times to the present day. M., 1973. T. 10. C. 390.
17 Polyakov Yu.A. The main problems of studying the loss of life of the USSR in the Great Patriotic War // Human losses of the USSR during the Second World War. SPb., 1995. C. 11.
18 Shevyakov A.A. Decree. article. C. 10.
19 All-Russian Book of Memory. C. 406.
20 Polyan PM The victims of two dictatorships: Ostarbeiters and prisoners of war in the Third Reich and their repatriation. M., 1996. C. 146.
21 ibid. C. 68.
22 The security stamp is unchecked. C. 130.
23 ibid. C. 338.
24 ibid. C. 130.
25 ibid. C. 131.
26 Streit C. Keine Kameraden: Die Wehrmacht and die sowjetischen Kriegsgefangenen. 1941 − 1945. Bonn, 1991. S. 244 − 246.
Our Navy is in a panic: they are defenseless in front of a destroyer that the US has experienced
27 Hattori T. Japan in the war. 1941 − 1945 / Trans. with jap M., 1973. C. 606.
28 Methodology of German calculations, see: Jacobsen G.-A. 1939 − 1945. World War II: Chronicles and Documents / Trans. with him. // World War II: Two Views. M., 1995.
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  1. Igor39
    Igor39 27 February 2016 06: 41 New
    -34 qualifying.
    Stalin lied? There can be no such thing, 7 million means losses, one must believe the leader.
    1. Ami du peuple
      Ami du peuple 27 February 2016 07: 40 New
      Quote: Igor39
      Stalin lied? There can be no such thing, 7 million means losses, one must believe the leader

      But, of course, Solzhenitsyn should be trusted! Which claimed that from 1917 to 1959, the total population loss as a result of the crimes of the communist regime (to which he attributed, including the war) amounted to 110 million people. The lamp of nonpolitiness could not lie!
      1. novel66
        novel66 27 February 2016 09: 33 New
        the light of nonprivacy ?? how lovely! I think a rascal rare.
        1. Ami du peuple
          Ami du peuple 27 February 2016 10: 00 New
          Quote: novel xnumx
          the light of nonprivacy ?? how lovely! I think a rascal rare.

          And so: Svetoch Nepolzhvosti? wink Sarcasm it was, if
        2. Proxima
          Proxima 27 February 2016 12: 12 New
          Quote: novel xnumx
          a rare nonsense.

          There is a LIE, there is an OVERALL LIE, and there is STATISTICS. This is the most that is not, BREKHUN. The saddest thing is that people make statistics. I would like to ask these scientists-academicians who receive their salaries through our taxes: "Do they have at least remnants of conscience and decency! ??" Sorry-tutki in one word - ready for those in power for anything!
        3. ferro4
          ferro4 27 February 2016 14: 03 New
          He - unlike you - and fought and sat in the camps.
          1. novel66
            novel66 27 February 2016 17: 35 New
            and even abroad he denigrated his homeland.
          2. Idiot
            Idiot April 3 2016 00: 50 New
            Maybe you, a connoisseur of Solzhenitsyn’s creativity, can you tell me why he was in the camps?
          3. Idiot
            Idiot April 3 2016 00: 50 New
            Maybe you, a connoisseur of Solzhenitsyn’s creativity, can you tell me why he was in the camps?
      2. Volgobalt
        Volgobalt 27 February 2016 10: 33 New
        The losses were of course huge, I did not see a single grandfather, they died. But Solzhenitsyn can only be trusted by the same moral family. In his "Archipelago", he asserted from the words of a criminal about MASS executions of prisoners! This was at a time when workers were EXTREMELY necessary, because the head of the colony would not have been praised for not fulfilling the plan!
        1. heccrbq8
          heccrbq8 27 February 2016 13: 03 New
          -16 qualifying.
          A commission consisting of a group of senior officers sat down in the archives and after many months of work issued a figure of about 45 million people. Stalin did not like the figure. The next commission issued 30 million people, he also did not like it. Finally - 20 million .----- excerpt from "Occupation "Ivan Drozdov. Judging by the stories of the front-line soldiers (Viktor Astafiev, Nikolai Nikulin, Alexander Shumilin), the first figure is correct.
          1. Ami du peuple
            Ami du peuple 27 February 2016 18: 25 New
            Quote: heccrbq8
            The commission, consisting of a group of senior officers, entered the archives and, after many months of work, issued a figure of about 45 million people. Stalin did not like the figure .. excerpt from "Occupation" by Ivan Drozdov.
            Few people know that a day before that, a commission was assembled consisting of a group of generals and marshals. Which, after painstaking work in the archives, gave a figure of about 100500 million. People. Stalin did not like the figure and he personally killed them all. An excerpt from "Debilization" by Ivan Brekhunov. What, there is no such book, you say? Nothing, with "historians" like you, sooner or later one will appear.
            Quote: heccrbq8
            Judging by the stories of the war veterans (Victor Astafyev, Nikolai Nikulin, Alexander Shumilin), the first figure is correct.
            Judging by the stories of my grandfather, a front-line soldier, a gun commander in the 1st separate fighter-anti-tank brigade of the RGK, who went through the war from Stalingrad to Germany, you are an enchanting woodpecker.
    2. todaygoodday
      todaygoodday 27 February 2016 12: 29 New
      Information could be as incomplete as mines.
      Moreover, he talked about the loss of the army, and not the entire population, of course.
    3. Idiot
      Idiot April 3 2016 00: 48 New
      No need for sarcasm. There is an official explanation for this understatement of losses by Stalin, in my opinion with Martirosyan, I can’t remember now. Stalin deliberately underestimated the losses so as not to injure the people after such a terrible war. There are times when a lie is for the good - it takes time for the wounds to heal.
    4. Idiot
      Idiot April 3 2016 00: 48 New
      No need for sarcasm. There is an official explanation for this understatement of losses by Stalin, in my opinion with Martirosyan, I can’t remember now. Stalin deliberately underestimated the losses so as not to injure the people after such a terrible war. There are times when a lie is for the good - it takes time for the wounds to heal.
  2. Nsk 54
    Nsk 54 27 February 2016 06: 58 New
    It would be interesting to compare the demographic losses of the participating countries of the 2nd World War.
    1. yuriy55
      yuriy55 27 February 2016 07: 32 New
      Quote: Nsk 54
      It would be interesting to compare the demographic losses of the participating countries of the 2nd World War.

      For me, the issues of losses in the Great Patriotic War were determined by those who lived at that time. Much more interesting are the aspects of population losses in our "fat" years:
      1. rkkasa xnumx
        rkkasa xnumx 27 February 2016 08: 18 New
        Quote: yuriy55
        Much more interesting are the aspects of population losses in our "fat" years

        This graph has not yet shown the contribution of migrants. If not for the migrants, the picture would have been worse.
        1. Nsk 54
          Nsk 54 27 February 2016 09: 01 New
          Fertility / Mortality in the Same Regions
        2. todaygoodday
          todaygoodday 27 February 2016 12: 27 New
          Strange schedule.
          1. Awaz
            Awaz 27 February 2016 20: 03 New
            Quote: todaygoodday
            Strange schedule.

            if you want, I’ll tell you quite unpleasant observations. If you think about it, then in Russia the population is much less than you could imagine. Can be calculated on the example of schoolchildren. Since 95% of children study in schools, it’s quite possible to understand something if you count a little. In the Russian Federation, 13-14 million children study in schools (this is a real figure) They study for 11 years, that is, 1 year with a small million children goes out. In general, we even had a maximum birth rate of 1900. Even if we assume that children are on average 1,5 million for each year of birth, then with adults every year it gets worse and worse and by retirement hardly half a million will be typed every year of birth. Well, even if we take an average of 1 million people for every year of birth and our average life expectancy is 65 years, the figure is horrific .. By the way, the registry office system shows that we have about 100 million people.
    2. Idiot
      Idiot April 3 2016 00: 54 New
      On the topic of comparing the losses of Germany and the USSR, there is a worthy study by I. Garibyan That's what it is called.
    3. Idiot
      Idiot April 3 2016 00: 54 New
      On the topic of comparing the losses of Germany and the USSR, there is a worthy study by I. Garibyan That's what it is called.
  3. B.T.V.
    B.T.V. 27 February 2016 07: 07 New
    To take into account in the human losses of unborn children how to claim lost profits in court. Then you can have abortion and same-sex marriage here with success.
    1. yuriy55
      yuriy55 27 February 2016 07: 34 New
      I can be mistaken, but the fact that the birth rate in the USSR during the war was lower is not in doubt.
  4. Awaz
    Awaz 27 February 2016 08: 26 New
    In general, everyone who loves to exaggerate the topic of losses, especially those who are not very friendly about Russia or the USSR. I do not understand these calculators, which all measure under one comb. It is necessary to understand that the population under occupation and the population under the control of the USSR lived and died in different ways. Why does it never occur to anyone to take and consider some decent region of the USSR and evaluate all its losses during the Second World War, which was not occupied. For example, Kazakhstan. The population before the war there was a little more than 6 million, during the war more than 1,5 million immigrants moved there. so, from this territory 1,2 million people were called to the front. If we take into account that some of the Kazakhs still served in the Red Army, then the total number is approximately 1,4-1,6 million. So, no matter how there the Kazakhs also jumped in the subject that 70% of the male population was taken from them, but this is a standard mobilization percentage (20 with a small) Simple Kazakhs jump for their help in victory and now remember those who died at the front. Officially in Kazakhstan, around 400 thousand people did not return. This is approximately, as you know, 30 percent of what was called for. Moreover, the figure of 400 thousand is already the modern fabrication of some Kazakh thinkers. Officially before, there were generally 250 like. And if everything is shifted to the whole country and to the entire Army, it turns out that the military killed about a third of everything that went through the ranks of the Red Army. This is taking into account the shootings of the German in the camps and the rest of the terror against the Red Army. And during the whole war, 34-35 million soldiers passed through the Red Army. It turns out that died in the region of 11 million. If we recall that the Germans as a minimum of 2 million destroyed in the camps, then the losses of the USSR among the military are even less than that of the Wehrmacht.
    Another topic is civilians. The fascist genocide led to the mass death of the population, both directly and of future generations. Therefore, those who like to blame the authorities of the USSR should be reminded that the cause of massive millions of victims is German fascism, plus nationalists and traitors of all stripes from Europe and the countries of the former USSR. Bandera is not the last culprit of huge casualties among the civilian population.
  5. Francois de Vivre
    Francois de Vivre 27 February 2016 08: 27 New
    Real losses are somewhere around 14-15 million. In these figures, both military and civilian. The figure is 27 ml. consonant with 6 ml. Holocaust victims (in fact, not more than one million), and is clearly false intent.
  6. Gray 43
    Gray 43 27 February 2016 09: 08 New
    The most important thing for me is that the USSR lost the most people, while the allies were waiting for whom to speak for, our grandfathers were breaking the back of the Wehrmacht and all of Europe in its composition, but still there are all kinds of "historians" who claim that the Americans won the war with the British, now, however, both the Poles and the Ukrainians are trying on in turn the laurels of Hitler's victors, then roaring about Soviet "aggression" and "occupation", as well as the myth of "raped Germany"
    1. brisk
      brisk 27 February 2016 09: 38 New
      Quote: Gray 43
      and Ukrainians

      And what, the Ukrainians were not Soviet people then, so to speak? Or was the Ukrainian SSR not part of the USSR? "Live Ukraine, beautiful and strong, in the Radiansk Union you knew happiness!" This already reminds of blue-and-yellow young and not so, what kind of syvous uncles-didusiv, titok-babusiv and young pussies in Kiev (and in Ivano-Frankivsk too), who today screams about "Russia's lost aggression in Afghanistan", forgetting that the same "occupiers" of the Afghan land were then themselves, their fathers and children. And in memory in the minds of especially Svidomo Afghans and their descendants remain as such today. Unknowingly balakayut take. Or forgetfulness.
  7. User_internet
    User_internet 27 February 2016 09: 28 New
    I can write about military losses, I have a village in the area (during the war, a large area of ​​the Hungarians was fortified) the official losses of our troops during the liberation of this village were about 250 people. According to the memoirs of an artillery officer, he found it on the Internet, he directly indicates that in the frontal attacks (he walked with m \ and in the field and forest where the battles took place, in reality the whole earth is strewn with cartridge cartridges and splinters) two regiments died in this village. Nearby are several hamlets (villages), due to the small number of inhabitants, the names of these settlements are not mentioned anywhere, but according to the recollections of the old people there were very serious battles involving tanks, aircraft and Katyushas for these villages. There are no burial places in these villages. however, official search engines in the area of ​​these villages have been looking for burials and the remains of 1.5 thousand dead soldiers for a couple of years. I really want to believe in official statistics about our losses during the Second World War, but the real picture is completely different.
  8. Rastas
    Rastas 27 February 2016 09: 28 New
    I don’t know which secret data to build from the losses. The numbers have long been known, published more than once - this relates to military losses.
  9. creak
    creak 27 February 2016 10: 26 New
    The issue of losses is not completely clear and rather confusing - as the author correctly points out, the figures throughout the post-war period were adjusted in accordance with the current political situation ...
    In addition, in the initial period of the Second World War in the Red Army, the accounting of losses was very bad; many conscripts did not even have Red Army books and identification medallions (cases) ...
    In any case, my parents, who went through the entire war at the front in the infantry, my father started the war as an ordinary - ended as captain, company commander, my mother was a medical officer on the front line, the official figures of our losses did not cause anything but skeptical comments ...
    They and their few colleagues saw how everything was really without embellishment and varnishing of reality, as depicted in official historiography ....
    It is no accident that it says that there is a lie, a big lie and statistics ...
    To complete the picture, it should be noted that the losses of the Wehrmacht were also enormous - a participant in the battles in East Prussia K. Knoblauch in his memoirs writes that in their battalion of the Hermann Goering division in January 1945 for 1 days of battles out of 600 people. 50 remained in the ranks.
    And after the retreat of the Wehrmacht from Leningrad to Estonia, for example, the 442th regiment of the 126th division of the Wehrmacht totaled only 150 people. - no more than one company ...
    Well, the author is undoubtedly grateful for the attempt of an unbiased, balanced analysis of the topic, which still causes so much controversy ...
    1. Angler
      Angler 29 February 2016 00: 30 New
      Well, the Germans greatly underestimated their losses. To make such a conclusion, just look at the footage of the chronicle where Hitler sends children into battle. There are no men left. And by the way, for some reason, they compare the losses of one Germany, and Austria and Czechoslovakia included in the Reich? And the loss of allies: Italy, Hungary, Romania and Finland to the heap add! So it turns out that the front-line casualties were almost one to one. But for the loss of population from the invaders, there is a separate demand, and Keitel, who issued an order for the slain German to destroy 50 Slavs, deserved his rope, as well as his associates.
  10. Was mammoth
    Was mammoth 27 February 2016 10: 32 New
    I am from a generation of victorious children. I practically do not know the families from my childhood who would have everyone who returned from the war, but who fought in all. And for me, the father who remembers the brothers who have not returned from the war is not an abstract movie scene.
    I treat such articles from the ethical point of view, not as a historical research. If historians could not come to a consensus, then for me the publication of such articles is equal to publication in the "yellow" press. On the kind of debunking the "feat" of the Panfilovites. Sensation, scandal ...! Stalin lied, Brezhnev lied, Gorbachev lied, Putin is lying ... and the author found the truth.
    And the question is very important. And from a historical, moral, and educational point of view.
  11. Francois de Vivre
    Francois de Vivre 27 February 2016 10: 33 New
    Quote: ranger
    In any case, my parents, who went through the entire war at the front in the infantry, my father started the war as an ordinary - ended as captain, company commander, my mother was a medical officer on the front line, the official figures of our losses did not cause anything but skeptical comments ...

    Official numbers upward?
  12. kin
    kin 27 February 2016 10: 38 New
    Eh, you do not know how to count! I have just invented a "comparative" loss estimation method.
    We take the population of China before the war with Japan. We take a modern amount of them (Chinese). We conclude that comparing the USSR with China, we can calculate how many children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren were not born in our country — at least 1 (billion)!
    1. vitya1945
      vitya1945 27 February 2016 14: 39 New
      M u duck you
      And if the flag is not lying should understand.
  13. unknown
    unknown 27 February 2016 10: 40 New
    Quote: Francois de Vivre
    Real losses are somewhere around 14-15 million. In these figures, both military and civilian. The figure is 27 ml. consonant with 6 ml. Holocaust victims (in fact, not more than one million), and is clearly false intent.

    There is also such a version of the Holocaust: the war between the Sephardic and Ashkenazi. Among the top leadership of the Reich there were enough so-called Jews (the so-called - read Shlomo Sand "Who and How Invented the Jewish People"), including Hitler, in the army and special services too. Add the top leadership of the USSR, including Stalin. The leadership of the United States, a significant part of the leadership of Great Britain, Italy with Mussolini, Spain with Franco, etc.
  14. vladimirvn
    vladimirvn 27 February 2016 10: 41 New
    Counting correctly is one thing. It is more important, in my opinion, to bury them according to our customs, to identify them if possible, to preserve their memory.
    1. Grishka cat
      Grishka cat 27 February 2016 22: 54 New
      That's right, not air shake!
  15. Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 27 February 2016 10: 55 New
    Those who studied in technical universities are probably familiar with the mathematical methods of statistics.
    As well as numerical data processing methods.
    What do we see in the heap of publications, still unworked, unaccounted for, doubtful, etc. etc.
    Absolute absence - numerical processing methods!
    They take the numbers that appear unknown from where ... and well, they begin to add and subtract them.
    And why square roots do not extract. Either triangular or cubic.
    We take the extreme numbers - and boldly discard them - 50 million and 7 million.
    All the rest - we begin to apply the methods of statistics.
    I fully understand the horror and heartlessness of such an approach.
    My uncle grandfathers returned from the war. And if my grandfather died, it was after the war, in the war with the "forest brothers" in Lithuania.
    However, read endless authors who shuffle the numbers (of our grandfathers-fathers-mothers-relatives)
    I'm scary too.
    And such a black, angry thought rises from the depths of the soul - it would be better if YOU were SILENT ... researchers, your mother.
    And on the topic - 16,5 million - also an overestimated figure.
    I’m standing on that.
    And a remark about the "packing" of regiments and divisions.
    The attack on the village is unlikely to develop at the front from the White Sea to the Black. And on a plot of 200-300 meters, you can see each person.
    Regiment in the state - what size? And what is the number in combat conditions?
    We take the story "His Battalion" by Vasil Bykov, read - and very clearly understand - how the regiments and divisions were packed outside the village.
  16. engineer
    engineer 27 February 2016 12: 08 New
    just don't want to use statistics. during today's census, ask about the composition of families before the war and after, and how many died at the front and died. and then we use mathematical statistics and get a confidence interval. here both grandfathers died. but both grandmothers survived. father. mother. two aunts and two uncles. and both uncles fought. and father. the mother of the grandmother and aunt were rear workers and were evacuated. 50% of the warriors and 0% of civilians died in my family. so for all families and the picture will be close to the truth. about 15 million total casualties and about 11 million venous personnel.
    1. Rumata-estorskii
      Rumata-estorskii 12 October 2016 14: 26 New
      Both of my grandfathers fought and both are alive. One still. That is, 0% of those who fought and 0% of those who did not fight died. Although I agree with you and the author of the article on the number of losses. And on the count of those who claim that our grandfathers filled up the enemy with corpses. Yes, in 41-43 there were more losses than the Wehrmacht, but there are objective reasons that NORMAL people laid out on this site more than once. In 44-45, the Germans, on the contrary, lost more. In general, it turns out this way: whoever advances - loses less. By the way, Yu. Mukhin, mentioned more than once at the Military District, voiced about the same losses.
      PS Solzhenitsyn is a liar.
      PPS And as one of the chiefs of the Indian tribe on the reservation in North America says: the USA must be destroyed. "
  17. Old26
    Old26 27 February 2016 12: 27 New
    A good review, although difficult to read due to the abundance of numbers. Alas, we are unlikely to ever know the real numbers. Anyway, there will be people who will consider any counting system incorrect. Article plus. I will not comment, simply because I am not an expert in this field, but simply say that I do not believe - I do not want
  18. AK64
    AK64 27 February 2016 13: 16 New
    Guys, as I understand it, the canonically highly approved and approved study of IVI MO (edited by Krivosheev) is unfamiliar to you ??
  19. Aleksander
    Aleksander 27 February 2016 13: 46 New
    Thus, the local commissions of the ChGK often took into account how all the inhabitants of the burned deserted villages who had previously lived here died. local commissions of ChGK included in the lists of the dead and tortured quite a few living people,. For us completely clearthat ChGK data on the death of civilians in the occupied territory (6,8 million) exaggerated at least 2 times.

    WHERE it is clear WHERE documents about "double exaggeration", the author? He promised only documents, but gives OWN "clarity-false conjectures". The author thinks that no one will check his FALSE on the postscript of the dead, allegedly made by the Commissions. I have long been interested in the losses of my native Smolensk region — and precisely according to the primary sources and reports of these commissions. Hair WAS rising from those readings!
    Here is what is written in the Act:

    The consolidated act on the atrocities of the Nazi invaders over peaceful Soviet citizens and prisoners of war in the territory of the Smolensk region. January 25, 1945
    a) civilians died 151 319 people driven into slavery 164 630 people

    The regional commission considers the above data is LOW, as:
    1) a part of the acts on the crimes of the Germans, drawn up by the military prosecutor’s bodies, fighters and commanders of the Red Army immediately after the liberation of certain settlements, was sent to the center through military bodies, bypassing the regional commission;

    2) drawing up acts of atrocities and lists of victims of atrocities for a greater number of village councils or groups of village councils NOT POSSIBLE for district commissions due to the complete devastation of these village Soviets and the absence of a population in them.
    3) due to the destruction and depopulation of the cities of the region, it is also not possible to compile lists and take into account the number of people stolen in German captivity (for example, in the cities of Smolensk, Vyazma, Dorogobuzh, the working village of Kolodnya, etc.).

    By the time the area was liberated from enemy occupation, there were less than 900 thousand. human population, or only 40% of the pre-war population (1939 census - 1987,7 thousands).

    Those. Commissions recorded only ESTABLISHED facts of violent death and theft of people into slavery, and as a result of the complete destruction of settlements and people (witnesses) -failed to document the killings and theft of many, many tens (hundreds) of thousands of people. And how many died from hunger and cold in earthen burrows, huts, in forests (villages are burned) - no one ever counted.
    In the Smolensk region did not count over 1 million people! It is clear that someone returned from the evacuation, from the army, but it is also known that few were evacuated. And how many such areas are in only one Russia (the same situation is everywhere) ?! Belarus? Ukraine? I think so. that 27 million is the most cautious loss figure.
    Auto RU-oily minus-for an attempt to downplay the scale of the atrocities of the Nazis and the suffering of civilians.
  20. Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 27 February 2016 14: 09 New
    Thanks, close to the truth! But Stalin did not lie, but announced the figure of 7 million in an interview. A politician of such a level, when he says something, proceeds from considerations of national security, and probably at that time this position was the most expedient! With losses in the armed forces, the same is more or less clear! The losses of prisoners of war are easily established (for example, I found on the Internet a camp card that died in captivity of my grandmother’s brother, and he was considered missing since 1941), but the fact that over all these years no one has taken up archives and acts of civil status, towns and villages is terrible !! Nobody exactly counted civilian casualties !!
  21. Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 27 February 2016 14: 40 New
    Once again, it says that history is the first victim of the political conjuncture. I agree with the author in the assessment. And I think that until all the archives are "digitized" and accessible to modern information processing technologies, the numbers will continue to "walk". Huge, anyway. But when in yesterday's program a young guy "with a blue eye" claims that there were 50 in the Soviet Union! Millions of repressed ... This is the finish line. And he was not embarrassed by the ABSOLUTE meaninglessness of this figure.
  22. vitya1945
    vitya1945 27 February 2016 14: 52 New
    Now you can count and talk a lot.
    Now no one counts.
    Eternal memory to the dead.
  23. tank64rus
    tank64rus 27 February 2016 18: 24 New
    Stalin simply announced the number of combat losses of the Red Army. The same was considered mainly by other countries.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 27 February 2016 18: 43 New
      Take 27 million dead for the entire period of the war, and at the expense of the losses of the Red Army, they are still being dug up.
  24. Koshak
    Koshak 27 February 2016 18: 27 New
    The pre-war population of Belarus recovered by 1970. After 25 years, a generation ....
    1.000.000 minutes of silence - about a year and 10 months ... What can I say? crying
    1. vvvjak
      vvvjak 13 October 2016 15: 59 New
      the population of Belarus recovered by 1980
  25. Robert Nevsky
    Robert Nevsky 27 February 2016 19: 18 New
  26. EvilLion
    EvilLion 27 February 2016 20: 00 New
    The total number of people directly involved in the hostilities in the USSR is of the order of 23-25 million. How are you going to get 11 million killed from them when the 45 million army was still in the USSR for the 10 year, although before that a lot of people were demobilized by state of health, or the need for industry, and some other part was held captive.

    Regarding the losses of the dead in captivity, the 3 outcome is possible:
    1) The man returned from captivity.
    2) Man survived, but did not return to the USSR.
    3) Man has not returned at all.

    Regarding the 3-th n-that, then you can safely refer to him about whom there is no data.

    In general, the USSR's total combat irretrievable losses, which include including those captured by Krivosheev, EMNIP 11.9 million. The question is, what exactly does the author want to prove if the survivors and the dead in captivity at Krivosheev are already calculated? And the missing, too, regardless of whether a person died and no one saw his death, or was captured. The main thing is that it is not there, which means that the loss is irretrievable.

    There were about 1 million people who were partisans for the EMNIP War, half of them are military men, their deaths by civilians will not change much.

    And why did the author take it that civilian losses can not be more than military? It’s much more difficult to kill the military, and many civilians die without any sonder commands, just as the war rolls through the territory of the fire wall, when civilians, that their own, that strangers are perceived only as a hindrance.
  27. former
    former 28 February 2016 02: 32 New
    The death of even one person is a tragedy. And when millions are recorded in error as creepy as this statistics. We have the entire population of the region a million. Also an error?
    But in fact there are questions. So according to such calculations, if in 41 m a soldier was captured (missing), he survived it, then at 44m
    was re-drafted and died at 45m, it is recorded as twice dead. And how many were there? I haven’t read about it anywhere. According to those who were a punisher, escaped with the Germans, was returned by the Allies after the war (or not returned)
    condemned and shot (only they seemed to be hung). What are the losses?
    Without answers to these questions, the figure (a giant eerie figure) of seven million soldier losses seems to me extremely high.
    The war has one more vile statistics. The ratio of killed and wounded. It was in all previous wars
    1 to 3 or 1 to 4. 35 million participated in the war (almost all sources give this figure) That is, all the soldiers of the USSR were killed or wounded. ALL. I don’t believe the official numbers. It seems that even Stalin overestimated the losses. I will not say anything about the rest ...
  28. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 4 March 2016 20: 20 New
    I consider it a shame for Russia that the Podolsky archive of the Moscow Region is still not completely open for research (you cannot take consolidated statistics of losses above the company-regiment, not to mention the level of front or annual).

    Further, I consider it a complete disgrace for our country that yes, MANUAL but so far the ONLY AVAILABLE cards of nominal losses in the Second World War !!! At least this could be done in 70 years? What is Soviet, what is democratic, what modern authorities do not want! for - to learn, let alone voice the people the truth to them is SCARY ...
    1. cast iron
      cast iron 4 March 2016 22: 20 New
      No, you need it. The terrible truth. People like you are sleeping and seeing, in order to douse a smoldering heap of everything Russian and Soviet.
      You have anti-Russophobic motivation as in that rhyme:

      "You just told me the truth
      And I want a terrible one!
      Such that ....
      Howl, cry, wheeze! "
  29. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 5 March 2016 20: 29 New
    Quote: cast iron
    in order to give a smoldering heap over everything Russian and Soviet.
    Well, firstly, you do not need to mix Russian and Soviet - these are generally two completely different civilizations built on completely different principles. A simple argument - if it were one civilization, why would one destroy all sorts of traces of the first for 40 years?

    Quote: cast iron
    You have anti-Russophobic motivation as in that rhyme:
    "When you speak, it seems to me that you are delusional." For accusing me, comrade, of Russophobia, you can answer.

    And in general, I’m telling you that IT IS SHAMNING FOR 70 YEARS NOT TO RECOGNIZE MANUALLY ALL THOSE WHO DIED AT ALL FROM OUR MILITARY SERVERS, and you start to slogan some kind of slogans.

    1. cast iron
      cast iron 6 March 2016 01: 16 New
      Firstly, the anti-Soviet is always Russophobe.
      Secondly, to separate the Soviet from the Russian - this is characteristic of liberal Russophobia.
      Third, Soviet civilization was built by the Russian people. Therefore, you can tell your "simple arguments" to the children in the sandbox.
      Fourthly, you can answer, for donating smoky slop to Russian commanders Zhukov and Kutuzov, do not you think?
      Fifth, the scale of casualties among civilians and military personnel is millions. If it seems to you that counting everyone on the cards by name is easy and hassle-free, then do it. You will be good at it. There are millions of militias alone, and he wants to count them all by name. Run math to school.
  30. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 6 March 2016 16: 06 New
    cast iron, you are just boor.
    Firstly, you can be a patriot of Russia, love your homeland and at the same time be critical of the communist government. Take this into account, maybe it will expand your limited horizons.

    Secondly and thirdly, to separate the Soviet from the Russian is typical for any normal, objective researcher of the classical school, and not for journalists or other liberals. The Russian people basically built Soviet civilization at the cost of blood and sacrifice, but the peoples from the outskirts received much more than it, and spent much less. Moreover, the orientation toward national-state interests among the Communists appeared only during the Second World War and after it, before that they were the worst enemies of the Russian people.

    Fourthly, if he gives it away from someone, it’s not from me. I did not write anything about Zhukov, but nothing about Kutuzov — except for the squeal, there are no reasoned facts.

    Fifth, I spoke exclusively about the unnecessary pathos that accompanied 70 years after the Second World War, and despite the fact that neither the Communists, nor the Democrats, nor Putin-Imperials could find manual recalculation of archive cards only from surviving military personnel. It is clear that there were unaccounted for militias and a huge mass of dead civilians, but this is probably already impossible to take into account completely.
    I pointed out that this is essentially the only complete archive, even if it could be done in 70 years, and you are again rude. Just besides China and Russia in the world there is NOT A single country where the losses during World War II would not have been exactly recounted. I, as a Russian patriot, are very offended.
  31. Idiot
    Idiot April 3 2016 01: 32 New
    In Germany, until now, they cannot calculate their losses. They limit themselves to the opuses of overmans, Müller-Hildelbrants, Mansteins ... For example, I am deeply convinced that our grandfathers of the Germans and other Europeans crumbled an order of magnitude more. We lost at least 10 million on the fronts, they - at least 15-17 million (with the losses of Italy, Romania, Hungary, Finland ...). For example, Keitel in his book of deaths named the average monthly number of Wehrmacht losses on the Eastern Front, excluding major battles, - 150-160 people. Hitler, in 000, said that Germany "paid the tribute in blood - 1945 million" ... The losses of the civilian population of the USSR were enormous, the war went like a steam roller from West to East, and then from East to West. I think at least 12-10 million people. And in Germany, the real number of civilian casualties is guarded as the most terrible state secret. The Germans claim that 12-500 (in fact - 600 million) thousand people died. This despite the fact that in Dresden alone, the Anglo-Saxons burned 6 thousand people alive, and more than a thousand German cities were bombed by the allies. The secret is that it is difficult, or rather absolutely impossible, to explain these huge losses of the civilian population of Germany by the actions of the USSR (but it turns out to accuse us of the total rape of 300 million German women), whose armies did not fight the civilian population of Europe. We will then have to admit that the Anglo-Saxons are in no way inferior to the Nazis in killing civilians. The losses of the USSR also include all former Soviet citizens who fought on the side of Germany, i.e. collaborationists and traitors. Even the hanged Vlasov was included in the losses of the USSR.
  32. vvvjak
    vvvjak 13 October 2016 16: 58 New
    Tell us about the ratio of military and civilian losses to Belarusians who lost one in three (mostly civilian). Or maybe you need to recall the statements of Hitler about 40 mil. Slavs who must stay alive from 200 mil. Soviet people. Hitler waged a war to annihilate the Soviet people and therefore civilian casualties in the Second World War were very high.
  33. den-protector
    den-protector 1 December 2016 21: 31 New
    Again, the bloody tyrant Stalin deceived his people and the world community by voicing understated losses. It seems that the article claims to be some serious historical research. but the author could not do without debunking the atrocities of the Soviet totalitarian regime and personally the dictator Stalin. Well, really, you can’t do without it in your pseudo-historical studies. Or is it glamorous now?