Military Review

Foreman Suvorov

31
In Finland, there is a growing interest in stories of Russia


Russia and Sweden do not have a common border, but this was not always the case. Since the times of Novgorod Russia, military-territorial conflicts have arisen between our countries 18 once and in total have lasted 139 years. The much more famous 69 years of the Russian-Turkish wars fade against this background.

It is known for certain that the territory of Finland served as a bargaining chip in the negotiations on the union of Russia and Sweden against Denmark. Written evidence of circumstances and a meeting place for cousins ​​- King of Sweden Gustav III and Catherine II: Hamina (now Finland) or Friedrichsgam as it was. As well as rumors transferred from one historical essay to another, as if for 200 thousands of rubles donated to Gustav in 1783, Catherine secured five years of peace with the most restless neighbor of those times.

The fact that Finland belongs to the Swedish and Russian crown today has only cognitive significance for the majority of compatriots. The Finns, on the other hand, have a revere for the history of their young state - a hundred years old - they cherish, they save various documents, investigate and study. Thus, according to ancient drawings at the beginning of the XXI century, reconstruction of the bastions and military canals of Suvorov began.

Unnamed war


Foreman SuvorovSwedish Gustav III, like Catherine the Great, was considered one of the most enlightened rulers of her time. Like her, he tried to fight bribery, but only strengthened corruption, endowing the inner circle with unlimited influence. He carried out several reforms, setting the parliament against himself. He spent the most brilliant battle in the history of the Baltic Sea, without gaining anything from it ... And while Catherine II fought for the accession of the Crimea, the Black Sea region and the North Caucasus under Turkish rule, he actively supported the opposition in the Russian court, led by his heir Pavel.

In 1788, the restless cousin took advantage of the fact that Russian forces concentrated on the next war with the Ottoman Empire - they took Ochakov - and, incited by England and France, made an attempt to seize Kronstadt and St. Petersburg from the sea. Just 170 kilometers south of the current border crossing of Torfyanovka (I give for convenience of calculating distances) on the islands near Helsingfors there was a powerful bastion system of fortifications of Swedes Sveaborg. From there Gustav III took a sea voyage to St. Petersburg. After an unsuccessful attempt to storm Vyborg, he diverted his galley fleet to Rochensalm (the current city of Kotka is 52 kilometers from Torfyanovka), where the Second Rochensalm battle, tragic for Russia, took place. It went down in history, becoming the largest battle in the Baltic Sea with the participation of up to 500 ships on both sides, the death of nearly 7500 Russian sailors and officers, the loss of almost 40 percent of the Baltic fleet imperial coastal defense and the signing of the Werel peace treaty.

"Gustav III's War" called the Swedes the 1788 – 1790 battle. She did not receive a special name in Russian.

Ishmael Inspector


At the end of a strange war with a perfidious cousin, Catherine II began to look for a decent person who could organize and lead the construction of a fortification system on the land north-western border of the Russian Empire. The specialist was found - Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov, who just took Ishmael.

Fortification commander studied from his youth. His father, General-in-Chief Vasily Ivanovich Suvorov, was the compiler of the first military dictionary and translator of the books of the Marquis de Vauban, Marshal of France and an outstanding military engineer. According to his treatise “The True Way of Strengthening Cities”, Suvorov learned French as a child and learned the work almost by heart.

It took two weeks for Suvorov to explore the medieval fortresses of Vyborg, Neyshlot (Olavinlinna in the present Finnish city of Savonlinna) and Kexholm (in Priozersk).

The story told: in order not to waste time on techniques based on etiquette with the inevitable "dust in the eyes", Alexander Vasilyevich traveled from the fortress to the fortress in peasant clothes, talked with servicemen and gave a reliable assessment of the state of defenses and moods in the garrisons. Sent a report to the empress, proposing a plan for the restructuring of the existing forts and the construction of a new, additional fortification in the present Finnish town of Taavetti (Davydovsky fort). Having reported, he went to war with the Turks and pacify the Don Cossacks.

And now - build


In 1791, Catherine II again sends Suvorov to the Russian part of Finland. He had to not only inspect Vyborg, Nyslott and Kexholm again, but also reconstruct them. In addition, think over and create a reliable barrier to the capital of the Russian Empire, which is only 250 kilometers away.

Rumor has it that the commander did not lose a single battle to a new assignment was a reference to the sins at court. Having read a lot of materials about that epoch, I wondered: who else could Catherine II entrust with her to quickly master state funds, in return, having received real protection for herself and her throne? In addition, they say, he knew how to communicate in Finnish.

I managed to find modern research results of the buildings of Suvorov or the fortification systems of Southeastern Finland, as the locals call them, which is based on three fortification lines. The first was held in close proximity to the Russian capital and included the existing fortresses of Shlisselburg (the famous Oreshek), Kronstadt, Vyborg and Kexholm. The second chain consisted of bastions of Hamina and Lappeenranta, located 105 kilometers from each other, and the Davydov Fort (Taavetti) located between them, “which should have its movements to all sides in order to reinforce our advanced posts and to resist the enemy’s attempts”. Erected in eight years after the first inspection of Suvorov, the Davydovsky fort was supplemented in the northern part with a citadel with five bastions. Inside the fortress is located garrison town. All the existing roads leading from the Swedish part of Finland to the Russian at that time had to build a third line of fortifications.

Arriving on the site in May 1791, Suvorov began to build powerful fortifications in the town of Kyuminlinna (included in the line of the current Kotka). Soon the Royal road leading along the Baltic coast to Vyborg was reliably blocked by the newly erected fortress and the sea forts Slava and Elizabeth. At the same time, the outdated bastions of Friedrichsgam were rebuilt. The old sandy ramparts turned into a stone fortress with six bastions, on the territory of which a whole city fit with streets-rays radiating from the Town Hall Square. Even today, Hamina’s defense facilities amaze the imagination of a tourist who has glanced into a quiet, incredibly Hollywood town. And during the time of the great commander, they negated the attempts of Gustav III to seize the capital of the Russian Empire.

Of the two years of construction management, Suvorov spent most of his time in Hamina. Whether it was the fault of Madame Greene’s widow, with whom Alexander Vasilyevich lodged, history is silent.

Architect thousands of lakes


Having built several supporting forts in the Hamina region, Suvorov proceeds with the implementation of the second part of his grandiose plan. It was decided to dig four channels and connect the reservoirs of the Saimaa lake system for unimpeded wires of the navy flotilla.

Technically, Suvorov’s military channels were well thought out. The bottom and walls were lined of natural stone, reinforced with wooden piles. The length of the four channels is different - from 100 meters to almost a kilometer, but the width is the same - 10 meters. Entrances to them could be locked with a wooden gate or stretched anchor chains.

In the mouths of the canals at the bottom of Saimaa, artificial stone obstacles were set up; it was possible to enter the canal only knowing the fairway.

Suvorov was proud of the work done, but military inactivity. And he went to war with the Commonwealth.

And the border fortifications, created with a hundred-year safety margin, played an important role in the Russian-Swedish war of 1808 – 1809, but soon began to fall into disrepair as unnecessary. The result of the last confrontation between the two states was the entry of Finland on the rights of autonomy to the Russian Empire.
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  1. Cartalon
    Cartalon 22 February 2016 06: 20
    +1
    It is very carelessly written which Don Cossacks suvorov pacified?
    1. vyinemeynen
      vyinemeynen 22 February 2016 07: 15
      +2
      Author YOU about what
      Architect thousands of lakes
      ? A.V. Suvorov built the Saimaa Canal? wassat Or talk about others
      military channels of Suvorov
      request can attach a picture !!! negative
      A source about Suvorov and the Saimaa channel would be a look!
      1. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 22 February 2016 10: 12
        +4
        Suvorov there still passed exams for midshipman. At Sir Bowsprit (Admiral Naning). Not a man, but some kind of energy clot.
    2. Chiropractor
      Chiropractor 22 February 2016 09: 58
      -2
      Cossacks Emelki Pugachev .... well, or who were they really ...
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon 22 February 2016 10: 06
        +4
        As if by the time of the events described, Emelka had been separated from her head for 15 years
        1. Shadowcat
          Shadowcat 22 February 2016 10: 39
          0
          Do you think that you defeated the army and that's it - "we lost and went home?"
          To be precise, "The Uprising of Syrym Datov", a follower of Pugachev.
    3. Shadowcat
      Shadowcat 22 February 2016 10: 40
      0
      "The uprising of Syrym Datov", a follower of Pugachev, is most likely.
  2. ovod84
    ovod84 22 February 2016 06: 34
    0
    Maybe mixed up with Nogais
    1. Mangel olys
      Mangel olys 22 February 2016 08: 29
      0
      Quote: ovod84
      Maybe mixed up with Nogais

      Not confused.
  3. Aleksander
    Aleksander 22 February 2016 07: 44
    +7
    The article is interesting, plus, but Finland did not enter Russia on the basis of autonomy. About any autonomy in the Friedrichham Treaty, not a word, just a part of the Swedish provinces of Russia was transferred - and that’s all.

    His Majesty the King of Sweden, both for himself and for the successors of his throne and the Kingdom of Sweden, refuses irrevocably and permanently in favor of His Majesty the All-Russian Emperor and the successors of His throne and the Russian Empire, of all his rights and claims in the province below, the ones that were conquered by His Imperial Majesty in the current war from the Swedish Power, namely: in the province of Kyummenegord, Nyuland and Tavastgus, Abov and Bienerborg with the islands of Åland, Savolak and Karelian, Vazovskaya, Uleaborg and the western part, and the western part of the Botanical River and as will be decided in the next article on the designation of borders.

    Alexander 1 himself granted her autonomy, experimented (in vain, in my opinion).
  4. X Y Z
    X Y Z 22 February 2016 08: 06
    +7
    He spent the most brilliant battle in the history of the Baltic Sea, without gaining anything from it ...



    It has been shown very interestingly how to win many battles you can get almost nothing from them. It is not enough to win, one must also skillfully use the fruits of victory. Unfortunately, many of Russia's brilliant victories were also lost for a number of reasons, both natural and man-made. And too often, Great Britain stood behind it.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 22 February 2016 08: 12
    +8
    Architect thousands of lakes....AND. V. Suvorov created military outposts along the coast. At that time, the northwestern part of Lake Saimaa belonged to Sweden, and the state border with Russia passed in the middle of the water surface. The natural waterway that existed here along the southeastern archipelago was locked by Swedish batteries. Suvorov connected the internal bays of Saimaa with small channels and made invisible bypass routes for warships. In total, 4 small canals were built: Kutvele, Käühkää, Kukonharju and Telataipale. They formed a shipping channel for the Russian Saimaa flotilla between the fortresses of Olavinlinna and Lappeenranta. In addition, a navy was founded on Lake Saimaa. In 1792, the fleet already had 38 small warships in Lappeenranta and 12 in Savonlinna. And having reported, he went to fight the Turks and pacify the Don Cossacks. Suvorov was proud of the work done, but military inactivity. And he went to war with the Commonwealth.Suvorov stayed in Finland for almost two years: from 1791 to 1792. Suvorov did not really admire the fortifications. As you know, in battle, he preferred speed to waiting and rather tried to take fortresses by storm than by siege. As he himself once put it: "My name is Suvorov, not Vauban!"
  6. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 22 February 2016 08: 26
    0
    Fortification commander studied from his youth. His father, General-in-Chief Vasily Ivanovich Suvorov, was the compiler of the first military dictionary and translator of the books of the Marquis de Vauban, Marshal of France and an outstanding military engineer. According to his treatise “The True Way of Strengthening Cities”, Suvorov learned French as a child and learned the work almost by heart.

    V.I.Suvorov was the first order ataman (human father, head of the community in Nagai) of the Nagaybak Cossacks, who later entered the Orenburg Cossack army. As V.N. Vitevsky, he belonged to the descendants of "Menzelin service people" (Menzelinsk is a city in Tataria). There is also information that the founder of this surname, named Suvor, entered the Russian service in 1622 from the "Swedes". IN AND. Suvorov was indeed a well-educated person and devoted all his free time to literary translation from French.
    1. V.ic
      V.ic 22 February 2016 10: 44
      0
      Quote: Mangel Olys
      V. I. Suvorov was the first punished atamanom (human father, head of the Nagay community) of the Nagaybak Cossacks,

      ... father-man = Ata-IR / in the extreme case Ata-Adam/. Mon - this is from English.
      1. Mangel olys
        Mangel olys 22 February 2016 11: 28
        +1
        How will you decipher "Osman"? Os -?. Man - English? smile
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 22 February 2016 12: 34
          +3
          Mangel Olys "How will you decipher" Osman "? Os -?. Man - English?"
          I don’t know how Man.))) But Os- this is a little striped fly!)))
        2. V.ic
          V.ic 22 February 2016 17: 46
          +3
          Quote: Mangel Olys
          How will you decipher "Osman"? Os -?. Man - English?

          For you personally: "three-handed", because taking Os / Yos = three / naturally in Türkic / and manus / hand in Latin /, by the way, are you sure of the existence of the spelling in Arabic until the year of Hijri? Here are a couple more links, I'm not greedy:
          Let's try to decipher: "Osman", "Yosman", "Usman", so we'll start with the latter, because the difference is in the "reverse translation" from text to sound. milii.ru/Osman/proishozhdenie-imeni.htm
          "The name Uthman is of pre-Muslim origin and is translated from Arabic as" chiropractor. "This name was borne by the third righteous caliph Uthman ibn Affan (574-656), one of the first companions and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad. The name Uthman gained particular popularity in Turkey. Osman I Gazi (1258-1326), founder and first sultan of the Turkish Ottoman Empire, named after him. "
          And now I’ll joke: http://www.km.ru/front-projects/russkii-yazyk-velikoe-dostoyanie-vsego-chelovech
          estva / byl-li-edinyi-prayazyk ... in short: write the other way around, read the other way around and you will be happy ... However, spelling from right to left is a privilege of Semitic languages, and I congratulate you on this! Kiss the Semites: Arabs + Jews = on opposing lips, who don’t speak Russian and you will have a complete merger in religious ecstasy with both concessions of monotheism.
          1. Mangel olys
            Mangel olys 22 February 2016 17: 59
            +2
            Quote: V.ic
            Kiss the Semites: Arabs + Jews = on opposing lips, who don’t speak Russian and you will have a complete merger in religious ecstasy with both concessions of monotheism.

            Well you so. Did I offend you with something?
    2. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 22 February 2016 11: 54
      +2
      = Mangel Olys "V. I. Suvorov was the first orderly chieftain (human father, head of the community in Nagai) of the Nagaybak Cossacks."
      1.And was V.I.Suvorov just the punishment chieftain? It seems to me that the institute of punishable chieftains appeared later than a century in the 19th. He seemed to be the foreman. And he could just be the head of all military units in that district.
      2. The word ataman by that time in Russia was known and used for a long time.
      3. Nagaybaki as a self-name appeared in the 19th century. And then closer to the middle. Before that they called themselves "Kryashen". When they moved to the New Line, they began to call themselves still - Bakaly by the name of the village from which they moved to a new place of residence. According to the documents, they were called - Ufa newly baptized. Although Rychkov wrote them, it would be more appropriate to call them the old baptized.))) Before the revolution they were still called baptized Tatars. But, when communicating, they always deny belonging to the Tatars. In any case, according to my personal observations. Many ethnic groups, even Russians, participated in the formation of this small people.)))
      4. OKV received the banner and so on regalia in 1756. The Nagaybaks were recruited into the Cossack service in 1736, then they were in the Orenburg irregular corps, then in the army.
      1. Mangel olys
        Mangel olys 22 February 2016 15: 10
        0
        Everything is correct, the brigadier, but if you read Maxim Glukhov-Nogaybek "The Fate of the Seyumbeki Guards", then he says, in fact, "the order chieftain". But it is not important.
        Nagaybaki as a self-name appeared in the 19 century.

        In your opinion, who were they before the 19 century?
        Many ethnic groups, even Russians, participated in the formation of this small nation.)))

        However, I agree. As Olzhas Suleimenov used to say: "... Chopped heads with words. But is it easy? You chop with anger, thinking - someone else's, and it, clumsy, slanting, suddenly screams in Russian - Mom! ... Stroke your linen head, primordial from end to end, and it will melt with tenderness, cling to your ear and babble, worrying, something guttural ... "
        These are the words! There is something to think about.
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 22 February 2016 16: 40
          +3
          Mangel Olys "In your opinion, who were they before the 19th century?"
          I brought- Kryasheny.))) They were them. They are still no, no .. yes they call themselves. And had other marriages with intense marriage.
          About the Russians. The Nagaybaks have Russian surnames from the names: Ivanov, Vasilyev, Artemyev, like that.))) And if you meet a Nagaybak by the last name let's say Kuznetsov for example ... then it’s understandable then. By the way, the complete St. George cavalier Vasily Fedorovich Nuskhaev from Kalmyks was most likely a native. His surname is Kalmyk. But that’s okay.))) I’ve met according to the documents of the Orenburg Cossack Nuskhaev ... but already Russian.))) That is, from the Russified Kalmyks.)))) There was such a Stavropol Kalmyk army. They were resettled in the villages. Who got to the Russians in the village became Russified, who went to the Tatars, and who to the Nagaybaks ... guess))) Of course, the Kalmyks were not assimilated, most of them left, as I understood, in Soviet Kalmykia, when it was founded.
          1. Mangel olys
            Mangel olys 22 February 2016 17: 34
            0
            The Kryashen also have Russian names. And therefore there is nothing strange in the fact that the Nagaybaks have no Russian full names. According to M. Glukhov-Nogaybek, first the Kerait - Cherukasy - Nogai Tatars (basic Kazan) - Kryashens (the same Tatars) - Nagaybaks (in Tat. Nogaibek or Nugaybek). He wrote that "in modern ethnic processes, when the desire of peoples for self-determination has increased especially, this relatively small group Tatar people(nogaybeki, singled out by me - MO), living for a long time in isolation from the bulk of the Tatars and their culture, has emerged as an independent Turkic nation. "
            1. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 22 February 2016 18: 55
              +1
              = Mangel Olys "The Kryashens also have Russian names. And therefore there is nothing strange in the fact that the Nagaybaks have Russian names."
              I know and don’t see anything strange here.))) They have Russian surnames about 30% of the rest, let’s say so Turkic. Mametyevs, Almetyevs Bayteriakov, etc., etc.
              Mengel Olys "led to the fact that this relatively small group of the Tatar people (nogaybeks, singled out by me - MO), living for a long time in isolation from the bulk of the Tatars and their culture, became an independent Turkic nation."
              Only in my opinion in the Nagaybaks of Finno-Ugric blood there is no less than Turkic blood.))) By the way, they are Caucasoids for every halo group there. - This is an article I read somewhere on the study of their DNA. They were distinguished from the rest by the warlike character. Here we can recall the Nogais. Most likely, the Seyumbike guards or what was left of them were nodded to the kryashens and intermarried.))) And since they had a more lively character, this was reflected in the fact that they later became Cossacks.))) Apparently knew how to fight in horse formation and This offspring instilled this skill into their offspring, and those could repel the Bashkirs, who then rebelled. Well, this is so hunch.)))
              1. Mangel olys
                Mangel olys 22 February 2016 19: 03
                +1
                Quote: Nagaibak

                In general, I have the same opinion.
                1. Nagaibak
                  Nagaibak 22 February 2016 20: 32
                  +1
                  Mangel Olys "In general, I am of the same opinion."
                  But there were more Muslim Tatars in the OKW. And from what they are mainly Tatars, this must be understood.
                  "In the 1st Orenburg military department of the Tatars, there were 17332 people, in the 2nd Verkhneuralsk military department - 4234 people, in the 3rd Troitsk military department - 3 people. In the army, 8 percent were of the Mohammedan religion.
                  "By 1903, the number of Orenburg Mohammedan Cossacks reached 39055 people, or 8,8 percent of the payroll of the Cossacks (for comparison, in the Terek Cossack army there were about 50 percent, in the Siberian - 35 percent, in Semirechensky - 10 percent, Uralsk - 8 percent).
                  In the Orenburg Cossack army among the officer corps, the Tatars became not only senior officers, but also generals. This refers to the Cossack officer surnames of Kochurov and Dashkin. So, Sheikhislam Abdulvagapovich Kochurov became a lieutenant general, Zyulkarnain Shangireevich Dashkin became a major general of the Orenburg Cossack army. "
                  There were many awarded among them in all wars.
      2. V.ic
        V.ic 22 February 2016 18: 09
        +1
        Quote: Nagaibak
        When moving to the New Line, they began to call themselves- Bakaly by the name of the village from which they moved to a new place of residence. According to the documents they were called - Ufa newly baptized. Although Rychkov wrote, it would be more appropriate to call them Old Baptized.)

        The Kyrgyz-Kaisak line was covered by the Nogaybak fortress / now the village of Nagaybak /, in terms of its strategic importance it prevailed in front of the Ufa fortress, in which the garrison was 2500-2600 "bayonets, when in the" Nagaybatskaya "fortress under 4 bayonets and Pugachev's" colonel "ataman Tornov, (by origin, it seems to be a Persian) managed to take a stronger "fortification" "Nogaybak", but was hanged / after the defeat of the uprising of E.I. Pugachev / at the gates of the Ufa fortress. By the way, about the "old-haired", my acquaintance bakalin, wearing a completely Russian surname and working in Bakaly as a free cabman (God grant him health and prosperity to his neighbors!) showed me his "shezhere" with the first designated name in the family line, dating back to 000. Probably the roots of Christianization lie much earlier than this date and even the capture of Kazan by troops Ivan IV. Evidence of this is the appearance of the Holy Icon of the Tabynsk Mother of God, lost during the emigration of parts of the Orenburg Cossack army to China.come to the village. Krasnousolskoe and plunge into the salt springs near the place of the appearance of the Holy Icon. The temple above the springs is a remake, and the original was blown up even before the accession to the throne of Tsar Boriska, as was the grotto in which the mentioned icon was discovered.
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 22 February 2016 19: 02
          0
          V.ic "but was hanged / after the defeat of EI Pugachev's uprising / at the gates of the Ufa fortress."
          Understood thanks. Only now Tornova in the course of all the same in Moscow pulled up.
          From wiki
          "In November 1774, Tornov was taken to Moscow.
          According to the verdict of January 9, 1775, Tornov, along with E. I. Pugachev, I. N. Zarubin (Chika), A. P. Perfiliev, M. G. Shigaev and T. I. Podurov, was sentenced to death. He was hanged on January 10 (21), 1775 on Bolotnaya Square in Moscow. "
          1. Mangel olys
            Mangel olys 22 February 2016 19: 07
            0
            Here is the verdict: "Like a real villain and destroyer of human souls, who ruined the Nagaybatsky fortress and some residences and then again adhered to the impostor - to hang in Moscow. 1775 January after 10".
          2. V.ic
            V.ic 22 February 2016 19: 31
            +1
            Quote: Nagaibak
            He was hanged on January 10 (21), 1775 on Bolotnaya Square in Moscow. "

            It is not a fact that taking a prisoner to Moscow, when his case had already been considered in Kazan, after the first capture, is an extra waste of money, and the political "weight" of the colonel from the "Marquis" Pugachev was not great in Moscow, but in "places of battle fame "was quoted and quite. Well, if you are right, then what does it ultimately change, except for the absence of kumis in the menu of another "colonel" by Pugachev Salavat Yulaev, exiled to a "resort" in the Baltic States ...
            1. Nagaibak
              Nagaibak 22 February 2016 20: 18
              +1
              V.ic "Well, if you are right, then what does it ultimately change, except for the absence of koumiss in the menu of another" colonel "produced by Pugachev Salavat Yulaev, exiled to a" resort "in the Baltic States ..."
              I agree.
  7. engineer
    engineer 22 February 2016 12: 06
    +4
    I read somewhere. that the Swedes erected a monument to Peter with the inscription: weaned how to fight. Does anyone know about this and is it true?