Military Review

"Horse in coat"

52
Of course, we all know well that there is such an eastern calendar, and according to it, 2014 was the year of the “horse year”. Now we have “the year of the monkey”, but for the role that the monkey played in stories humanity, it is not even close to the horse was not, although in many ways similar to us. Well, we commemorate the horse very often, although it does not play a big role in our modern life. There is also the expression “horse in a coat,” which is true, because it has long been customary to dress horses in blankets to protect against the cold. But when did the first blankets appear and what were they meant for?


"Horse in coat"

Knights on horseback and all "chained in battens." Artillery Museum in St. Petersburg.

Interestingly, there are no ancient images showing that the ancient Greeks or Romans covered their horses with cloth blankets. But there are ancient Egyptian monuments (paintings and bas-reliefs), on which horses, harnessed in chariots, are covered with a light dorsal blanket. It is unlikely that they had any other function, except ... identification. Like, on such a chariot the king rides!


Ibid. The same knights and ... how wonderful their armor!

Sarmatians - rivals of the Scythians regarding everything related to military affairs, starting with long swords and heavy spears, and ending with ... horse armor, were probably the first to realize that, to protect their horses from arrows, they should be dressed in armor of metal scales. However, the Greek historian Xenophon wrote about the Persian horsemen, with whom he personally had to fight, as warriors wearing armor and having “special armor” covering their chest and head of their horses. In his "Kiroropedii" he wrote that he saw soldiers in the same purple clothes (here it is - the oldest uniform!), In bronze armor and helmets with white plumes ... Their armament consisted of a short sword and a pair of darts. Horses also had their bronze breastplates and caps.


Thumbnail from the Bible of Macieus. Middle of the XIIIth century Pierpont Morgan Library and Museum, New York

When the Romans encountered the Sarmatians, they ... also adopted their weapons (just in case!), But they still didn’t become popular horse armor. Although it is known in 175 AD Emperor Marcus Aurelius sent a whole "regiment" of Sarmatian cataphracts to Britain. There is also an image of such a rider from Dur-Europos in Syria, and his horse blanket made from metal scales was also found there. But what is interesting. Although the Romans suffered several defeats from the riders seated on "armored horses," they did not respect them very much, as their name says - klibanarii, derived from the Latin word klibanus - a special iron bread oven like the stove we know stove. That is, for them it was the "warrior-stove"!


The contemptible Gyug de Bov flees from the battlefield of Buvin, 1214, and gets an arrow at the croup of the horse! "Big Chronicle" by Matthew Paris, approx. 1250 Parker Library, Body of Christ College, Cambridge.

Well, and then came a period of universal decline and social confusion, and in order to dress horses, people simply did not have the material capabilities - as they say, they survived according to the principle: “not to be fat, I wish I could live!”


“Romance of Alexander”, pp. 43, 1338 - 1344 Bodleian Library, Oxford University. Note that the horseman’s horsecloth is made up of two halves.

There are no blankets and the famous "embroidery from Bayeux." That is, riders in chain mail and with drop-shaped shields on it, but the horses are all “naked” and, therefore, they did not participate in the battle of Hastings 1066 of the year.

Well, judging by the fact that in a year 1170 was written by a certain knight Anauta Guilhem de Marchand, then the knight's horsecloth, the saddle, his shield, and a long pennant on a spear should have served the knight instead of a “passport”! Of course, woven blankets, without any doubt, should have protected the horse from the weather, but they had no special protective functions. That is, a hundred years have passed and ... blankets appeared! But the goal was peculiar: to show your coat of arms by all possible means. 1349's “Psalter of Latrell” of the Year shows us an English knight, Jeffrey Latrell, who has absolutely all his gear with a design of his coat of arms. And the coat of arms is depicted on the dresses of his wife and daughter, who give him a helmet and a shield. And you can calculate that its emblem is repeated 17 times! That is, it means that it was so. And it did not bother anyone.


The famous miniature from “Psalter Luttrell” - an impressive example of illuminated manuscripts of the Middle Ages. OK. 1330-1340. Painting on parchment. 36 x 25 see British Museum Library, London.

As for the armor, from the end of the XII century. in Europe, a head was put on a horse's head: first leather (known since Rome), and then metal (also known by the Romans and, first of all, to participants of the hippika gymnasium competitions), and very often decorated him just as and the helmet of the rider himself. In the French document 1302, the presence of armor, called bard and caparison, is noted, which are known to be quilted and also padded, and even then horse armor made of chain mail was already known. The headgear could be chain mail, and leather, and, interestingly, the leather headgear could even be gold! It is possible that both quilted blankets and printed ones at that time were no longer considered an independent means of protection, and they could be used as a lining for chain mail “fabric”. Well, the earliest example of horse plate armor dates back to 1338, although it is not clear what kind of armor it was.


Knight Heinrich von Breslau. Mannes Codex from the University Library of Heidelberg, ca. 1300

In the East, horses also had their own "coat." And even earlier than in Europe. In Iran, already in 620, horses carried armor of chain mail, while Chinese riders on horseback had quilted protective shells even before the Hun invasion of Europe. The shells were also on horseback from the heavily armed horsemen of the Byzantine cavalry, and their sworn opponents of the Arabs. Moreover, they are mentioned among the Arabs during the life of the Prophet Muhammad, who borrowed a lot from ... the Persians!


"Minuchir kills retreating Turanians." Miniature from the poem "Shakhname", Tabriz school, the first half of the XIV century. Topkapi Museum Library, Istanbul.

Many medieval authors describe the five-piece horse armor of Batu Khan's warriors. As for the knights themselves, it was under the hot sun of Palestine that they appreciated not only the oriental sherbet, massage and the famous Turkish bath, but also wide loose clothes covering the top of the armor, and horse blankets protecting horses from heat, and from annoying animal insects.

Interestingly, in Persia, we will not see a miniature horse armor until 1340, although it is known that it was there even in 920. But then after her images are found very often, which allows us to say that at the beginning of the 15th century. About 50 percent riders had similar armor. The Persians had different types of armor, but they did not use chainmail, as in India. Their very design was traditional: our cadet, breastplate, two side plates and a nakrupnik. Only the nostrils, the ears, and, of course, the legs remained open. Known armor of one color, in which manifested the desire for uniformity, which can be seen as a kind of military uniform, along with the red cloaks of the Spartans and tunics Roman centurions. Iranians also used “quilted silk” blankets, which are in the 1420 illustrations of the year. However, the actual armor, which in museums are classified as “Persian” or “Turkish”, cannot be identified, since they very often changed their owners. They were bought, they were sold, they were part of military production. Therefore, the whole set, in whole or in parts of it, could easily make long “tours” to the countries of the Muslim East! Well, the number of riders on the "armor horses" was somewhere in the proportion of one such rider on 50 - 60 riders "unarmed", that is, not very high.

In India, horse armor was very popular until the 17th century. In any case, Athanasius Nikitin saw cavalry there, "fully dressed in armor," while he did not lose sight of such detail as horse masks, trimmed with silver, and also wrote that "most of them are gilded." Horse blankets, which he saw, were made of colored silk, velvet, satin and ... "fabrics from Damascus."


Horse in quilted blanket and headband. Fig. A. Shepsa

Interestingly, judging by the thumbnails, in Persia at the beginning of the fifteenth century. about half of all riders that are depicted on them have armor on horseback. The Great Mogul army (judging by the 1656 - 1657 miniatures) also had such riders.


Horse knight covered with chain mail armor. The beginning of the XIV century. Fig. And Shepsa.

In Europe, the Hundred Years War played an important role in the development of horse armor, showing a clear superiority of the bow and crossbow over the multilayered chain mail-plate armor popular at that time. The knightly horses were very expensive then, in order to expose them so easily to the shots of commoners, so they began to defend them! Therefore, it is not surprising that if the knight’s armor mostly had to protect him from spears and swords, then the horse’s armor would be protected from arrows. And mostly ... fallen from above! After all, the archers did not let them out right on target (like in the movies!), I.e. aiming at the horse's head and chest, and sent them to the sky along a steep trajectory so that they would then fall on the horsemen and their horses from above, hitting the horses in the croup, in the neck in the region of the mane. That is why these parts of the body were “booked” right up to the complete disappearance of the armor, although the master armorers also did not neglect breast lats.


Horse armor, including Critnet, Peutral and Krupper. Museum of Art History, Vienna.

In the XV and XVI centuries. solid solid armor made from metal plates, like those in which the knights themselves fought, appeared. As a rule, they covered the whole body of the horse, including the neck and croup. Large metal surfaces were decorated with gilding and chasing, and drawings for it were made by many great artists of their time. It is clear that these armor, plus the rider armor, were so heavy that only the strongest horses could bear such a weight, the cost of which (as well as the cost of armor!) Was a fortune!


Varvik Castle - a medieval castle located in the city of Warwick (Yorkshire in central England): a knight on horseback and both in armor.

But in Japan, samurai only rarely used armored "clothes" for their horses. Well, it is clear why. After all, most of the territory of Japan is covered with mountains (75% of the area!), Most of which are overgrown with forest, and they needed small frisky horses to ride along mountain paths, and not heavy knightly horses, like European ones, capable of carrying a large load, but only on level ground. That is why horse armor in Japan has not taken root, as well as shields, which the samurai due to the specifics of their weapons were not needed!


St. Christopher. The painting of the XVI century. on the wall of the cathedral in Sviyazhsk. Photo by the author.

Interestingly, if we are talking about "dressed horses", then the most famous "horse" dressed in scaly armor will need to be recognized ... St. Christopher, who, by the will of the Lord ... had a horse head! Well, and in armor and with a sword in his hand painters of Ivan the Terrible were depicted on the wall of the temple on Sviyazhsk Island, not far from Kazan. Well, and in our modern era horse blankets were left only with rare cabs.


Bodycloth "joyful horse", St. Petersburg. 1855 year. Exhibition of horse equipment in Kazan in 2007. Photo by.
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  1. Volga Cossack
    Volga Cossack 16 February 2016 07: 28
    +2
    Joyful horse - pleased !!!!))))) Thanks for the Article !!!
    1. Sweles
      Sweles 16 February 2016 12: 45
      -2
      Someone somehow expressed that the manufacture of chain mail is nonsense. So, the professional view of the historian Ivanov-Tagansky - "... it took a blacksmith 2 years to make chain mail", watch 11.40 min ...
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 16 February 2016 16: 29
        +3
        Brednytita clear water. Two years ... Your cited historian understands chain mail like a pig in oranges.
        I twisted mine for 7 months at a cost of 2 hours a day and by no means on all days, with several breaks for 2-3 weeks.
        Custom-made chain mail from craftsmen is on average manufactured in 1-2 months. With several free apprentices who work 14 hours a day for food, chain mail can be easily weaved in a couple of weeks.
        1. Glot
          Glot 16 February 2016 16: 36
          +1
          Your cited historian understands chain mail like a pig in oranges.


          But this is not a historian.
          Writer, actor, playwright ... and something else.
          This is the "Searchers", which, in principle, you can talk about. laughing
          1. Sweles
            Sweles 16 February 2016 17: 25
            -1
            Quote: Glot
            This is the "Searchers", which, in principle, you can talk about.


            there are historians ...
            1. Glot
              Glot 16 February 2016 19: 55
              0
              there are historians ...


              You referred to Ivanov-Tagansky, stating that he is a historian.
              He, anyone, an actor, writer, playwright, but not a historian.
              You again do not check the information you are carrying.
              Read more books, rather than watch programs like "seekers" and the like. They are such "historians" and rivet. am
              1. Sweles
                Sweles 16 February 2016 20: 19
                -2
                Quote: Glot
                there are historians ...


                You referred to Ivanov-Tagansky, stating that he is a historian.
                He, anyone, an actor, writer, playwright, but not a historian.
                You again do not check the information you are carrying.
                Read more books, rather than watch programs like "seekers" and the like. They are such "historians" and rivet. am


                Ivanov is not a historian, but simply a presenter, but the facts of the film, the script, of course, were noted by archaeologists and historians. Moreover, the specific figures are 2 years for production, some sort of bandanas are already on their conscience, if they say it means they know that, well, how do you usually nothing to answer in the case ...
                1. Glot
                  Glot 16 February 2016 20: 30
                  +1
                  Ivanov is not a historian, but simply a presenter


                  Quickly you change your testimony. Your words:
                  So here is the professional look of the historian Ivanov-Tagansky

                  Everything is fixed. Jump off will not work.

                  ... but the facts about the film ....


                  We have already seen the "facts" in the films you cite. These are not facts, laughter. Like movies.
                  Don't make people laugh. After your "Raurik" I laughed for half a day. There were "facts" too.
                  1. Sweles
                    Sweles 16 February 2016 23: 42
                    -2
                    Quote: Glot
                    Quickly you change your testimony. Your words:


                    the main thing is that there would be concepts behind words, and you have exactly the opposite words, but words are empty ...

                    Quote: Glot
                    We have already seen the facts "in the films you cite. These are not facts, laughter. As well as films.
                    Don't make people laugh. After your "Raurik" I laughed for half a day. There were "facts" too.

                    learned to laugh? it’s already progressing, before you just neighing, as for Raurik, it’s not I who invented it, but if it’s true, then it will pop up unequivocally ...
                    1. abrakadabre
                      abrakadabre 17 February 2016 08: 48
                      +2
                      1. Behind the words should not be concepts, but facts and experience. Which can be checked and repeated. They are engaged in concepts in the criminal world.
                      2. I wove and weave chain mail myself. Like I am forging armor. How many mails have you weaved? How many mails did your unforgettable "historian" weave? Until you personally, and not some cited dubious uncle with a smart face and lack of conscience, make something with your own hands, or at least be present in the smithy at the time of making at least one simple plate part (and this is a few hours in total), until then, your arguments are worthless.
                      As for Raurik, I didn’t come up with it, but if it’s true, then it will pop up definitely ...

                      3. Do not turn around like in a frying pan. They brought an alleged fact - prove it. We will weigh, evaluate and, if we admit that you are right, we will change our point of view. Instead of proof, you start playing with all sorts of "if" and "yes if".
                      1. Sweles
                        Sweles 17 February 2016 10: 31
                        -2
                        Quote: abrakadabre
                        Behind the words should not be concepts, but facts and experience. Which can be checked and repeated. They are engaged in concepts in the criminal world.


                        words imply an image-synonym for a concept, and your fact after words is an illiterate, meaningless torment. I’m not talking about this, but about the fact that some substances on a forum such as pharynx, which in a nutshell are never evaluated ...

                        Quote: abrakadabre
                        I weaved chain mail and weave myself. Like kuyu armor

                        and on what basis should I believe you? you show your chain mail, the manufacturing process, and there are a lot of masters chatting-facts and experience ...


                        Quote: abrakadabre
                        Do not spin around in a frying pan. Allegedly brought a fact - prove it.


                        you don’t even remember what it is about, so just throw your minus ...
                    2. Glot
                      Glot 17 February 2016 12: 59
                      +2
                      the main thing is that there would be concepts behind words, and you have exactly the opposite words, but words are empty ...


                      Man, you’re saying it right to yourself. Behind the words is emptiness.
                      Look, you said a little earlier about "raurik" and ... emptiness, just words. Was immediately caught.
                      And even earlier, with a stone ax. Also immediately exposed.
                      And here, a little higher, you called the historian a man who, in principle, is not. He was immediately caught and began to actively take back.
                      So friend, the void of words you have so far observed.

                      learned to laugh? it’s already progressing, before you just neighing, as for Raurik, it’s not I who invented it, but if it’s true, then it will pop up unequivocally ...


                      Yes, it’s not you invented. They came up with this, others came up with it. And you, thoughtlessly repeated after them that's all.
                      It's funny ...

                      Py.Sy.
                      Cons you can even furnish. This is the only thing that you, and your brothers in misfortune have learned to do. It is stupid to put cons and no more. But I will tell you the "secret of the golden key". These disadvantages do not bother me. On the contrary, they amuse. Since it is funny to observe the attempts of those who are not able to connect two words, splashing saliva, the monitor hits the "-" button. Funny and nothing more. Yesterday I had a full house, probably for 200 pieces. But I laughed nicely reading the attempts of some to express their "phi".
                      That's it, friend.
                      1. Sweles
                        Sweles 17 February 2016 13: 41
                        -1
                        Quote: Glot
                        And even earlier, with a stone ax. Also immediately exposed.


                        and that everything seems to you that the stone ax turned out to be under the monastery just like that, like the Germans loved to walk from Thuringia to the Kremlin and back with axes? The German ax was found in the Kremlin not deep, which means that it happened during the construction, everything is logical, and therefore the 16th century is a century of stone axes for dumb Germans. So if you caught something, then only yourself with your left hand in your right ear.

                        As for chain mail, there is nothing to say to you, because chain mail is the same thing for you, you are not a researcher, but a starling is a mockingbird.
                        Quote: Glot
                        Funny and no more.

                        laughter for no reason - further clear ...
                      2. Glot
                        Glot 17 February 2016 14: 35
                        +1
                        you are not a researcher, but a mockingbird.


                        Better to be a starling than a woodpecker. laughing laughing

                        laughter for no reason - further clear ...


                        Laughter for no reason, a sign of a healthy mind and body.
                        Yes, and laugh at woodpeckers, which could be better. laughing

                        , and so the 16th century is a century of stone axes for the Germans dumb.


                        laughing laughing So imagine the picture:
                        "Dumb Germans waving stone axes in the XNUMXth century A.D."
                        The author of the picture is Sweles stone-faced. wassat
                      3. Sweles
                        Sweles 18 February 2016 07: 07
                        -2
                        Quote: Glot
                        Laughter for no reason, a sign of a healthy mind and body.


                        yeah, you’re definitely not Russian, the Russians don’t say that, laughter for no reason is a sign of foolishness, the Russians say so ...
                        Quote: Glot
                        So imagine the picture:


                        this is impossible, the representative atrophied ...
                2. The comment was deleted.
        2. abrakadabre
          abrakadabre 17 February 2016 08: 39
          +1
          In this case, there is not a single person who himself would weave chain mail with his own hands. Or at least talked in detail with such a master and honestly stated what he would say. This is the main thing. The rest is verbiage and decay.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Sweles
      Sweles 16 February 2016 17: 11
      +1
      Quote: abrakadabre
      I twisted mine for 7 months at a cost of 2 hours a day and by no means on all days, with several breaks for 2-3 weeks.


      Did you make the wire yourself or did you buy it in the store?
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 16 February 2016 17: 46
        +1
        Do not be confused seem more stupid than it really is. In the Middle Ages, the gunsmiths themselves did not mine ore in the swamp. And they did not make the cry out. And very rarely they pulled the wire themselves. There are other blacksmiths at this. The wire was also bought on the finished side. If gunsmiths were engaged in a full cycle, then there would be no armies in the Middle Ages.
        1. Sweles
          Sweles 16 February 2016 17: 58
          +1
          Quote: abrakadabre
          Do not be confused seem more stupid than it really is. In the Middle Ages, the gunsmiths themselves did not mine ore in the swamp. And they did not make the cry out. And very rarely they pulled the wire themselves. There are other blacksmiths at this. The wire was also bought on the finished side. If gunsmiths were engaged in a full cycle, then there would be no armies in the Middle Ages.


          can you wise guy give examples from the chronicles, when in the times of, say, Dmitry Ivanovich, there were workshops of masters who would do everything separately? Ivanov-Tagansky says that it was the process of pulling the wire that was long, labor-consuming and tedious and one master worked, well, maybe with an apprentice. Therefore, the division of labor and mass production is the same unproven fact as China endemic paper ...
          1. ILDM1986
            ILDM1986 16 February 2016 21: 33
            +2
            Quote: Sveles
            Quote: abrakadabre
            Do not be confused seem more stupid than it really is. In the Middle Ages, the gunsmiths themselves did not mine ore in the swamp. And they did not make the cry out. And very rarely they pulled the wire themselves. There are other blacksmiths at this. The wire was also bought on the finished side. If gunsmiths were engaged in a full cycle, then there would be no armies in the Middle Ages.


            can you wise guy give examples from the chronicles, when in the times of, say, Dmitry Ivanovich, there were workshops of masters who would do everything separately? Ivanov-Tagansky says that it was the process of pulling the wire that was long, labor-consuming and tedious and one master worked, well, maybe with an apprentice. Therefore, the division of labor and mass production is the same unproven fact as China endemic paper ...

            in order to understand this you need to visit some festival of reenactors.
            with me, 2 healthy guys in 10-20 minutes minutes somehow pulled 10 cm of wire by hand, and this is only through a gap of a smaller diameter. I certainly understand that they didn’t really try for a while and no matter how proficient blacksmiths and untrained weightlifters, but how hard this work became immediately understood. on a full-fledged chainmail one needs hundreds (!) meters of wire, which several times must be wired through a form, how many labor costs it is necessary for me to even imagine scary.
            1. abrakadabre
              abrakadabre 17 February 2016 09: 01
              +2
              The restoration of wire drawing technology in Europe coincided with the proliferation of water wheels. The wire was pulled with their help. Manually this is really hard work. Prior to this, in the Carolingian period and during the first crusades, chain mail was much more labor-consuming to manufacture and, accordingly, more expensive.
              1. Sweles
                Sweles 17 February 2016 10: 34
                -4
                Quote: abrakadabre
                The restoration of wire drawing technology in Europe coincided with the proliferation of water wheels. Etc

                besides you, someone else knows about this?
          2. abrakadabre
            abrakadabre 17 February 2016 08: 57
            +4
            you can wise guy give examples from the annals
            Stop me being rude and quote all kinds of crooks from history. Personally, YOU, boor and ignoramus, I do not owe anything. If YOU are too lazy to study the subject yourself, pay me for my time spent. I agree to the hourly rate. I won’t take bucks, I don’t respect American greens.
            YOUR Tagansky has nothing to do with blacksmithing, or the history of the Middle Ages. Therefore, he raves there, it is interesting to normal educated people only from the point of view that this Mudak (with a capital letter) litter the heads of such immature and lazy self-educated people like YOU. The denyuzhka comes to him from this, and to our Homeland - direct damage from a drop in the level of education.
            March to the library, shkolota.
            1. Sweles
              Sweles 17 February 2016 10: 42
              -5
              Quote: abrakadabre
              Stop me being rude and quote all kinds of crooks from history. Personally, YOU, boor and ignoramus, I do not owe anything. If YOU are too lazy to study the subject yourself, pay me for my time spent. I agree to the hourly rate. I won’t take bucks, I don’t respect American greens.


              do you need money? so you are one of these ...?

              Quote: abrakadabre
              YOUR Tagansky has nothing to do with blacksmithing or the history of the Middle Ages


              maybe it doesn’t, but historians Kuchkin, Kozlovsky and others stand behind it, and it was they who made the broadcast, moreover, it’s still not known what kind of bird you are, maybe also a national actor, not a locksmith ...

              Quote: abrakadabre
              Our homeland - direct damage from a drop in the level of education.


              And what kind of homeland do you have a Kyrgyz flag for? Didn’t you ask Bishkek everything?
              Quote: abrakadabre
              March to the library, shkolota.

              it became very scary laughing
              1. cth; fyn
                cth; fyn 17 February 2016 11: 51
                0
                By the way, if you had glanced at a history textbook, you would have known that the workshop was known since the time of the Roman Empire, and chain mail production was put on stream, look at what the legionnaires are wearing on the trojan’s column.
        2. cth; fyn
          cth; fyn 17 February 2016 11: 43
          +1
          Well, at the expense of wire, I do not know, but metal rods were in use.
  • parusnik
    parusnik 16 February 2016 07: 59
    +1
    Photos, drawings are gorgeous .. Thank you, Vyacheslav ..! As a child, corresponded with Gader’s pioneers, they sent a collection of postcards depicting knightly armor from various museums .. It was stored for a long time, sorry I lost ..
  • inkass_98
    inkass_98 16 February 2016 08: 00
    +4
    these armor, plus the armor of the horseman, were so heavy that only the strongest horses could bear such a weight

    And even then, they could endure for a short time, not to mention the attack of the knightly cavalry - too small a distance could gallop such a horse to play any more significant role than to ram the close forward positions of the enemy. It is only in the movies that knights in armor and their armored horses cheerfully jump over rough terrain, in fact, the jerk was up to five hundred steps, and even that is a lot. The rest of the time, all this beauty was carried by servants and squire on carts harnessed by less noble trotters.
  • Barboskin
    Barboskin 16 February 2016 08: 07
    +1
    The author, as always, opened a new page of knowledge. Thanks Vyacheslav. I am always happy to read your articles.
  • Free wind
    Free wind 16 February 2016 08: 55
    0
    Horses were covered with blankets from ancient times, they were too much of a creature, well, maybe except for some breeds, for example, Mongolian or Yakut horses. And all the same, under the saddle, the horse’s back protection against rubbing is used, well, some fabrics were used under the armor to protect the skin, otherwise the horse will simply die from either heat or cold. continue in the evening if you do not mind
  • Riv
    Riv 16 February 2016 09: 02
    +1
    Throw in five cents from a technofascist? :) Who doesn't know: horse sweat is very acrid. Sitting "oglyab" on a horse will not go far, because not weak pruritus will begin between the legs. So the blanket (option - a lamb skin thrown on the horse's back) is a much older invention than the author believes. In fact, it should have appeared immediately after the person learned to ride.



    Turkic archer. Neither saddles, nor stirrups, nor serious armor. But blankets and skins under the ass have a place to be.

    Well, then it quickly became clear that the thicker the blanket, the better it protects the horse. Sarmatian blankets were made from several layers of fabric, covered the entire back of the horse and tortoise shells were sewn on them. At that time - an armadillo.
    1. brn521
      brn521 16 February 2016 11: 05
      +1
      Quote: Riv
      Turkic archer. Neither saddles nor stirrups

      If there are no stirrups, then what kind of crap hangs on the sides of the horse for the entire length of the rider's legs?
      1. Riv
        Riv 16 February 2016 11: 37
        0
        I guess this is just the skin. The fact is that stirrups are useless without a saddle, because without it there will be no reliable support for legs. And the saddles just do not.
        1. abrakadabre
          abrakadabre 16 February 2016 11: 53
          -1
          Technically, stirrups may not be attached to the saddle. This is not a problem at all.
          1. Riv
            Riv 16 February 2016 14: 01
            +1
            And why ??? I am ashamed to even think about now thinking now. :)))

            Just throw a belt over the horse’s back - he will ride from side to side and rub the horse’s back. To the same skin? It is unlikely that the skin can support the weight of a rider who has risen on the stirrups. And if you attach the stirrups to some separate structure (or even make it a part) under the rider’s ass, then this will be the saddle.

            However, why such difficulties? Macedonian traveled without stirrups - and did not complain.
            1. Sweles
              Sweles 16 February 2016 15: 22
              0
              Quote: Riv
              However, why such difficulties? Macedonian traveled without stirrups - and did not complain.


              Macedonian - shot in Macedonian - why should he stirrups?
            2. abrakadabre
              abrakadabre 16 February 2016 16: 25
              -2
              Why such perversions? The saddle is also not attached to the skin with nails. In the same way, you can also attach the stirrups separately - on the girth belt. Without a special platform under the ass - saddles.
              1. Sweles
                Sweles 16 February 2016 17: 47
                -1
                Quote: abrakadabre
                The saddle is also not attached to the skin with nails. In the same way, you can also attach the stirrups separately - on the girth belt. Without a special platform under the ass - saddles.


                to slip the belt will stand on the right stirrup - go right, on the left - left, nobody made stirrups without a saddle ...
                1. abrakadabre
                  abrakadabre 17 February 2016 09: 05
                  +1
                  You are our child prodigy. It is in this way that the saddle is attached to the horse - with one wide or two narrower parallel belts missing under the horse’s belly. Such a belt (or belts) is called a GIRLFRIEND.

                  Option with two girths:


                  A more common option with one cinch:


                  I see the process of dressing the saddle you have not seen even in the movies.
                  The saddle does not scroll anywhere, if everything is tightened. And separately attached stirrups on the same belt also will not go anywhere.
                  To eliminate the gaps, I highly recommend getting out to ride a couple of times. It is advisable to bring children with you. They will like it. And bring along some of the smallest carrots or a fistful of sugar cubes. Horses love such small treats. And the feeding process will give you and your children a special pleasure.
                  1. Sweles
                    Sweles 17 February 2016 10: 48
                    -1
                    Quote: abrakadabre
                    The saddle does not scroll anywhere, if everything is tightened.


                    you finally lost the thread of conversation, the conversation was about how to fix the stirrups, but without a saddle, you said it yourself and where in your pictures you can see that the stirrups are simply not attached to the straps and to the saddle?
                    1. Riv
                      Riv 17 February 2016 12: 45
                      +1
                      For that matter, where is the saddle in the first drawing?
                      1. abrakadabre
                        abrakadabre 18 February 2016 13: 24
                        0
                        Everything is signed there. Moreover, both in Russian and in English. All parts of the saddle are shown in detail.
                    2. abrakadabre
                      abrakadabre 18 February 2016 13: 22
                      0
                      you finally lost the thread of conversation, the conversation was about how to fix the stirrups, but without a saddle

                      I am not losing the thread of the conversation. Unlike YOU, my stupid uneducated interlocutor (on "you", and in a rude form, You yourself have passed several posts above).
                      I repeat for the gifted, like you. The conversation thread is as follows:
                      Nothing prevents saddleless stirrups from being attached to a similar fastener - girdle belts (or belt). At the same time, such a fastening will not turn anywhere under one-sided loading. As an ordinary saddle does not crank. What I cited above are the saddle design pictures.
    2. Free wind
      Free wind 16 February 2016 14: 12
      0
      Maybe you won’t believe it, but ... if the rider farts on the horse’s bare back, then the horse’s skin simply rots from this, it really rots, bringing incredible torment to the horse and often death, it seems the blankets protect the horse from people
    3. Free wind
      Free wind 16 February 2016 14: 20
      0
      Once, in my snotty childhood, my grandfather warned me when I bathed horses with my friends after work, in no case should I fart on a horse when you are riding a little fish, well, on a bare horse without a harness.
  • Bashibuzuk
    Bashibuzuk 16 February 2016 09: 21
    0
    Interesting stuff.
    But, wrap me in a blanket to death, I can’t get rid of the feeling that all these blankets-armor-cretnet-peitralis and kruppner are nothing more than decoration.
    Well, supposedly, as separately taken gifted ones now, they make the chassis illumination in an ominous blue color, like spoilers are placed on the roofs, and on the hood and sides of all sorts of miracles, they draw.
    All this equipment, in my opinion, is purely decorative tinsel. Ride during the parade, arrange a ceremonial departure ... horses with plumes, multi-colored iron stunners, gymnasts in tights ... oh, this is from the circus.
    So then - all this dodger - just to throw dust in the eyes. Black bone. To know what their taxes go on.
    In our time, there is no such thing, or what?
    .
    Take the horse from Warwick, the horse soon, so what kind of armor is it from one hole?
    AND MOST IMPORTANT - the most vulnerable part of the horse, HER FEET, are not protected by anything.
    Figley wear armor on your head if you are naked below the waist ... like that.
    .
    And this moment - I was already tortured - "... It is interesting that in Persia we will not see horse armor on miniatures until 1340, although it is known that it was there even in 920. But after its images are found quite often , ... "
    The question is - were there miniatures before 1340?
    There is no such thing ... it was not, it wasn’t - broads, appeared in full beauty and scrupulousness.
    Ohhhhhh ...
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 16 February 2016 10: 32
      +1
      Specifically painted bards - yes, more formal options. But preserved and fighting. Without any elaborate decorations. Pure utilitarianism.
      It is impossible to protect the horse's legs. And it’s not so important as protection against arrows. In close combat, it only seems that getting there is easy. Neither the rider nor the trained war horse will wait until they get there. The knight's horse is not only physically developed, but also aggressive in battle, not afraid of blood and the blood-slaughter surrounding it.
    2. kalibr
      16 February 2016 12: 35
      +1
      Blankets, including those from chain mail, are described in Shahnameh, and it was written just before 920. And so, miniatures were described, but there was no armor, but there is an image of the armor on Mongolian horses.
  • bionik
    bionik 16 February 2016 09: 33
    +2
    Cape to protect the horse and rider from watering BHV aviation.
    (thirties) (from the funds of the RGVA).
  • brn521
    brn521 16 February 2016 11: 21
    0
    I watched Discovery, The Gunsmiths, Season 1, Episode 4, Automatic Crossbows. With the participation of some Chinese specializing in the manufacture of multiple-shot crossbows. The weapon is relatively simple, it has no metal parts at all. Low-power, low accuracy. These weapons were said to have been used by Chinese peasants. Their main trump card in the fight against mounted raiders. Accuracy was just enough to hit the horse. Naturally, the horse did not immediately kill, the weapon is weak, and a good tip costs a lot of money. But the Chinese poisoned the bolts, usually smeared them with excrement, which made the horses sick and died, and the riders took offense and preferred to stay away from the Chinese villages.
    1. kalibr
      16 February 2016 12: 37
      +1
      Yes, and the English historian K. Pearce described all this in great detail too ... They probably took part of the information from him.
  • runway
    runway 16 February 2016 11: 38
    +1
    The horse for the fight had to have a special form. Such a horse had the price of a whole herd of horses. Not far from the truth is the saying: "Sex - kingdoms for a horse!" The life of the knight himself depended on such a horse. In the event of a horse falling, the knight, dressed in armor, was not able to rise on his own. The war horse did not leave the knight knocked out of the saddle, but helped him climb into the saddle ... In addition, such horses were trained to attack the enemy themselves with bites and blows of hooves ...
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 16 February 2016 11: 56
      +1
      Many of your words are true. In addition, the rider in armor cannot stand on his own from a lying position.
      Hurtingly bumping his head on the ground or crushed by a horse’s carcass, no doubt. But the presence / absence of armor has nothing to do with it. In armor, it is still more intact when falling from a horse. Than without them.
    2. Chiropractor
      Chiropractor 16 February 2016 12: 32
      +1
      There is! There is such a horse!
      Breed - Vladimirsky Heavyweight. I don't promise a gallop, but a man in a "tin can" plus his own "body kit" can be dragged through for a day ...
    3. kalibr
      16 February 2016 12: 39
      0
      He could rise on his own. But the horse had to, yes, be near so that he could get up, sit down and leave.
      1. runway
        runway 16 February 2016 17: 36
        -3
        Not for argument, but for clarification))).
        Armor, as we know, is different. Even a quilted jacket with sewn metal plates protects the warrior from certain types of weapons. If the knight was in solid metal armor, then he could not mount the horse on his own. After all, the "closed" armor of the knight weighed about 50 kg! Plus, the armor greatly restricts freedom of movement! Therefore, to help the rider knocked out of the saddle, a war horse lay next to the rider, and after the rider is in the saddle, the horse rose with him!
        I believe that such a graceful, beautiful animal like a horse has endured a fair amount over the centuries of "friendship" with humans. A horse and a worker and a warrior, and often instead of affection and gratitude - beatings and wounds ...
        1. abrakadabre
          abrakadabre 16 February 2016 17: 50
          +1
          Have you personally tried walking in full plate armor? Then don't speak. Neither 50 kg nor mobility. Everything is fine there. And sit on the horse himself, and get up from a prone position, and much more. Type in YouTube "armor mobility" and watch enlighten. Or were you banned there? smile
        2. brn521
          brn521 16 February 2016 18: 31
          +1
          Quote: piston
          If the knight was in solid metal armor, then he could not mount a horse on his own.

          In tournaments it could be. The armor was such that they kept a musket bullet. As a rule, these were thick overlays for ordinary combat armor. They did not even try to fight in them.
          Quote: piston
          the war horse lay next to the rider, and after the rider was in the saddle, the horse rose with him!

          It’s strange. As far as I know horses, it’s hard for them to get to their feet without extra weight.
          Quote: piston
          I believe that such a graceful, beautiful animal like a horse has endured a fair amount over the centuries of "friendship" with humans.

          Yes, horses were indispensable, especially for the military. Try to drive a donkey or a camel to death. And the horse is quite real. Also, no donkey will gallop at the gallop system, although there are such breeds that they will drag the knight back.
  • Lekov L
    Lekov L 16 February 2016 13: 23
    +1
    After all, the archers did not let them out right on target (like in the movies!), I.e. aiming at the horse's head and chest, and sent them to the sky along a steep trajectory so that they would then fall on the horsemen and their horses from above, hitting the horses in the croup, in the neck in the region of the mane. That is why these parts of the body were “booked” right up to the complete disappearance of the armor, although the master armorers also did not neglect breast lats.

    Maybe the author is right, I'm not an expert ...
    But common sense dictates that this type of protection is more likely not from arrows falling from above, but from the enemy’s chopping strikes in the horse-room, including those beaten off by a casual rider.
    Nevertheless, the range of a "direct" shot at the height figure of a rider from a tight combat bow seems to me quite large.
    Sincerely.
    1. kalibr
      16 February 2016 13: 48
      +2
      Several cases are described that took place in the Hundred Years War when the knights could not leave the saddle, since their thighs were nailed to him with arrows. Since the archers usually fired from behind the cover from the pointed stakes, which the knights could not break through (and did not break through!), It means that this was not a shot from the side. But then how to "nail" the thigh to the saddle. Only by hitting an arrow from above.
  • Arc62
    Arc62 16 February 2016 18: 38
    0
    Quote: Free Wind
    Maybe you won’t believe it, but ... if the rider farts on the horse’s bare back, then the horse’s skin simply rots from this, it really rots, bringing incredible torment to the horse and often death, it seems the blankets protect the horse from people


    and in the tank as well ... :)
  • Val_y
    Val_y 16 February 2016 20: 25
    +1
    Quote: Sveles
    Did you make the wire yourself or did you buy it in the store?

    With tongue removed !!! wink
    1. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 17 February 2016 08: 29
      0
      The division of labor is not an invention of the 20th century.
      Some people mined the ore, others smelted the cries, pulled the wire or forged the cries into cleaner steel following and so on along the chain, if necessary.
      The full cycle from ore mining to the finished product existed only in which small forges are very out of reach. But such forges were not centers of armor production.
      1. Sweles
        Sweles 17 February 2016 10: 49
        0
        Quote: abrakadabre
        The division of labor is not an invention of the 20th century.
        Some people mined the ore, others smelted the cries, pulled the wire or forged the cries into cleaner steel following and so on along the chain, if necessary.
        The full cycle from ore mining to the finished product existed only in which small forges are very out of reach. But such forges were not centers of armor production.


        these are just words ...
        1. abrakadabre
          abrakadabre 18 February 2016 13: 41
          +1
          Really ?! My words are confirmed by documents. Yes, even the presence in the large cities - weapon centers of the corresponding separate guild shops: blacksmiths separately, armored men separately, blade manufacturers separately, coal burners separately, saddlers separately and so on, for the entire range of items that are included in the knight's outfit.
  • kalibr
    16 February 2016 20: 46
    +2
    Here in this book there is a lot about English archers on the fields of the 100 summer war and their tactics ...
  • Jääkorppi
    Jääkorppi 19 February 2016 12: 55
    +1
    There are no knights in the artillery museum !!! They are in the Knight's Hall of the Hermitage !! Took to be careful and mislead people !!
  • Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 20 February 2016 02: 51
    0
    A couple of hopefully valuable additions to the article:
    But there are ancient Egyptian monuments (paintings and bas-reliefs), on which horses, harnessed in chariots, are covered with a light dorsal blanket.
    In general, it is believed that on some dr-Egyptian horses horses there are combat protective quilted blankets. Protective primarily from other chariot arrows.

    Although the Romans suffered a few defeats from horsemen riding armored horses, they did not respect them much,
    They did not respect them for long, although even after Carr and the death of the Krass legions, they considered all this nonsense. But when the Late Parfian cataphracts appeared, and then the Novopersid ones, they all became sharply respectable, changed the armament of the infantry and introduced their clienarian and cataphractariums.

    In Iran, already in 620, horses carried armor of chain mail, while Chinese riders on horseback had quilted protective shells even before the Hun invasion of Europe. The shells were also on horseback from the heavily armed horsemen of the Byzantine cavalry, and their sworn opponents of the Arabs.
    This is all from the arrows kochenivkov! Only and exclusively to protect the horse from the arrows! not infantry!

    Quote: Sveles
    when, at the time of Dmitry Ivanovich’s time, there were workshops for craftsmen who would do everything separately?
    Russ in 14 c. was a very backward country, crushed by a terrible external yoke. From one of the largest exporters of chain mail in the 13 century, Eastern Slavic principalities reached the import of chain mail from Germany and Poland. In general, most of even professional warriors from our poverty moved to simple Mongolian types of armor, cheap and not requiring special skill. In Europe, please - a bunch of different guilds with internal specialization, indeed, some miners, other miners, third miners, the fourth pulled wire, etc.

    Quote: sanya.vorodis
    In crusades outside the battlefield, knights usually rode on mules.
    Is not a fact. Often, on everything that God sent, any horse was good. They even walked on foot (anyway, the convoy of troops is moving at the speed of the slowest convoy) - if only the destriers were fresh at the right moment.

    And the appearance of a horse blanket is again not from the sun (a horse in the heat is better without a blanket so that the breeze blows), but for the sake of protection from arrows; who could afford it, they also made them from kolchuga (at least before), but most of them have a simple cloth or printed one. Composite lamellar blankets in the style of the Middle East are not used, because European knights was important in 12-14 centuries. more speed and maneuverability than absolute protection from arrows (especially since no lamellar will protect against a crossbow bolt).