Military Review

Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin. The famous explorer of the Arctic

21
26 November 1894 was born one of the main researchers of the Arctic, the pioneer of the study and development of the North Pole, Ivan D. Papanin. He lived a rather long life - 91 year. Papanin passed away on January 30 1986, exactly 30 years ago. Over the years of his life, Ivan Papanin was awarded many awards, including twice managed to become a Hero of the Soviet Union, he was also awarded with nine Orders of Lenin at once. In addition, he had the title of Rear Admiral and the degree of Doctor of Geographical Sciences. He became widely known in 1937 year, when he led an expedition to the North Pole. During the 274 days, four fearless workers of the SP-1 station drifted on the ice and observed the Earth’s magnetic field, as well as the processes that occurred in the atmosphere of the Arctic Ocean.


Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin was born in Sevastopol. His father was a sailor in the port, so that the whole life of the boy passed near the sea, as a teenager, he began to work, finishing only 4 classes of elementary school. Already in 1908, he went to work at the Sevastopol plant for the manufacture of navigation devices. On this occasion, he later remarks with Chekhov's words: "In childhood, I did not have a childhood." In 1912, Papanin, as one of the best employees of the enterprise, was transferred to the shipyard in Reval (today Tallinn), and in 1914 he was called up for military service. At the same time, Ivan Papanin was again in the Crimea, since he was sent to serve on the Black Sea Fleet. In the years 1918-1920 he took part in the Civil War in Ukraine and the Crimea (organization of rebel groups and sabotage). Since 1920, he was commissioner of operational management under the commander of the naval forces and forces of the Southwestern Front. Since November 1920, he served as the commandant of the Crimean Cheka, worked as an investigator. In 1921 he was transferred to work in Kharkov as the military commandant of the Ukrainian Central Executive Committee, after which from July 1921 to March 1922 he worked as secretary of the Black Sea Revolutionary Military Council fleet.

Two years later, he was promoted, and he was transferred to Moscow, where the young Chekist was dealing with postal services, and later headed the Central Directorate of Paramilitary Guards. The connection was associated with his work in Yakutia, where he led the work on the construction of radio stations. While still in the capital, in 1923-1925 he managed to study at the Higher Communication Courses, it was after their graduation that he went to Yakutia.



Ivan Papanin's activities in 1932-1935 were also associated with being at the very edge of the earth. In 1932-1933, he was the head of the Tikhaya Bay polar station, which was located on Franz Josef Land, and in 1934-1935, he worked at the station that was located on Cape Chelyuskin. That is, he had to work in very harsh conditions. However, it was then that Papanin, most likely, finally and irrevocably fell in love with the Arctic.

Later, Ivan Dmitrievich waited even more difficult tests. In 1937-1938, something happened that made Papanin famous in our country and the world. He led the world's first drifting station, the North Pole. The scientific results, which were obtained in a unique drift, were presented to them by the General Assembly of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR 6 in March 1938, and were highly appreciated by specialists. The work of the drifting station really allowed to collect a lot of important and new information about the harsh Arctic region. For the selfless work in the harsh conditions of the Arctic, all members of this famous expedition were presented to the rank of Hero of the Soviet Union. At the same time, Papanin, together with the radio operator of the station Krenkel, received the degree of Doctor of Geographical Sciences.

At the end of 1939 of the year - the beginning of 1940, Ivan Papanin successfully organized an expedition to rescue from ice captivity after the 812-day drift of the icebreaker “George Sedov”. For a successful expedition to save the icebreaker, Ivan Dmitrievich was presented for the second time to the rank of Hero of the Soviet Union. It is worth noting that from 1939 to 1946 the year he headed Glavsevmorput. Papanin held the post of Chief of the Main Coast Sea Corps and Commissioner of the State Defense Committee for Transportation in the North throughout the Second World War. His work as chief of the Central Sea Route was also important in the pre-war years, as it allowed to solve many problems with the transportation of goods through the NSR. The first years at this high post he paid great attention to the construction of powerful icebreakers in the country and the development of Arctic navigation. During the war years, he successfully organized the reception and shipment of military cargo to the front, which came to the USSR by sea from the United States and Great Britain, for which he received the rank of rear admiral in 1943.



In the postwar years, Papanin gradually retired from practice. He retired in 1949, due to heart disease (he had angina). However, he did not give up to engage in theoretical scientific activities. 1949 to 1951 He was the deputy director of the Institute of Oceanology of the USSR Academy of Sciences for expeditions. Starting from 1951 and until the end of his life, Ivan Dmitrievich Papanov headed the department of marine expeditionary works in the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In parallel with this, from 1965, he was also the director of the Institute of Biology of Inland Waters of the USSR Academy of Sciences, located in the village of Borok. He also served as chairman of the Moscow branch of the Geographical Society of the Soviet Union.

Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin died on January 30 of the year 1986 from chronic heart failure at a rather old age - 91 year. He was buried in Moscow at the Novodevichy cemetery. During his life he managed to become an honorary citizen of four cities at once - his native Sevastopol, as well as Arkhangelsk, Murmansk and Lipetsk, and even one region - Yaroslavl. A cape located on Taimyr, mountains in Antarctica and the Pacific Ocean, and an island in the Azov Sea were named after him. Also, streets in a number of cities of the Soviet Union were named after Papanin.

Interesting facts about biography

Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin is an academic with no education. At the time, he did not even receive a secondary education, the boy attended elementary school throughout 4. The plant has become a real “school of life” for the famous polar explorer. Only working in the People's Commissariat of Communications, Papanin graduated from the Higher Courses of Communication. At the same time, the lack of education did not prevent him from becoming a doctor of science in 1938, he received this degree for the results achieved as part of the operation of the station SP-1. Later he was able to become an academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, as well as deputy director for expeditions of the Institute of Oceanology of the USSR Academy of Sciences and director of the Institute of Biology of Inland Waters of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Not everyone can achieve such success with proper education. The same can be said about his military rank. Papanin became Rear Admiral in 1943. Before that, he was only an ordinary sailor during the First World War and did not have any special military education.



Polarnik # XXUMX

The work of the first Soviet drifting station SP-1 (North Pole-1) marked the beginning of a systematic study of high-latitude areas of the polar basin in the interests of navigation, hydrology and meteorology. Started on 6 on June 1937, the station drift lasted 9 months (274 of the day) and ended on February 16 on 1938 in the Greenland Sea. During this time, the ice floe on which the station was located, swam 2100 kilometers. The participants of this polar expedition in incredibly difficult working conditions managed to collect and systematize unique material about the nature of the high latitudes of the Arctic Ocean. Leader Ivan Papanin, radio operator Ernst Krenkel, meteorologist and geophysicist Yevgeny Fedotov, and hydrobiologist and oceanographer Peter Shirshov took part in this expedition.

Perhaps no event in the interval between the two world wars did not attract as much public attention as the drift of the “Papanin Four” in the Arctic. Initially, they drifted on a huge ice floe, whose area reached several square kilometers. However, by the time the expedition was completed, the size of the ice floe no longer exceeded the size of the volleyball court. At that moment, the whole world was following the fate of Soviet polar explorers, wishing them only one thing - to return from this expedition alive.

"Papanins"

The feat of the four "Papanins" was immortalized in the Soviet Union in different ways. So in 1938, a series of postage stamps was published, which was dedicated to the expedition “SP-1”. In the same year, the book Life on the Ice was published by Papanin himself. In addition, over the course of several years, all Soviet boys played “papanitsy” and conquered the North Pole, which was reflected in the literature of those years (for example, Valentina Kataeva, Tsvetike-seven-color, year 1940). In 1995, a commemorative coin worth 25 rubles was issued in Russia, which was dedicated to the work of the SP-1 expedition.

Based on materials from open sources.
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  1. gjv
    gjv 2 February 2016 07: 38 New
    +2
    The work of the first Soviet drifting station "SP-1" (North Pole-1) marked the beginning

    And at first there was a training in the Taimyr tundra.
  2. gjv
    gjv 2 February 2016 07: 44 New
    +1
    The head of the expedition was Ivan Papanin, radio operator Ernst Krenkel, meteorologist and geophysicist Yevgeny Fedotov, and hydrobiologist and oceanographer Petr Shirshov.

    But geophysics, the name is not Fedotov, but Fedorov, but?

    Papanin heroes on the USSR postage stamp: Ernst Krenkel, Ivan Papanin, Evgeny Fedorov, Pyotr Shirshov.
  3. gjv
    gjv 2 February 2016 07: 47 New
    0
    The head of the expedition was Ivan Papanin, radio operator Ernst Krenkel, meteorologist and geophysicist Yevgeny Fedotov, and hydrobiologist and oceanographer Petr Shirshov.

    And after all, not only ...

    Papanins on the ship after the expedition
  4. bionik
    bionik 2 February 2016 07: 49 New
    +3
    Otto Schmidt and Ivan Papanin are walking from the plane "N-172" (ANT-6). 1937
    1. gjv
      gjv 2 February 2016 08: 20 New
      0
      +. Like Santa Claus with presents. And in the tunic of Rear Admiral with the iconostasis of awards - and the face, too, is your good grandfather.
  5. aszzz888
    aszzz888 2 February 2016 07: 49 New
    +4
    Great country, great people.
    Bit by bit, thanks to people like I. Papanin, the richest experience in the development of the Arctic was collected.
  6. semirek
    semirek 2 February 2016 08: 06 New
    +6
    A good article, but a bit stingy. I think that Papanin cannot be separated from the rest of the heroes of the Arctic epic, the author mentions them as they rocked, but this is not correct, some of them also became "big" people.
    I will add that the Papanins are the glorious successors of the Russian pre-revolutionary, polar explorers, Vilkitsky, Toll, Kolchak, Sedov - The Arctic for Russia is not just a place beyond the Arctic Circle, but the future of our country.
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 2 February 2016 09: 57 New
      +4
      Quote: semirek
      Russian pre-revolutionary, polar researchers, Vilkitsky, Toll, Kolchak, Sedov - The Arctic for Russia is not just a place beyond the Arctic Circle, but the future of our country.



      А first polar drift carried out Georgy Levich Brusilov - Russian Arctic explorer, fleet lieutenant. In 1912, he organized and led his own polar expedition to the schooner Saint Anna
      Searched for this expedition The world's first polar marine Russian pilot Jan Nagursky. He was the first in the world to fly beyond the Arctic Circle.

      Arctic studies were conducted by Russia during many centuries. The list of glorious names is very long: Dezhnev, Popov, Laptev, Lazarev, Bellingshausen, Wrangel, Ovtsin, Vilkitsky, Rusanov, Albanov and many others.
  7. Signaller
    Signaller 2 February 2016 08: 09 New
    +2
    This is not a man - this is the EPOCH in the conquest of the Arctic. We can only envy and use the discoveries and gains of those people. who started in the Arctic. Well, in our time it is necessary to continue the work they have begun with dignity.
  8. gjv
    gjv 2 February 2016 08: 16 New
    0
    In 1995, a commemorative coin of 25 rubles was issued in Russia, which was dedicated to the work of the SP-1 expedition.

    V.P. Chkalov. Geographical Series: Exploration of the Russian Arctic

    Obverse: in the center of the disc - the emblem of the Bank of Russia (double-headed eagle of the artist I. Bilibin), in the lower part - the designation of the metal, the fineness of the alloy, the content of the precious metal in purity and the mint trademark. Along the circumference there are inscriptions framed by a circle of dots: at the top - "25 RUBLES 1995", at the bottom - "BANK OF RUSSIA".
    Reverse: top - an airplane against the background of a map of the coast of the Arctic basin, on the right - portraits of V.P. Chkalov, G.F. Baydukov and A.V. Belyakov, in the center - an icebreaker and a group of polar explorers on an ice floe (I.D. Papanin, E. Fedorov, P.P. Shirshov, E.T. Krenkel). Along the circumference there are inscriptions: at the top - "RESEARCH OF THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC", at the bottom - "STATION. NORTHERN POLE <1937> TRANSARKTICHESKIY POLYOT CHKALOVA".

    Artist: A.V. Cormorants. Sculptors: N.A. Nosov. Moscow Mint (MMD). Design: 252 ribbed rib.

    Par value 25 rubles
    Quality proof
    Metal fineness silver 900/1000
    Total weight, g 173,29 (± 0,045)
    Content
    chemically pure
    metal no less than g 155,50
    Diameter, mm 60,00 (± 0,50)
    Thickness, mm 6,80 (± 0,50)
    Circulation, pcs. 5000
    Issue Date: 07.12.1995
    Part Number: 5115-0004
    Metal price: 5 427 rub.
    Numismatic price: XF - 6 rubles. UNC - 149 12 rub. Proof - 321 rubles.
  9. Dragon-y
    Dragon-y 2 February 2016 09: 17 New
    +1
    Well, it's not worth making an "icon" out of it. A man, with all the advantages and disadvantages, character ...
    Read the story about the "Papanin's Mauser" and why it happened.
  10. OCD
    OCD 2 February 2016 10: 30 New
    +1
    Papanin didn’t do horseradish on the ice. Without any rank, he could not make any observations and take meteorological data. I only read out the political information, in my own words, which the radio operator Ernst Krenkel brought to him after the broadcast. I didn’t cook food because I was the boss. He carried out the ideological and political leadership of the expedition. And in order to somehow take time, Mauser began to disassemble and assemble. I can’t indicate the Mauser model, because when I was told this story in weapons I did not understand. Mauser Papanin collected both with his eyes closed and with one hand. But at one point they threw some detail, which was not a pistol at all. Here Papaninin almost lost his mind, the pistol was assembled, and the excess remained. And this continued until the detail was not removed.
    1. shoemaker
      shoemaker 2 February 2016 18: 27 New
      +2
      I happened to study at the Papanin school. 812 days among hummocks. This dyat drove the radio operator into the cold in order to hold a meeting of the communist cell (the radio operator was not a communist), and after that he dictated to the same radio operator the decision of the partnership. The same radio operator threw a piece of iron at his gun. Revenge was all 100.
      1. shoemaker
        shoemaker 3 February 2016 03: 51 New
        0
        I also admire people who conquered the Arctic, but this dunce was just the chairman of the party’s cell, and did nothing as far as I heard about him. So I happened to be on New Earth. We brought food and alcohol there on a spy (scientific vessel). They landed on the shore, everything turned me around (try jumping on a sloop in the Arctic, but in my youth). Weather station. Two men are running, one with a red beard, the other with a black one, running in parallel. They ran to us and asked anecdotes to tell us, but what would they do separately from each other. Instead of three months, they signed up for six, the roof slides, it’s necessary to talk about something, not bears. They unloaded food and a barrel of alcohol to wipe the tool, they set up a network on the creek, fish caught and fish in the snow. And then we took this fish - fillets were filmed, with butter, and with black bread and alcohol washed down. He brings his teeth, and then the aftertaste, sincerely. I’m saying to the cham, our northern brother will go everywhere, but he doesn’t love the Baltic entis Kamisar.
  11. Vladimir
    Vladimir 2 February 2016 12: 04 New
    +1
    Thanks for the article. I always bow to people who conquered the vastness of the Arctic.
  12. capitosha1rang
    capitosha1rang 2 February 2016 12: 10 New
    0
    The comment will be great, but I think it is a necessary touch and a stroke that is very significant for the activities of Admiral Papanin.

    Few people know about the role that Ivan Dmitrievich played in "securing" Antarctica for the USSR and that in 1947 Admiral Byrd (who was supposed to "stake out" hundreds of thousands of square kilometers) was aggressively awaited in Antarctica (according to Admiral Byrd) minded Soviet polar explorers, among whom was Rear Admiral Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin.

    And the Americans backtracked: US Secretary of State James Byrnes, who advocated the toughest sanctions against the USSR, was unexpectedly dismissed by President Truman. Byrnes’s last words at a government post were: “It turned out to be impossible to frighten the damned Russians. ”In this matter (meaning Antarctica) they won.”

    Telling about this mystery of the post-war history, O. Greig recalled that "... One day, at his request, a certificate was brought from the secret unit, in which it was reported that special operations of the Soviet Union in Antarctic waters were carried out by the 5th Fleet in the Far East under the command of Admiral Frolov (from January 1947 to February 1950). While the research work in these secret operations was supervised by his deputy for science and research, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, Doctor of Geographical Sciences, member of the Central Committee of the Party Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin (1894 – 1986), personally appointed by Comrade Stalin.

    (At the beginning of the war, in the 1941 year, Frolov, with the military rank of engineer-rear admiral, served as deputy chief of the Naval Shipbuilding Directorate. In March 1943, Vice Admiral Frolov came to the North more than once to check the state of anti-submarine defense. By August 1945- he was considered the chief of staff of the Pacific Fleet).

    Commanding the fleet, Frolov felt that the friends and comrades of Papanin, when meeting with him, were more silent and did not give a reason for any unnecessary questions; although the admiral already began to suspect that Ivan Dmitrievich was involved in some kind of closed operations in Antarctica. Once he tried to carefully ask Papanin about this, but he left the answer. And he no longer tempted fate. Even when, unexpectedly, without his idea, his subordinates became generals, the admiral did not consider it necessary to intervene in the activities of his deputy for science and research.

    After one of the reports to the Party Central Committee, Frolov was approached by the Chief Marshal of Aviation Golovanov, and, shaking his hand, supported his comrade with the words: “Admiral, you have taken a good position with regard to the Papanins.”

    At the beginning of 1951, Papanin and his colleagues returned to Moscow and were awarded the Orders of Lenin by a closed decree (by the way, he Papanin deservedly wore SEVEN orders of Lenin!) and other government awards. Ivan Dmitrievich was appointed head of the Department of marine scientific research (expeditionary) work of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Which meant for the few knowledgeable that he occupied from 1939 until 1946 the post of chief of the Glavsevmorputi - flowers, while from now on Professor Papanin headed the country's naval intelligence.
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 2 February 2016 17: 42 New
      0
      Quote: capitosha1rang
      в 1947 year Admiral Byrd (who was supposed to "stake out" hundreds of thousands of square kilometers) was awaited in Antarctica by aggressive (according to Admiral Byrd) Soviet polar explorers, among whom was Rear Admiral Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin.


      C 1946 of the year Papanin was dismissed from work and retired due to severe attacks of angina pectoris. "Ivan Papanin" after all, there was a steamer in Antarctica ...
    2. Aleksander
      Aleksander 2 February 2016 17: 42 New
      0
      Quote: capitosha1rang
      в 1947 year Admiral Byrd (who was supposed to "stake out" hundreds of thousands of square kilometers) was awaited in Antarctica by aggressive (according to Admiral Byrd) Soviet polar explorers, among whom was Rear Admiral Ivan Dmitrievich Papanin.


      C 1946 of the year Papanin was dismissed from work and retired due to severe attacks of angina pectoris. "Ivan Papanin" after all, there was a steamer in Antarctica ...
  13. sisa29
    sisa29 2 February 2016 12: 27 New
    +1
    Comrades, read the story
    Michael Weller
    Mauser Papanin http://fb2.booksgid.com/content/71/mihail-veller-mauzer-papanina/1.html
    it is interesting to read about their relationship, of course, it may be fiction, but it will make you smile
  14. sisa29
    sisa29 2 February 2016 12: 40 New
    0
    During the Second World War, Ivan Dmitrievich in our port in Arkhankelsk, Bakaritsa led the meetings of convoys. My grandfather, as a naval officer, often crossed paths with him. From his stories there was an impression that he was a very harsh and tough person, although of course there was such a time.
  15. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 2 February 2016 13: 16 New
    0
    The same can be said of his military rank. Papanin became Rear Admiral in 1943. Before that, he was just ordinary mattress during the First World War and had no special military education.

    Who, excuse me, was Papanin during the WWII? belay

    As for the sharp ups in the ranks of formally civilians, the war was rich in this. You can recall how the same Goreglyad, Spirits, and other designers and manufacturers of the tank industry in 1945 from formally ordinary turned into major generals of the engineering and tank service.