Military Review

Tsar Fedor III Alekseevich

26
Tsar Fedor III Alekseevich 340 years ago, 30 January 1676, Fyodor III Alekseevich ascended the throne. The son of Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich and Tsarina Maria Ilyinichna, nee Miloslavskaya. He came to the throne at the 14 age after the death of his father. In childhood and adolescence, Fedor received a good education, studied ancient Greek, Latin and Polish, had a rich personal library, knew painting, had a good understanding of music, and even composed several songs. However, this was a painful young man, and the most important state affairs were solved with the participation of his entourage: I. M. Miloslavsky, I. M. Yazykova, A. T. Likhacheva and others. The teacher of the tsar Simeon Polotsky and Moscow Patriarch Joachim also had a great influence on the affairs. .


Fedor Alekseevich was the third son of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. The first child in the royal family was Dmitry, but he did not survive infancy. Heir to the throne was considered the second son - Alexey Alekseevich. He showed great promise, received a good education. But in January, 1670 died unexpectedly. Heir was declared Fedor. Born 31 in May 1661. At the time of his accession to the throne, he was not yet 15 years old.

Some kind of rock or a serious hereditary disease (there is a version that the heirs were deliberately poisoned) was pursued by the sons of Alexei Mikhailovich. Simeon, who was born in 1665, died in 1669, Ivan, who was born in 1666, was crowned kingdom in 1682, but suffered from dementia and died in 1696.

Fyodor Alekseevich was also not distinguished by his health, was of weak physique, but he was distinguished by the clarity of mind, which he developed by reading books. According to some sources, his tutor was the theologian Simeon of Polotsk. As a result, the king knew Latin and Polish. True, the problem is that it was not the best teacher for the future king. A graduate of the Vilna Jesuit Academy, a member of the Greek Catholic Order of St. Basil the Great, Simeon of Polotsk did not know and did not like Russian storiesRussian traditions. He did not have an independent mind, being an ordinary compiler and translator of European spiritual literature. Apparently, this very dexterous and resourceful man, who could speak beautifully, and who became the teacher of Tsarevich Alexei and Fyodor, was an agent of Western influence in Russia. Jesuit school students have long been skilled spies.

However, Simeon could not fully form the consciousness of the future king. Among his entourage were other people. So, Fedor Alekseevich was keenly interested in Russian history. After becoming king, he ordered scholarly clerks to compile a book of Russian history. And such work was carried out, unfortunately, the book has not reached our days. Among the people who dealt with this problem was another tsarevich mentor Alexei Timofeevich Likhachev. At the beginning of the reign of Fedor, he had the rank of "solicitor with a key", in 1680, he was elevated to okolnichye.

The fact that the tsar attached great educational significance to Russian history is also indicated by the choice of the role of teacher of the minor stepbrother Peter Alekseevich deacon of the Petite order of Nikita Zotov. Apparently, the king was well aware of the danger of his illness and the fragility of life. Therefore, I tried to prepare a successor. Many signs indicate that he saw a successor in Peter.

Fedor Alekseevich was married twice. The first marriage of the king with the daughter of a Smolensk nobleman Agafya Grushetskaya was concluded on July 18 of the year 1680. 11 July 1681 was born the only son of the king, heir to the throne, Tsarevich Ilya Fedorovich, who died on July 21 1681 year shortly after birth. Queen Agafia died July 14 1681 of the year. The second marriage was 15 of February 1682 of the year, with Marfa Matveyevna Apraksina, the sister of the future famous admiral Fyodor Matveyevich Apraksin. Children from this marriage, which lasted a little more than two months, the king was not.

Fedor Alekseevich died on 27 on April 1682 of the year at the age of 20, without making an order regarding succession to the throne. He reigned all 6 with a little years. However, his short reign was eventful.

The first significant act of Fyodor Alekseevich was undertaken after the coronation, which took place on 18 (28) on June 1676, an attempt to return to its power the Baltic lands - Ingermanland and part of Livonia, which belonged to the Troubles of Russia. Since ancient times these lands belonged to the Russian state, and the removal from the Baltic has had a detrimental effect on the country's economy. Began negotiations with the Swedes. Russia was ready to be satisfied with the return of Narva and Izhora land, but the Swedes rejected this fair demand. Moscow was ready to start a war for the return of the seized territory, but the military threat from Turkey forced them to postpone these plans.

The war with Turkey and the Crimean Khanate for the Right-Bank part of Little Russia was fought since 1672 in the summer. In the summer of 1677, the Turks and the Crimean Tatars attempted to seize the capital of the hetman autonomy Chigirin. Moscow sent additional troops to Little Russia. The small garrison of Chigirin withstood the siege of a huge enemy army (60-thousand Turkish army, 40 thousand Crimean cavalry and 20-thousand auxiliary corps of Moldovans and Valahs) until the arrival of 49-thousand. Russian Army Romodanovsky. In the battle on the banks of the Dnieper 27 and 28 in August, the Russian regiments inflicted a heavy defeat on the Turkish-Crimean army. Throwing artillery and carts, the enemy fled.

Wanting to stop the war, Fedor III Alekseevich sent envoy Afanasy Porosukov at the end of 1677 to Constantinople. However, in Moscow, there were news of the preparation of a new campaign of the Turkish army in Little Russia. Russia began to prepare for war. To supply the army, the young king ordered to collect a ruble from each court. With the same purpose, a census of people began at the beginning of 1678. The center of opposition in the summer of 1678 was again Chigirin.

In fact, there was a confrontation between Turkey and Russia for control over Little Russia. Fedor Alekseevich was ready to make peace with the Turks, on the condition that Chigirin remains behind Russia. But this fortress was also needed by Turkey, since it had strategic importance (control over the Dnieper and Zadnepviem). Therefore, the Turkish Sultan Mehmed IV, having familiarized himself with the proposals of Moscow, which Afanasy Porosukov brought, ordered to write to Moscow that he agreed to an armistice on condition that Russia gave Turkey Chigirin and the Dnieper possessions of Hetman Doroshenko. The Russian tsar was in a difficult situation: on the one hand, peace was necessary for Russia exhausted by the war; on the other hand, Moscow could not give in to the hetman’s capital Chigirin under any circumstances. Therefore, the king ordered the commander of the Russian troops in Little Russia voivode Grigory Romodanovsky and his son Kiev voivode Mikhail Romodanovsky to make every effort to maintain the fortress and destroy it if they could not keep it.

As a result, the heroic defense of Chigirin ended with his fall. Part of the garrison died when the Turks broke into the fortress, blowing up powder depots, others flopped to the army of Romodanovsky. The Russian commander broke the enemy’s advanced units, but did not advance further to support the bleeding garrison. He executed the order of Moscow to destroy the city, which was an obstacle to the conclusion of peace. The fighting continued until the end of the year. Then began a two-year peace negotiations. 4 March 1681 an agreement was reached on an 20-year truce between Russia, on the one hand, and Turkey and the Crimean Khanate, on the other. The border between Turkey and Russia was established along the Dnieper, the sultan and the khan undertook not to help the enemies of Russia. Russia annexed the left bank lands of the Dnieper and Kiev with the district. Zaporozhye formally became independent.

Reconciliation with Turkey and the Crimean Khanate was beneficial to Russia and became one of the greatest achievements of the Fyodor government. However, the war showed significant shortcomings in the organization of the Russian army. The main one was connected with regionalism, that is, with the old custom of appointing certain individuals to command positions depending on the tribal and official status of their family. Localism hindered the development of the state, because the nobility often put its interests above the general. The intricate nature of local relations created the ground for constant strife and became one of the premises of the Troubles. Not surprisingly, the kings, starting with Ivan the Terrible, attempted to limit localism. 12 January 1682 was issued a catholic act on the abolition of regionalism.

The historian Ivan Boltin wrote about this reform of Tsar Fyodor: “By destroying localism, the dishonest and harmful right to destroy the honors and ranks without merit and merit and the strife and hatred between grandees and even single-rangers that harm public welfare and in public affairs is destroyed. , slowness, omission. The breed then occupied a place of merits and abilities: the merits of a father or grandfather pompous with the pride of an unworthy son or grandson and robbed him of the desire to learn, work and delight in gaining distinction. The abolition of this laughter of worthy vanity encouraged the service, returned to the dignity of his preference, and merit - honor; All abuse of breed-related benefits has been stopped. ”

Apparently, the rejection of localism was to be the beginning of a fundamental reform of the civil service system. This is indicated by the draft statute on the seniority of boyars, okolnichy and dumny people in 34 degrees, drawn up at the end of 1681 - the beginning of 1682. The project assumed that specific positions would correspond to the ranks and that it would determine the status, not the origin, consisting of a public service.

In the last year of the reign of Fyodor, another important document for the development of the state was drawn up - the draft law on the establishment of an academy in Moscow. As a result of March 1681, Tsar Fedor Alekseevich became one of the founders of the Printing School at the Zaikonospassky Monastery - the forerunner of the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy.

In addition, the young king was preparing the land, tax and diocesan reforms. A system of measures for the socialization of the needy and the poor was developed and put into practice. In the autumn of 1681, a decree was issued on the charity of the needy and the reduction of the poor. It was also supposed to create special courtyards for teaching the children of the poor to different crafts - “who wants something”. At the same time, it was suggested that children should be given to home schooling for masters, and beggar girls to monasteries “for teaching”. Upon reaching the age of majority and the acquisition of their profession, they had to be set free. For family allowed the possibility of buying at the expense of the state yards for housekeeping.

The death of the young king became a great loss for the Russian society. The reaction to the death of the merciful sovereign was a sincere general grief. In general, the reign of Fyodor III Alekseevich in many respects anticipated many reforms of the era of Peter the Great. Two main directions of Russia's foreign policy, the Baltic and Black Sea region, were identified, the need for structural reforms and modernization of the country was shown.
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  1. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 1 February 2016 07: 20
    10
    (there is a version that the heirs were deliberately poisoned)

    Modern research has shown a lethal dose of arsenic and mercury in royal remains. Many "Rurikovichs" were poisoned. Scientists are inclined to believe that this was a continuation of the war between the Catholics and the Jesuits. "In the Kremlin, poisoning began, which gave rise to dementia and illness in the royal family, however, not only poisoning - as we will see below," the Jesuits could have arranged any murder, this is their style of fighting "(Aji M. Asian Europe. - M .: AST Moscow , 2006., p. 987).
    1. Riv
      Riv 1 February 2016 07: 34
      +7
      Are there too many murders? Apparently for almost a hundred years, some kind of super killer hung around next to the royal family ... :)
      In fact, everything is simpler. Compounds of arsenic and mercury were part of the cosmetics of the time. Not only Rurikovich used it. The European aristocracy of that time also has an increased arsenic content in the bones.
      1. avt
        avt 1 February 2016 10: 10
        +6
        Quote: Riv
        In fact, everything is simpler. Compounds of arsenic and mercury were part of the cosmetics of the time.

        There was still water supply in the Kremlin with lead in pipes. But it seems that they switched completely to lead pipes somewhere in 1633.
        Quote: bober1982
        The reign of Fedor III is the period of successful and intensive development of the country.

        Yes, in fact, Sophia continued the EVOLUTIONARY reform, and even the "chicks of Petrov's nest" noted that they ruled reasonably.
        1. bober1982
          bober1982 1 February 2016 11: 12
          +1
          From childhood, we were literally hammered into our heads: Ivan the Terrible, Peter the Great, Catherine the Great — these seemed to be progressive, about the rest of the rulers, at best, silence or mud was watered.
      2. Sweles
        Sweles 1 February 2016 10: 20
        +3
        Quote: Riv
        In fact, everything is simpler. Compounds of arsenic and mercury were part of the cosmetics of the time.


        what cosmetics? link, do not invent, as part of some drugs for sexually transmitted diseases, then yes ...
    2. avt
      avt 1 February 2016 12: 47
      +3
      Quote: Mangel Olys
      Modern research has shown a lethal dose in the royal remains of arsenic and mercury.

      By the way, mercury was a very popular medicine in Europe, in particular, it was treated with syphilis, and Paracelsus recommended it, and at Vaniiv IV the Aglitsky dohtur hung around, it even seemed to be in an oprichnina.
      1. Riv
        Riv 1 February 2016 16: 20
        +2
        There is no reliable data that someone from the Rurikovich, or the Romanovs suffered from sexually transmitted diseases. Tales on this subject - there are fairy tales.

        But cinnabar was part of the blush (a natural mineral has a blood red color). Natural arsenic sulfide is similar in color to it (realgar, it seems), this is generally one of the most ancient paints. And "white arsenic" is very easily obtained by roasting arsenic-containing ores and has a pure white color and high dispersion, which determined its use as a component of powder. Plus, this powder is also bactericidal. In general, mercury and arsenic preparations were used right up to the New Time.

        Well, have you lost the desire to kiss some "Lady with an Ermine"? She was just in such powder and was up to her ears.
        1. avt
          avt 1 February 2016 17: 38
          +1
          Quote: Riv
          There is no reliable data that someone from the Rurikovich, or the Romanovs suffered from sexually transmitted diseases. Tales on this subject - there are fairy tales.

          Yes, no, the second thing, Paracelsus generally idolized mercury as a medicine. It could well have been used by his European followers as a medieval "antibiotic"
          Quote: Riv
          But cinnabar was part of the blush (a natural mineral has a blood red color). Natural arsenic sulfide is similar in color to it (realgar, it seems), this is generally one of the most ancient paints. And "white arsenic" is very easily obtained by roasting arsenic-containing ores and has a pure white color and high dispersion, which determined its use as a component of powder. Plus, this powder is also bactericidal. In general, mercury and arsenic preparations were used right up to the New Time.

          Well, yes, you’re right, especially the blush in Russia went well, such a mimicry on the topic of health, well, as the saying goes - a girl should have blood and milk! So they caught up with poisonous plaster.
    3. Sweles
      Sweles 1 February 2016 16: 54
      +1
      yeah, here all the lies lie and why Tsar Alexei and his children died, and the split of the church, and the destruction of localism, and bit books, and the death of Fedor, and the death of Tsar Ivan, and the Streltsy riots, and the Razin uprising, and the Crimean campaigns. All this heap of lies was done only for one thing - the advent of the king of LZHEPETR to the kingdom of the ANTICHRIST and the complete enslavement of the Russian people by the Germans or Arab Jews. It is not yet clear, but such investigations are underway.
      1. Sweles
        Sweles 1 February 2016 17: 08
        0
        about this, it seems like, after troubled times, there are already several versions about these times.
        These are versions of Fomenko Nosovsky,
        as well as a rather convincing investigation by A. Kas "The collapse of the Empire of the Russian tsars". Kas suggests that before Peter the tsars were not Romanovs, but Rurikovichs, and Peter became the first Romanovs, all with references to primary sources.
        Among all this bacchanalia of lies about our history, one thing is clear: Peter was not Russian and Russian customs and orders he hated, therefore, he destroyed everything, then the Russian people fell into physical slavery, and spiritual slavery i.e. when the Russian people were replaced, history continues to this day. The current authorities venerate Peter, there is a Peter Academy, there is a Peter led ship. etc.
        1. Riv
          Riv 1 February 2016 19: 18
          0
          Sorry moa ... If Peter is the Antichrist, is the end of the world too long? And why do you write this word in caps? Perhaps this is a tribute to Peter ... :)
      2. Cap.Morgan
        Cap.Morgan 1 February 2016 21: 38
        -3
        On the one hand, reforms began before Peter.
        Shelves on a foreign model, fleet, training abroad, shaving beards (already Vasily lll), a foreign dress, a German settlement, foreign specialists, theater, education - the Polotsky school, which was given an unflattering assessment in the article, it all started before Peter.
        Peter and the Germans simply helped make the leap, Sweden was defeated and Russia became a great power. Otherwise, we could doze off to the 21st century like China.
  2. bober1982
    bober1982 1 February 2016 07: 49
    +5
    It was during the reign of Fyodor III that reforms began that mistakenly attribute to his half-brother Peter I.
    The reign of Fedor III is the period of successful and intensive development of the country.
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 1 February 2016 08: 38
      +7
      If we talk about the reform of the army and the construction of the fleet, these actions began even with their father, Aleksei Mikhailovich.
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 1 February 2016 08: 47
        0
        I agree, everything is correct.
      2. Dmitry 2246
        Dmitry 2246 1 February 2016 10: 09
        +4
        A powerful impetus to economic and then military development began immediately after the end of the turmoil of the beginning of the century. A huge number of foreign experts were involved. There was strict accounting in the army, which ensured the development of business and the development of new markets in Siberia right up to China, in Little Russia, etc. Yermak was not alone.
        The development of infrastructure required the creation of ports in the Baltic and the Black Sea.
        The case when the actions of the authorities were logical and pragmatic.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 1 February 2016 11: 15
          +4
          Quote: Dmitry 2246
          There was a strict accounting in the army, which provided business development and the development of new markets in Siberia right up to China,

          To expand the theme: In 1644, Cossacks Vasily Poyarkov entered the Amur River, and from 1650, Siberian Cossacks led by Khabarov, Polyakov, and Ivan Nagiba began exploring the Amur River. In 1651, Khabarov drew the first map of the Amur River.
          1. Mangel olys
            Mangel olys 1 February 2016 16: 25
            +1
            I recall the village of Poyarkovo in the Amur Region. We married our colleague Buryat - lieutenant in the local beauty - Cossack. Oh, and we walked notably!
        2. Bersaglieri
          Bersaglieri 1 February 2016 12: 55
          +6
          Ermak was under Ivan the Terrible.
          Here is the next generation of explorers: Khabarov, Popov, Ankudinov, Dezhnev, Stadukhin and others, which remained unknown ... They increased the territory of the Russian state several times between 1630 and 1680. Eternal glory to them!
          1. avt
            avt 1 February 2016 17: 48
            +1
            Quote: Bersaglieri
            Here is the next generation of explorers: Khabarov, Popov, Ankudinov, Dezhnev, Stadukhin and others, which remained unknown.

            Oh yeah! Semyon Dezhnev passed through the strait, and the name went to Bering and the glory of Pece, as the organizer of the expedition wassat request I don’t detract from the real feat of the teams led by Bering, and he put his life to the glory of Russia and immortalized according to the LAW. But it would be fairer if, if you would dig in the archive and find Dezhnev’s creed, then the strait would be named after Dezhnev, and the Kuril ridge Commander Bering would have been called islands and the sea of ​​his own name is the Bering Sea, especially since the commander rested there. The kingdom of heaven to him.
      3. Mr. Pip
        Mr. Pip 1 February 2016 12: 05
        +3
        Quote: Bersaglieri
        If we talk about reform

        If we talk about reforms, then in those summers reforms even at an accelerated pace were made slowly - public relations were slow or something, but the grandfather of the reform began, and the grandson was still finishing yes
    2. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 1 February 2016 09: 47
      +6
      Half-brother. After all, they had a common father, Alexei Mikhailovich. Strict brothers and sisters are, strictly speaking, not biological relatives at all. This is when their parents just got married.
      Half-brothers and sisters - when a common father, but different mothers; uterine - a common mother, but different fathers. Consolidated - when there is no common father or mother.
      1. kaa_andrey
        kaa_andrey 1 February 2016 11: 09
        0
        We need continuity in government, localism was aimed at maintaining continuity. But it did not take into account that nature often rests on children ...
        Election of leaders in power also did not often contribute to continuity, the "harlopans" and the sweet-voiced do not think much about the Russian state.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 1 February 2016 08: 03
    +1
    Fedor III began the reforms, Peter continued ..but they did it differently ..
  4. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 1 February 2016 10: 05
    +5
    A very good article about the Reformed Tsar and about that time. In the History of Our Country, nothing should be hushed up. And no one!
  5. a housewife
    a housewife 1 February 2016 13: 22
    0
    Yes poisoned the Russian tsars, poisoned! It’s easy to turn everything back on then medicine and cosmetics, but, I think, doctors knew the dose, exceeded it and the end was very fast. Otherwise, not only the royal family suffered so many early losses. Noble and wealthy people used the same means, but lived longer. No need to allow foreigners into the inner circle, especially doctors!
  6. Gorinich
    Gorinich 1 February 2016 19: 43
    0
    "The abolition of parochialism destroyed the dishonest and harmful right to acquire honors" With the destruction of parochial books, the chronicle of all noble families of Russia was also destroyed. By the way, on the engraving of the burning of parochial books, there is an interesting figure, a European costume. Draw your own conclusions ...
    1. avt
      avt 1 February 2016 20: 30
      0
      Quote: Gorinich
      “With the destruction of parochial books, the chronicle of all noble families of Russia was also destroyed.

      Well, this is just understandable, many who "ancient and noble" in the Time of Troubles became from False Dmitrys of different numbers and in Tushino in particular, who wants to be poked - Tushinsky Thief de you the boyars weighed laughing , that's how in the cartoon - ,, ends, ends .... The ends are in the water! "The winners always cleaned up the archives. rank. As the ordination by Nikon No. did not roll.
    2. Cap.Morgan
      Cap.Morgan 1 February 2016 21: 46
      0
      What are the findings then. Many then wore Polish or German camisoles, there were tailors, Golitsyn, a friend of Tsarevna Sophia also flaunted German. They didn’t let him into the palace, yes, but go around the city, please. Officers of the regiments of the foreign system, Reytars, I wonder what went?
    3. Sweles
      Sweles 1 February 2016 22: 05
      0
      Quote: Gorinich
      With the destruction of local books, the chronicle of all the noble families of Russia was destroyed.

      not only the discharge books of the noble families of Russia were destroyed, but the noble families themselves. Even in the days of Peter the boyars were not in Russia, and Russia was replaced by Russia ...
  7. holgert
    holgert 1 February 2016 23: 06
    0
    *** THEY ** were always close to our rulers and hounded the best of the best !! A vivid example is the death of the brothers of Tsar Fedor, but there were others --- for example, the strange death of Ivan the Terrible's son while crossing the river., And then and the "murdered" "allegedly son of him. And the death at the fashionable resort of the heir to the Throne in Nice, the train disaster with Alexander ... and so on. By the way, in the West the same picture is the murder of the Heir Louis of the Sun, and as a result --- a replacement for a prince ... they are near ...