Military Review

Transferable ruble. USSR secret weapon

43
The transfer ruble was the first large-scale project to create a supranational monetary unit. Other supranational monetary units appeared later. So in this matter, our country was ahead of the rest.


Transferable ruble. USSR secret weapon

The building of the CMEA in Moscow. Early 1970's

The transfer ruble, which has been in effect since January 1964, is a collective unit of account, the collective currency of the CMEA countries, intended to serve the system of their multilateral settlements. Introduced by agreement signed on October 22 1963 by the governments of Bulgaria, Hungary, GDR, Mongolia, Poland, SRR, USSR and Czechoslovakia. After joining the CMEA, the Republic of Cuba and Vietnam also joined this agreement.

Calculations in the PR began from January 1 1964 of the year through the International Bank for Economic Cooperation (IBEC) by transferring the funds expressed in them from the account of one country to the account of another. The gold content of the transferable ruble was established in 0,987412 of pure gold. PR was a unit of account and served as the scale of prices of goods in the mutual trade between the CMEA countries.

In a specific subject form (for example, in the form of banknotes, treasury notes or coins), the transfer ruble was not circulated. The source of receiving the transferable ruble for each country was the crediting of the import of its goods and services by the countries participating in the multilateral payment system. The basis of the settlement system in transferable rubles was formed by the multilateral balancing of commodity deliveries and payments.

It was the first large-scale project to create a supranational monetary unit. Other supranational monetary units appeared later. I mean, first of all, the so-called Special Drawing Rights, usually denoted by the abbreviation SDR (Special Drawing Rights). The SDR is the monetary unit that has become issued by the International Monetary Fund for settlements between the member countries of the fund.

At the time of the emergence of a new system of international accounting units, the value of a SDR unit was tied to gold and amounted to 0,888671 g of pure metal, which corresponded to the value of 1 US dollar. The first release of the CRA launched 1 on January 1970 of the year. Then, some have assumed that over time, the SDR will become the main global currency. However, today the volume of SDRs is extremely small, the share of this monetary unit in international reserves of all countries of the world does not exceed 1%.

From time to time, various politicians and officials make statements that the condition for overcoming the current crisis of international finances is a sharp increase in the issue of SDRs by the International Monetary Fund, which SDRs should become world money. Such statements were made, for example, by the recent IMF director Dominique Strauss-Kahn.

Of course, such proposals are in contradiction with the interests of the main owners of the “printing press” of the Fed, who by all means struggle to preserve the status of international money by the US dollar. It was at the direction of the owners of the Fed, Strauss-Kahn, expelled from the fund and destroyed politically.

Ten years later (after the SDR), a supranational ECU unit appeared in Europe, and in 1992, a supranational currency called the euro (Maastricht Agreement) was born within the European Union. Initially, it was intended only for international non-cash payments. For some time, the euro currency unit coexisted with the national currency units, but later the national money was abolished.

Today, the 17 states of Europe, which constitute the so-called Eurozone, use the euro both for international settlements and for internal circulation.

If you compare the euro with the transferable ruble, you should note that the latter did not rule out and did not limit the use of national money by the CMEA member countries. There was no encroachment on the national sovereignty of the countries participating in the union.
The PR was in international circulation for 27 years - from 1964 to 1990 a year. The scale of the use of PR in those days was immense. The total volume of transactions and operations using a new type of currency for the specified period amounted to 4,5 trillion transfer rubles, which is equivalent to 6,25 trillion dollars.

The use of PR is constantly increasing. If in the first five years of PR existence (1964 – 1969 years) the volume of operations was 220 billion units, then in the last five years (1985 – 1990 years) it is already 2100 billion units (equivalent to almost 3 trillion dollars).

Thus, the turnover of PR grew almost 10 times.

In the 1985 – 1990 period, according to the UN, the average annual turnover of all international trade was about 6 trillion dollars. And the average annual volume of foreign trade of the CMEA countries using the transferable ruble is 310 billion dollars (see: SM Borisov. The ruble is the currency of Russia. - M .: Konsaltbankir, 2004. - C. 126).


Postage stamp dedicated to the Economic Conference of the CMEA member countries at the highest level. 1984 year

Therefore, over 5% of international trade in the world in the last five years of the existence of the CMEA was provided with the help of a transferable ruble.

In transferable rubles, the cost indicators of contracts for the supply of goods, the provision of services, the implementation of construction and other works were expressed, estimates and feasibility studies of many joint projects were drawn up.

Secondly, the transfer ruble was the currency of payment. The corresponding amounts were transferred from the accounts of buyers (importers) and customers and credited to the accounts of sellers (exporters) and contractors. Payment transactions were carried out with the participation of the IBEC.

Thirdly, the transfer ruble is credit money. They fell into circulation in the form of loans of some countries to others for the supply of goods and for investment projects. Consequently, with the help of PR, the debts and obligations of countries and individual enterprises and organizations, participants of trade and economic relations were expressed.

It is noteworthy that in the framework of the CMEA countries sought to ensure the most balanced trade in order to prevent excessive accumulation of debts of individual countries in transferable rubles.

In addition, with the help of PR, the capital of such international banks as IBEC and the International Investment Bank (IIB) was formed, and the activities of a number of international organizations in the framework of the CMEA were financed.


Soviet propaganda poster

Just as the national currencies of the CMEA member countries could not participate in international settlements, the transfer ruble could not under any circumstances be used in the internal circulation of these countries.

How is this tool useful? He helped the economy to maintain independence from Western markets, from international crisis processes. 1960's experience does not need to be copied, but it is necessary to use it to our advantage.
Author:
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43 comments
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  1. yuriy55
    yuriy55 24 January 2016 07: 18
    10
    How useful is this tool? He helped the economy maintain independence from western marketsFrom international crisis processes. The experience of the 1960s does not need to be copied, but it is necessary to use it in our interests.


    It turned out that everything was invented long ago. It is only necessary for a while to forget the English language, remember the native Russian, read and ... draw the appropriate conclusions (not for ones I love, but for Russian citizens) ... winked
    1. avt
      avt 24 January 2016 10: 37
      17
      Quote: yuriy55
      It turned out that everything was invented long ago. It is only necessary for a while to forget the English language, remember the native Russian, read and ... draw the appropriate conclusions (not for ones I love, but for Russian citizens) ...

      The author touched only the tip of the iceberg! The financial system of the USSR was created and clearly tuned to specific services for the economy! Look at the old bills of money of the USSR, you will read a lot of interesting things on them. So from a ruble to five - a credit card secured with goods, from tens to a hundred - a bank note secured by the assets of the bank of the USSR. In terms of the degree of non-cash transactions .... the current electronic money cards are resting. Well, the transferable ruble is an unattainable height for the EAEU. And there was also a currency certificate - checks, but they only remember about them when they talk about the Beryozka chain of stores as a Soviet deficit. All this was deliberately and fruitfully broken in order to achieve personal enrichment with the slogan joining the "civilized market", when it was finally possible to commit any crime for the sake of getting 300% of the profit on the pocket. Here are the rapper points of this breakdown of the financial system - the law on cooperation, when a cooperator could withdraw ANY AMOUNT of CASH in his account. Instantly rushed to agree with their uncles at production to cash out money in bank accounts through phony “economic agreements.” Then Pavlov's reform, when all the inscriptions were erased from the banknotes - provided with assets and goods, in fact they did what they still hate Stalin for. that he did not go after the war - they tied the ruble to the dollar, the Breiton Woods agreement was in fact recognized. Everything. This finally and irrevocably finished off the circulatory system of the USSR and practically gave the FRS the "birthright" for the ghost of joining the "civilized world" and a stool for sitting on the G7. Here's something so brief and emotional.
  2. apro
    apro 24 January 2016 07: 22
    +6
    The gold security of the transferable ruble made it a reliable instrument of international exchange and a competitor of thaler protecting the interests of the USSR, which now prevents the revival of this instrument? Only the position of our liberal government. With such an instrument as the transferable ruble, such dances with the price of oil and the price of the thaler would be impossible. Katasonov !!!
    1. Cat man null
      Cat man null 24 January 2016 08: 40
      +2
      Transferable ruble - collective currency of the CMEA countries, designed to service the system of their multilateral settlements


      Quote: apro
      what is hindering the revival of this instrument now? only the position of our liberal government

      Lack of CMEA. The transferable ruble simply could not go beyond the countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance by its nature.

      Quote: apro
      With such an instrument as the transferable ruble, such dances with the price of oil and the rate of thaler would be impossible. Bravo Katasonov !!!

      Katasonov, then, of course, "bravo" .. but what about you exactly - "if I heard, then I did not understand, if I understood, then it is not so" ..

      Sorry, inspired request
      1. apro
        apro 24 January 2016 08: 55
        +2
        Quote: Cat Man Null
        Lack of CMEA. The transferable ruble simply could not go beyond the countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance by its nature.

        But bilateral trade obligations are possible, or oil trading for transferable rubles would be a great deal of desire, the main thing is the gold security of the ruble and the decoupling of thaler.
        Quote: Cat Man Null
        Katasonov, then, of course, "bravo" .. but what about you exactly - "if I heard, then I did not understand, if I understood, then it is not so" ..

        Here from this place for more details ...
        1. Cat man null
          Cat man null 24 January 2016 09: 13
          +8
          Quote: apro
          Here from this place for more details ...

          Yes, easy .. just not "from this place", but "from the stove" ..

          - well, let's say the Russian Federation has introduced a "transferable ruble"
          - secured, mind you, with gold. Which means that any country that holds a certain amount in these transferable rubles has the right to demand its replacement with gold. At face value, so to speak wink
          - it is clear that it is possible to pay in such "rubles" only with "stuck friends". That is, those who do not demand gold (otherwise, what for to produce rubles - it's easier to pay with metal right away. Here the "partners" will have fun) laughing
          - who is Russia's "best friend" now? Huh? Belarus? Kazakhstan? China? Duc after all But Father will be the first to come running rubles for gold to exchange laughing

          Hence it turns out that now this "ruble" will not work as it did in the presence of the CMEA. Since there is no CMEA already.

          The only thing that this "ruble" is able to provide at the present time is the reduction of the gold reserves of the Russian Federation. Which, obviously, is not good.

          That's all.

          So it is not at all (and not so much) that "liberals in the government" are hindering the revival of the "transferable ruble" dear to you, but quite objective circumstances.

          Somehow yes

          Quote: Author Valentin KATASONOV
          How useful is this tool? He helped the economy maintain independence from Western markets, from international crisis processes. 1960's experience does not need to be copied, but it is necessary to use it in our interests

          That is, it is necessary to use "experience", but how - I don’t know myself .. or I know, but I won’t tell you .. very "Katason-style", by the way. I croaked - and into the bushes laughing
          1. apro
            apro 24 January 2016 09: 29
            -2
            Quote: Cat Man Null
            well, let's say the Russian Federation has introduced a "transferable ruble"

            In addition, you can set a conversion rate that is advantageous for yourself, it was recalled how Comrade IV Stalin set the thaler course for settlements after the war, interestingly. In addition, you can set your own trading rules for specific exchange goods. And the ruble of the Nepa period also proved to be quite good in foreign trade operations, the main thing do not let it flow by gravity and prevent speculation with this product. The main thing is to turn off the thaler from Russia's foreign trade or to severely limit it. And what does it mean to accumulate transferable rubles and demand gold? international trade for Russia should be zero-free, watch the debit with credit and grief do not know .
            1. Cat man null
              Cat man null 24 January 2016 09: 44
              +2
              Quote: apro
              The main thing is to turn off the thaler from the foreign trade of Russia or to severely limit

              Explain clearly - why is it necessary? Purely economically - what will it lead to? I must say right away that this will not affect the States in any way ..

              Quote: apro
              In addition, you can set your trading rules for specific exchange goods.

              What are "their" rules, more specifically? For what products?

              Quote: apro
              And what does it mean to accumulate transferable rubles and demand gold?

              This is what it means. They sold something for "transferable rubles". They did not buy anything from the Russian Federation for them, but exchanged them for gold. According to the course. They have every right ..

              Quote: apro
              international trade for Russia should be zero-def

              Who cares, except for the Russian Federation? Right nobody yes

              Quote: apro
              Watch a debit with a loan and do not know grief.

              Your mouth, yes .. grunt the honey ..

              Excuse me - another time already inspired laughing
          2. Fat
            Fat 24 January 2016 11: 20
            +2
            ... I think I figured out where the "gold of the party" went laughing
      2. avt
        avt 24 January 2016 11: 38
        +2
        Quote: Cat Man Null
        Quote: apro
        what is hindering the revival of this instrument now? only the position of our liberal government
        Lack of CMEA. The transferable ruble simply could not go beyond the countries of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance by its nature.

        If it meant the introduction of an analogue within the EAEU, then only the struggle for the "equality" of national sovereign states in admission to the emission center, in which, in the best traditions, there is no such crime that the capitalist would not commit upon receiving 300% of the profit "see the source enrichment, covered with slogans like “we don’t trade in hype!” Hence all these declarations about the transition to a single means of payment and a complete rejection of it in practice. , will erase zeros from bills, but will not switch to real integration in the payment system. This is a medical fact given in a sensation.
    2. Fat
      Fat 24 January 2016 11: 12
      +2
      Yes, it was in the mid-80s! Arab oil in petrodollars was cheaper on the world market than URALS in gold-bound PR inside CMEA, and even long-term contracts. In the CMEA they creaked their teeth, but paid ... Not many people now remember this. yes hi
      1. AK64
        AK64 24 January 2016 12: 22
        +1
        Yes, it was in the mid-80s! Arab oil in petrodollars was cheaper on the world market than URALS in gold-bound PR inside CMEA, and even long-term contracts. In the CMEA they creaked their teeth, but paid ... Not many people now remember this.

        This is not entirely true, and even not at all true: In the 70s, the "CMEA brothers" dabbled in re-export of oil.
        But in the mid-80s (in December 85), the price suddenly dropped. And the contracts in the CMEA were long-term ... That's when the "teeth gnashing" began.

        But in the 70s they somehow did not complain about cheap oil
    3. AK64
      AK64 24 January 2016 12: 17
      +2
      what is hindering the revival of this instrument now? only the position of our liberal government. With such an instrument as the transferable ruble, such dances with the price of oil and the rate of thaler would be impossible. Bravo Katasonov !!!


      Amazing frivolity ....
      This kind of settlement unit is only possible by mutual agreement within a group of countries.
      Organize countries, since you are so smart
      1. apro
        apro 24 January 2016 12: 28
        -1
        Mutual settlements with China, India, Iran, Brix, Shanghai group, need the will to abandon thaler.
        1. atalef
          atalef 24 January 2016 12: 41
          0
          Quote: apro
          Mutual settlements with China, India, Iran, Brix, Shanghai group, need the will to abandon thaler.

          And Russia will pull it?
          For that matter, ayun will be stronger and better provided.
        2. atalef
          atalef 24 January 2016 12: 41
          0
          Quote: apro
          Mutual settlements with China, India, Iran, Brix, Shanghai group, need the will to abandon thaler.

          And Russia will pull it?
          For that matter, ayun will be stronger and better provided.
        3. AK64
          AK64 24 January 2016 14: 55
          0
          That's what they are trying to agree on.
          But here, too, the ruble will not be the interethnic unit (and the yuan option is --- and not backed by anything, by the way - this is for you to know)
    4. atalef
      atalef 24 January 2016 12: 34
      +4
      Quote: apro
      The gold security of the transferable ruble made it a reliable tool for international exchange and a competitor to thaler

      No one knows how much it was and whether it was provided with gold. Because the simple question arises, namely
      The gold content of the transferable ruble was set at 0,987412 g of pure gold.

      Over 10 years (1964-1973), the average annual payment turnover between the IBEC member countries amounted to 32,4 billion transferable rubles. Over the years, IBEC has provided short-term loans totaling 22 billion transferable rubles.


      I will not touch on the size of the commodity circulation (for now), since one ruble in circulation 1000 times gives 1000 rubles of commodity circulation, while remaining one ruble.
      For now, I will only touch on loans from shopping mall. loans - this is not a commodity circulation and, therefore, at least they should have full-fledged PR.
      so howl 22 billion (and this is only loans) - would have to be secured 22000000000 multiplied by 0.987 and get - 21t.tons of gold - and this is only about gold collateral loans for PR.
      (Of course, I would also recall the Sosvetsky ruble and its inscriptions on providing each other with metals and other assets) as well as I do not touch PR rubles in circulation in addition to credit lines.
      The gold reserve of the USSR at the maximum was
      by the time of Stalin's death in 1953, 2500 tons.

      In the following decades, the country's gold reserves were mainly reduced

      those by the time of CMEA he was the same, but here we will round up - for the pleasure of cheers - patriots and introduce. that he was 2500 tons
      After these 2 elementary things - in general, we will understand that no gold support for PR existed and APRIORI could not exist.
      By the way, and providing other metals and other assets of the State Bank of the USSR, the old Soviet ruble.
      IMHO,
    5. The comment was deleted.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 24 January 2016 07: 58
    0
    COMECON, with a transferable ruble .. according to the mind, everything was done ...
    1. AK64
      AK64 24 January 2016 12: 24
      +4
      Yeah .... That's all joyfully collapsed ...
      "according to the mind"

      It would be "smart", would not fall apart so quickly and with such pleasure
  4. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 24 January 2016 08: 18
    +2
    I also remember "clearing dollars". Back in "Soviet times" it happened to go to the socialist countries <via "Sputnik"> (yes, yes ... and I was once: "young and good-looking"!) assistant to the head of the group and together with him went to the bank to "exchange" the check for local money ... it was in it that "these" dollars "were" designated ". This happened in Yugoslavia and, it seems, in Romania.
  5. samarin1969
    samarin1969 24 January 2016 08: 55
    +1
    The ruble is certainly a convenient tool .... But in the end ...
    Large (!) Export potential outside the social. the system "partners" in the CMEA did not possess ... the USSR, how could it earn currency both for itself and for the proud "brothers" ...
    It was necessary to be more pragmatic ... Napoleon, Genghis Khan, Caesar and the Allies did not stand on ceremony, they raked out everything that they considered necessary, but left for life. Kindness in politics is weakness.
    1. apro
      apro 24 January 2016 09: 04
      0
      The transferable ruble was necessary for the comprehensive development of the social system as a counterweight to the capitalists, and of course there have been successes in this field.
      Quote: samarin1969
      Large (!) Export potential outside the social. the system "partners" in the CMEA did not possess.

      Well, yes, the aircraft industry of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic or the shipbuilding of the NDP, the machine tool building of the GDR and the Hungarian Icarus? Which is not there now, the industrial potential of the socialist countries has grown nowhere to go.
      1. samarin1969
        samarin1969 24 January 2016 10: 01
        +3
        Icarus bought the whole world? ... or just CMEA countries?
      2. AK64
        AK64 24 January 2016 12: 30
        +1
        The transferable ruble was necessary for the comprehensive development of the social system as a counterweight to the capitalists, and of course there have been successes in this field.


        The transferable ruble was necessary in order not to trade for dollars at least inside. But only. (especially since the "brothers" did not have dollars anyway).

        Quote: samarin1969
        Large (!) Export potential outside the social. the system "partners" in the CMEA did not possess.


        Well, yes, the aircraft industry of Czechoslovakia


        Long laugh
        or shipbuilding

        Long laugh
        machine tool building of the GDR

        Long laugh
        and Hungarian Icarus?

        A long laugh.

        Dear, WHO needed these Icarus? Only the USSR and other CMEA bought them from Hungary. And even then they bought it because the Icarus are good, but because at least something is hoped in exchange for oil and raw materials from the "brothers" to take!
        And these Icarus took a loss.
        That is why now these Ikarus are not there.

        "Aviation Industry of Czechoslovakia" is reduced to ONE brand of aircraft - L-410. Horror just what "potential"

        which now is absent, the industrial potential of the socialist countries grew to get nowhere.

        Yes, growing up. Due to the USSR.
        So we have a sad result
        1. apro
          apro 24 January 2016 13: 02
          0
          Well, laugh, go to the wiki about Icarus to enlighten, were Czech dolphins and albatrosses also built just for the Warsaw treaty? Or did they buy half of Africa and Asia? Polish ships were also built just for fun? The socialist countries lived according to their own laws and got into the wild market only after betrayal humpbacked and collapsed almost everything.
          1. AK64
            AK64 24 January 2016 15: 02
            -2
            And you look at how many of those L-410 were produced - and compare at least with a Boeing. Or with An-2. (By the way, the An-2 diverged better than the L-410; I am the An-2, non-working naturally, even in Spain personally. I am silent about helicopters. Yes, and the Yak-40 at one time diverged like pies.)
            Yes, and he bought that L-410 only CMEA (and where to get to?) And all sorts of Asia ...

            All this "export potential" was created by the USSR and with the money of the USSR, so that the "brothers" had something to pay for. Nobody except the CMEA itself did not need these products and nafig.
            How it ended - as would be known, too.
  6. Free wind
    Free wind 24 January 2016 09: 03
    +1
    Well, transferable rubles may have been, but only I remember that on TV they talked about foreign exchange rubles, and these are the same dollars. And the exchange rate was published, it seems in the newspaper Izvestia.
  7. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 24 January 2016 09: 23
    +1
    I always read articles by V. Katasonov with interest. Substantive and reasoned.
  8. kitamo
    kitamo 24 January 2016 09: 33
    0
    Quote: Free Wind
    And the exchange rate was published, it seems in the newspaper Izvestia.


    and it was equal to 64 pennies per dollar, YEARS ...
    1. Cat man null
      Cat man null 24 January 2016 09: 51
      +5
      Quote: kitamo
      and it was equal to 64 pennies per dollar, YEARS ...

      Or 68?

      Yes, the goblin would be with him .. because that course was purely "paper", "drawn", buying dollars for rubles (in violation of the Criminal Code, by the way) cost a lot of other money, and you could buy them only for chervonets, as I have heard. Other bills were not quoted for some reason belay
    2. AK64
      AK64 24 January 2016 12: 32
      +2
      A long laugh ....

      And you could buy in every bank, probably, huh?

      What difference does it make to what "costs" something that you can't buy anyway?
  9. igordok
    igordok 24 January 2016 10: 24
    +3
    As before, it was difficult to advance the ruble now. Type - competition.
  10. olimpiada15
    olimpiada15 24 January 2016 11: 55
    0
    The worst thing that is happening now, the national currency has ceased to be essentially a full-fledged means of payment. The original role, as the equivalent of the cost of goods, services, has been lost.
    It is annoying that Uncle Sam turns paper dollars into a means of payment with a magic wand, and the national currencies behind which the produced goods stand are scraps of paper.
    And something needs to be done with this. The magic wand was not in the hands of
    a good wizard, and an evil demon who takes away the right to life from entire nations, executes the innocent and rewards his smaller demon assistants.
    The national currency must be returned to its original status.
    Working people who produce goods, participate in the production process and provide life support services should be able to manage the earned money themselves, but all speculative processes with currency lead to the fact that while some work, others are looking for a way to take what they have earned. It’s to take it away, for a person who sometimes works to wear out in order to provide for his family, periodically discovers that his purchasing power has significantly decreased, he may lose his previously acquired, because unable to further repay the loan, mortgage.
    If you do not take sufficient measures to protect the purchasing power of the ruble, then Russia as a country will cease to exist.
  11. gattus
    gattus 24 January 2016 13: 09
    +2
    The result of the use of transferable rubles is deplorable: for example, after the collapse of the USSR, it turned out that we owed Bulgaria 1 billion dollars.
  12. borys
    borys 24 January 2016 14: 29
    +3
    Here we have correctly noticed - in Soviet times it was really impossible to buy
    cash dollars. So what? Everything that was really necessary was normal.
    person for a normal life (meaning wealth)
    could be bought for rubles. Indeed, there was a shortage of jamon,
    pineapples and jeans. But these things alone are not vital
    dim. And after all, they lived quite well, without dollars, stamps and
    pounds sterling.
    1. AK64
      AK64 24 January 2016 15: 08
      -1
      They correctly noticed here - in Soviet times it was really impossible to buy cash dollars. So what?


      А thatthat it is pointless to talk about the dollar exchange rate in such conditions: estimate it at least 10 kopecks, at least 1 kopeck - it's all the same: this rate will only be used by "a limited number of persons" who are allowed to travel to the nasty west.

      And people like you will only have a feeling of pride: "how we humiliated the dollar!"

      Indeed, there was a shortage of jamon,
      pineapples and jeans. But these things alone are not vital. And after all, they lived quite well, without dollars, stamps and various pounds sterling.


      Uh-huh: buying wheat and that over the hill. Or is the wheat "jeans and jamon"? Your parents bought meat in which store? Or are you a ministerial clan of a tribe? (Or just from MSC?)

      Let me remind you that Gorby, having come to power in 85, promised "a separate apartment to each and every one by the year 1986." Is the apartment (that is, a corny place to live) - is it a jamon or is it a jin?
      1. olimpiada15
        olimpiada15 24 January 2016 15: 38
        0
        None of what Gorbi promised, he did not fulfill.
        But, housing was under construction, apartments were provided, and there were no homeless people. Who sought to get an apartment, received. And now, how many people are tormented with a mortgage, they take it when they are able to pay, and the country's economy is in a fever, as a result of neither money, nor an apartment, nor housing, a lot of debts.
        Yes, there was no currency, but it was real to buy imported things — I bought it myself without any kind of blat.
        1. AK64
          AK64 24 January 2016 17: 05
          0
          None of what Gorbi promised, he did not fulfill.

          The point is not whether I did it or not. (And do not forget what he promised by 2000, but he was removed in 1990 - so "he just didn't have time").
          But it is not a matter of fulfilling or not. The fact is that in 1985 the housing situation was already so sad that the Secretary General himself began to promise! And only by the year 2000. And here we are about jamon and jeans pour

          But, housing was under construction, apartments were provided, and there were no homeless people.

          You just don’t know what they were. You would at least know in what year the barracks were removed from the housing stock.
          That is, the barracks were not dispersed or settled - they were simply ordered not to be included in the housing stock.

          Yes, actually, what am I talking about? Do you even know what a "barrack" is?
          "There were no homeless people", yeah ...

          Who sought to get an apartment, received.

          Sick person...
          The conversation with you is over, go wipe the milk off the sponges first, "expert"
          1. olimpiada15
            olimpiada15 24 January 2016 22: 37
            +3
            No need to be rude. My comment is based on life experience.
            Barracks. Half, if not more, of my classmates in elementary school lived in barracks.
            Over time, they were demolished. At first, people built houses themselves, they allocated building materials and land. When I studied at the institute, not a single hut remained. Housing was under construction, it was brick and panel houses. The whole village of comfortable housing has grown. Over time, all one-story houses were landscaped: heating, hot and cold water, sewage, only gas in cylinders.
            I remember the times when steam trains went along the railway. In spring, snow was black with soot. Over time, the territory of the enterprise was landscaped and walking in imported boots or shoes was quite comfortable. For a long time it is not necessary to cross the railway tracks - overpasses have been built.
            There was a defense enterprise in the neighborhood, the salaries there were higher than at our enterprise, but our plant built more housing. Those who needed housing came to work with us, got a well-furnished apartment and went to a higher salary. My peers because of housing went to work for a construction site, the builders in each new house were allocated apartments.
            The enterprise developed, boiler houses were converted to gas, and in the spring the snow ceased to be black. Houses, kindergartens, schools, dispensaries were built at every enterprise. When in the 80s there were problems with products, a subsidiary farm appeared. There is a good lunch in the canteens, you go into cooking, buy food for dinner. There were no problems in the 80s: neither with kindergartens, nor with rest (there was a boarding house in Tuapse district), nor with treatment. Yes, they went to the demonstration with pleasure - part of the road passed along the high bank of the river and collective picnics on the way back.
            Maybe there weren’t such enterprises everywhere, but there were a lot of them. In any case, all the enterprises in the area of ​​the city where I grew up and live.
            Comparing the lives of ordinary people working in manufacturing in the Soviet era and now: in those days we simply did not suspect that there would be present wretchedness. Endless bankruptcies, non-payment of salaries, unemployment. People who do hard work cannot afford a hot lunch.
    2. avt
      avt 24 January 2016 23: 04
      +2
      Quote: borys
      Here we have correctly noticed - in Soviet times it was really impossible to buy
      cash dollars. So what?

      Quote: AK64
      And the fact that talking about the dollar exchange rate in such conditions is meaningless: estimate it at least 10 kopecks, at least 1 kopeck - it's all the same: this rate will only be used by "a limited number of persons" who are allowed to travel to the nasty west.

      And people like you will only have a feeling of pride: "how we humiliated the dollar!"

      The Americans clearly control the dollars for the INTERNAL turnover - Reichstallers and instantly withdraws from circulation in the territory of the USA the folkstalers that they throw with ALL OUTSIDE USA. In such a simple way, inflation control in the USA is exercised. And with the natives lacking colored papers, they even give a cliche and a machine tool — sculpt as much as you like, but with reference to the issue by the local central bank of the native currency, the Chechens actually printed dollars in Turkey to pay militants. But here a small slip came out - after migrating from Russia to the USA, a lot of these folks dollars went down and they started to catch them in Russia by numbers and series. So the fact is that the NATIONAL currency was in the country and not otherwise, but the state controlled the turnover of the western one by Vneshpoststorg checks. And besides
      Quote: AK64
      And people like you will only have a feeling of pride: "how we humiliated the dollar!"

      There was a very specific reason and mechanism for protecting our own financial system from all kinds of coexisting currency speculators.
  13. Pvi1206
    Pvi1206 25 January 2016 02: 04
    +1
    There was a transferable ruble, but there were no consumer goods. I had to get everything. You could not just buy an apartment or a car. It is necessary to develop the domestic production of such goods. And Russia is moving in this direction, but not for all groups of goods so far has achieved good results. Of course, it is necessary to overcome a situation in which someone could impose sanctions on our country that are painful for the population and the economy as a whole.
  14. gladcu2
    gladcu2 25 January 2016 20: 38
    0
    Dmitry Puchkov has a good film for the article.

    Dear Ave. Thanks to Katasonov for educational articles.