Military Review

Faith and splits

63
Ask the first person you met on the street what world religions he knows, and he is unlikely to give you the answer to this, in essence, a simple question. Well, first of all, he will not call you Shinto, and Shinto is a world religion. Well, and then frank confusion will go on with Orthodoxy and Catholicism, Shiites and Sunnis, in a word, you will not get an exact answer from anyone, with rare exception. And, of course, even many believers either consider themselves as such, even if they are Christians, even Muslims, are unlikely to answer the question, in what ways did people come to faith in the form in which they believe in God now?



Nicene Cathedral (Romanian fresco, XVIII century).

But our whole история - this is not only the history of wars, but also the history of the search for true faith and the best way to save the soul, and the most interesting thing is that this search is still ongoing today! Well, our story will go about the intricate ways of this search, and we will touch only two confessions - Christianity and the Muslim religion.

Is Christianity a space for fantasy?

It all began with the fact that already in the II. n er Christian theologians attempted to unite the newly-born Christianity with Greek philosophy, and they have succeeded a great deal in this endeavor. Well, early Christianity opened up a wide scope for various interpretations, as it was still evolving. Many of them were then ranked as heresy - that is, to a strictly deviation from the true faith, but, however, these too were teachings, and they were sometimes followed by huge masses of people, although the church later condemned these teachings.

The earliest of those who disagree

The blood of the first Christians was still spilled in the arenas of the Roman circuses (the emperor Nero accused them of burning Rome in 64 AD), and the first heresies began to appear. And at first it was Gnosticism in various forms, with the preaching of which were the bishops Valentin and Basilides. They argued that matter is evil, so they made a distinction between the creator of the world and the true God, in whom they saw two different entities, and this, of course, did not fit in with what was written in the Bible.

In Asia Minor such a doctrine arose as Montanism, which received its name from the name of the Phrygian pagan priest Montana, who became a Christian around X. NUMX AD. er He preached living spiritual communion with God. As well as freedom from the church hierarchy and rituals, and all this, in his opinion, could be seen in individual charisms or special gifts from the Holy Spirit, and, above all, the gift of prophecy. That is, it came out very conveniently: you have a prophetic gift, therefore, you entered into a living communion with God. And if not - do not blame me, not yet mature! The followers of Montana, among whom the prophets Priscus (or Priscilla) and Maximilla used special honor, recognized their teacher as Paraclete (the Comforter Spirit), who was promised to the people with the Gospel of John. A part of the Christians, which continued to follow the Jewish doctrines, entered the Ebionite sect (from the Hebrew word “poor”). The Ebionites claimed that Jesus actually came just to fulfill the law and the ancient prophecies, that is, it was akin to Moses. They believed that he had only removed the falsity that had accumulated throughout the history of the Jewish people from the Law, and preached asceticism, life in poverty and vegetarianism. But the most interesting thing is that they believed that they were a bridge between the Church and the Synagogue, since their faith combines both Christianity and Judaism. But such a symbiosis was not at all liked by representatives of orthodox creeds; as a result, the Christian church accused them as heretics, and the Jewish church as apostates.

The Trinity Question and the Problem of the Weak

In the III. the first disagreements concerning the Trinity, as well as the church itself and the sacrament, went. There was a monarchy, which was popular in Rome, and which asserted the unity of God, but rejected three of its incarnations. At the same time, Adoptianism, which Paul preached from Samosata, affirmed the human, not the divine nature of Christ.

At the same time, Novocianism appeared (named after the Presbyter Novatian), which became a clearly Puritanist teaching in Rome and advocated not forgiving all those who renounce their faith in fear of persecution or because of weakness of spirit fell into a grave sin! And it is amazing how they thought of this, because Christ himself, as you know, forgave his enemies!

The quest for truth and the first Ecumenical Councils

In the IV. Arianism was widely spread, so named after the presbyter Arius of Alexandria, who taught that God the Father created the Son of God, and therefore he is different from his father in nature. The First Ecumenical Council of Nicaea in 325, condemned Arianism, and affirmed that God the Father and the Son are one in essence, and then the same was confirmed at the Council of Constantinople in 381. But condemnation is condemnation, but how could it be that then already many nations, for example, the same Goths, Vandals and Burgundians, became Christians precisely according to the Arian teachings ?! Moreover, there is even a version that in Russia, too, there was an early Arian sense. But why? In 2006, in the city of Orel, the “Arian community of the city of Orel” of 20 people appeared. Apparently, the path of salvation according to the teachings of Arius turned out to be closer to them than traditional Orthodoxy, and why so, who knows?

After all, there was also the patriarch of Constantinople Nestorius, the creator of Nestorianism, who believed that Christ was born as a man, and only later the Word of God joined him. Opponents of Nestorius accused him of a “split personality” of Christ and condemned the teachings in 431 during the third Ecumenical Council in Ephesus.

However, there was the opposite extreme — Eutihianism or Monophysitism, which completely denied the human principle in Jesus, but it was also rejected by Khalkedon Cathedral in 451 year. Proponents of Pelagianism and its milder form, semi-Pelagianism, were of the opinion that Adam's original sin did not affect human nature, and any mortal is able to arbitrarily choose good or evil, and God’s help is not required.

Adam’s sin was just a “bad example” for posterity, they argued, but he had no other harmful consequences. But the role of Jesus, on the contrary, was a "good example" for all mankind and opposed the "bad example" of Adam, and is also an atonement for sins. Pelagian doctrine says that people are sinners of their own choice, and therefore sinners are not victims, but criminals who need not to be punished, but ... to forgive! And it is still possible for people to achieve perfection without the help of the church, although Blessed Augustine condemned them for this, because he believed that the original sin was so heavy that without the directing hand of the clergy in search of salvation, you will not get away with it!

There were also Cathars, from the Greek “catharsis” - “cleansing”, or Albigoyans (after the city of Albi), who also considered themselves Christians. But they claimed that hell is life on Earth, and heaven in heaven, that man is born in hell and ascends to heaven, that the cross is not a symbol of faith, but an instrument of execution, because people in Rome were crucified! The Cathars said terrible things from the point of view of normal Catholics. For example, that meat food defiles the mouth equally all the days, so there is no point in sticking to posts, and that the sin of killing a living creature is not hushed. And they dared to say the following: “If the Lord God is omnipotent and allows for what is happening in this world, then He is not the all-good. But if He is all-good and allows for what is happening in the world, then He is not omnipotent. ” And, despite such terrible statements, their religion attracted a lot of people in the South of France, where culture and economy began to flourish, until they were destroyed by orthodox Catholic crusaders Northerners! “Swear and bear false witness,” said the Cathars, “but do not reveal the secrets!” That is, changing faith in difficult circumstances was as simple as changing pants for them. Therefore, the Catholics demanded that they also kill the dog when they converted to Catholicism, they did not trust the Cathars' oath alone. And what? When their March of Montsegur fell on March 1244, the 216 Cathars, singing hymns, proudly descended from the mountain and climbed the fires that burned below, and not only men, but also women and children! Now this place is called the Field of the Burned and marked with a memorial cross - a clear symbol of the strength of their faith!

"Kill them like the people of Hell!"

Muslims, moreover, at the earliest stages of the formation of Islam, heretical branches of the true faith were also enough. For example, one of the earliest "deviations", whose representatives came out against the legitimate Muslim rulers and turned out to recognize as unbelievers those of the Muslims who sinned gravely, became Kharijism. The Prophet Mohammed demanded that the Kharijites simply kill: “They will come out of Islam just as an arrow pierces game. If you find them, kill them the way the Hell tribe was once killed. ”

Muhakkimites and azrakits were also known - also supporters of the Khariji sect. They argued that people who have committed at least one grave sin immediately turn into unbelievers, and for this they will burn forever in hell. There are known varieties of the Kharijite sect — nadzhdy, baykhasits, ajradites, salabits, ibadits, sufrits, etc. At the same time, Muslim theologians themselves find between them many serious differences in the interpretation of questions of faith and norms of Islamic law, so everything is even very very difficult .

People practicing jahmism also consider themselves Muslims, but, according to Muslims themselves, they are heretics in relation to faith. And how can they not be considered as such if they refuse to recognize many events that should happen on the Day of Judgment: in the Bridge, which will be spread between the ridges of Hell, they do not believe, deny Libra, the very possibility of contemplating Allah, the Quran is considered to be ... created. Mu'tazilitis (“isolated”, “separated”) are supporters of asharism and maturidism — the teachings that arose according to the Muslim calendar around the 900 year. All human actions, they said, are the creations of Allah, that is, without him you will not even pull the hair out of your beard. But only the Maturidites believed that they were based only on the will of Allah, and the form of the act itself depends on the will of man. At the same time, the Asharites asserted that Allah only gives people the ability to perform certain actions and gives them free will. That is, if a person does not interfere, he can do them.

The truth is always there somewhere ...

In addition, Murdzhity, Kadarites, Dzhabarites are also known, and this is not counting the division of Muslims into Shiites and Sunnis, in essence, equal to the division of Christians into Catholics, Orthodox and Protestants. This is how difficult, it turns out, the path to salvation, and how difficult it was at the dawn of the formation of the two world religions of Christianity and Islam, to learn the Truth. And who knows if this truth is known even now ?!
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 25 January 2016 08: 12
    +4
    Indeed, theThe truth is always there somewhere ...... Thanks, Vyacheslav ....
    1. Megatron
      Megatron 26 January 2016 00: 02
      0
      Nevertheless, the article personally seemed to me of little substance.
    2. ava09
      ava09 4 November 2016 22: 55
      0
      The truth is not “somewhere out there,” but “always nearby.”) For some - objectively about the subjective ...) In fact, any religion, in fact, an instruction or manual - how to live. Who likes to look for meanings - pass by ...
  2. V.ic
    V.ic 25 January 2016 09: 05
    +3
    [quote] and in what ways did people come to faith in the form in which they believe in God now? The author Vyacheslav Shpakovsky [/ quote
    No wonder how many people, so many opinions!
    Y. Levitan
    "Everyone chooses for himself a woman, religion, road.
    To the devil serve or the prophet - everyone chooses for himself.
    .............
    Everyone chooses for himself. I choose too - as I can.
    I have no complaints about anyone ... "
  3. androv
    androv 25 January 2016 09: 06
    15
    galloping across Europe .. about everything and about nothing ..
  4. Aleksander
    Aleksander 25 January 2016 09: 22
    +6
    This is how difficult, it turns out, the path to salvation, and how difficult it was at the dawn of the formation of the two world religions of Christianity and Islam, was to know the truth

    You cannot know the truth, you can only be on the path to knowing it. And on this path, to learn and comprehend everything new and new. Maybe this movement is Truth?
    1. kalibr
      25 January 2016 12: 42
      +1
      The slogan of the Russian Socialist-Revolutionaries: the movement toward the goal is everything, the goal itself is nothing.
      1. Mr. Pip
        Mr. Pip 25 January 2016 13: 32
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        The slogan of the Russian Socialist Revolutionaries

        So this is where the hippie movement began wassat
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 25 January 2016 16: 43
        +1
        It is believed that this quote was launched by flying Eduard Bershtein - German
        socialist, "founding father" of all modern European
        social democracy.
      3. Erzya
        Erzya 25 January 2016 22: 48
        0
        And the "liberals" in particular.
    2. midivan
      midivan 25 January 2016 13: 32
      14
      and maybe so smile
      1. partizan86
        partizan86 25 January 2016 21: 03
        +3
        The picture reminded recently read:
        "Bohm's" crazy "idea was also pushed by the sensational experiment with elementary particles at the time. Physicist from the University of Paris Alan Aspect in 1982 discovered that under certain conditions electrons are able to instantly communicate with each other regardless of the distance between them.

        It doesn’t matter, ten millimeters between them or ten billion kilometers. Somehow, each particle always knows what the other is doing. Only one problem of this discovery confused: it violates Einstein’s postulate about the limiting speed of interaction propagation equal to the speed of light.

        Since traveling faster than the speed of light is tantamount to breaking the time barrier, this frightening prospect has made physicists seriously doubt the Aspect's work.

        But Bom managed to find an explanation. According to him, elementary particles interact at any distance, not because they exchange some mysterious signals among themselves, but because their separation is illusory. He explained that at some deeper level of reality, such particles are not separate objects, but actually extensions of something more fundamental.

        “The professor illustrated his elaborate theory with the following example,” wrote Michael Talbot, author of the book “The Holographic Universe”. - Imagine an aquarium with fish. Imagine also that you cannot see the aquarium directly, but you can only watch two television screens that transmit images from cameras located one in front and the other on the side of the aquarium.

        Looking at the screens, you can conclude that the fish on each of the screens are separate objects. Since cameras transmit images from different angles, the fish look different. But, continuing to observe, after a while you will find that there is a relationship between the two fish on different screens.

        When one fish turns, the other also changes direction, slightly differently, but always corresponding to the first. When you see one fish from the front, the other is certainly in profile. If you do not have a complete picture of the situation, you would rather conclude that the fish must somehow instantly communicate with each other, that this is not a coincidence. "

        From here http://earth-chronicles.ru/news/2016-01-24-88327
        Off-topic, but could not resist :)
        1. The comment was deleted.
  5. nekot
    nekot 25 January 2016 09: 25
    +7
    Question to the author: with what fright is Shinto a world religion? Then it’s more logical to call paganism the world religion)
    1. Darkness
      Darkness 25 January 2016 10: 31
      +3
      Paganism is also different
      1. alebor
        alebor 25 January 2016 11: 07
        +8
        It's not about paganism. The world religions include those that are not local religions of individual countries, peoples or regions, but have received worldwide distribution. Different authors differ in determining the number of world religions, but most are of the opinion that there are only three of them: Christianity, Islam and Buddhism.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    2. Scraptor
      Scraptor 25 January 2016 15: 44
      0
      and why is he in
      and in what ways did people come to faith in the form in which they believe in God now?

      confuses "believe" and "believe" (from ascertained) ...
    3. shasherin.pavel
      shasherin.pavel 26 January 2016 22: 21
      0
      Paganism or polytheism existed wherever all the major religions of the world now exist, and there is paganism where no preacher has yet visited. It’s like with Noah, it exists under different names on all continents except Antarctica.
      1. Aljavad
        Aljavad 27 January 2016 01: 03
        0
        It’s like with Noah, it exists under different names on all continents except Antarctica.


        Not all nations have a flood myth. And a boat. Well, about Noah ...

        The opinion that the flood myth is universal is a myth of the era of great geographical discoveries.
    4. Aljavad
      Aljavad 27 January 2016 01: 01
      0
      nekot RU January 25, 2016 09:25 New
      Question to the author: with what fright is Shinto a world religion? Then it’s more logical to call paganism the world religion)


      I agree. If Shinto is global, what is national?
  6. Vladislav 73
    Vladislav 73 25 January 2016 09: 28
    +3
    “What is truth?” Is the famous question of Pilate to Christ. It is correctly said how many people, so many opinions. And in this life, apparently, we will not be able to find out the answers to eternal questions. I would compare faith (or religion, to whom as more like) with the famous phrase from the movie "The Matrix" - I can only show the door, but you have to go the way yourself!
  7. Gorinich
    Gorinich 25 January 2016 09: 39
    +3
    The article is informative, but really as if about nothing. It is called: Faith and schisms ... By the way, the last schism in Orthodoxy occurred in 1918, it seems. And as usual, the cause of all splits is power and money.
    1. shasherin.pavel
      shasherin.pavel 26 January 2016 22: 24
      0
      The latter, when Ukraine left the Moscow Patriarchate, and now even more, they are planning to transfer Ukraine to the Vatican, the Baltic states as well. If this happens, it will be a SPLIT !!!
  8. resh
    resh 25 January 2016 11: 22
    +5
    There were many splits. It was more interesting to highlight the split in Ukraine. The UOC is in conflict with other Orthodox Churches officially registered in Ukraine - the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kiev Patriarchate and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church. Periodically, there are reports about the claims of these churches for the premises and property of the UOC and even about the seizure of parishes. (From Wikipedia) How does the Russian Orthodox Church relate to Greek Catholics? They have Orthodox rites with submission to the Pope. My head is spinning around to figure it out.
  9. Ingvar 72
    Ingvar 72 25 January 2016 11: 29
    +7
    Christianity itself also "branched off" from Judaism, and about 30 years after the crucifixion of Christ was considered a sect (heresy) within Judaism. Maybe this is where you need to look for the root of all subsequent splits? Islam, by the way, is also a religion of the Avramic sense, as is Christianity.
    And it is these religions that pull a blanket over themselves in the debate of the only true creed. Radical monotheism leads to radicalism. In polytheism there was no total intolerance towards the followers of other cults.
    1. Beaver
      Beaver 25 January 2016 15: 46
      +3
      Quote: Ingvar 72
      In polytheism there was no total intolerance towards the followers of other cults.

      You are mistaken. The closest counterargument directly from this article is:
      The blood of the first Christians was still shed in the arenas of Roman circuses (Emperor Nero accused them of setting fire to Rome in 64 C.E.)
      1. Ingvar 72
        Ingvar 72 25 January 2016 17: 58
        +2
        Well, only I would not refer to Nero, he thought quite a few. Fires were his personal idea; they made a scapegoat of Christians.
        If you noticed, I emphasized total intolerance. For all the seeming cruelty towards the first Christians, not so many of them died in the arenas, especially when compared with the victims with all kinds of "heresies". The Gnostics, the Arians are the losers in a religious feud. If they had won, today's Christianity would have been called heresy.
        1. Beaver
          Beaver 25 January 2016 22: 19
          +1
          Well, let's look at everything in order. hi
          Quote: Ingvar 72
          Christianity itself also "spun off" from Judaism, and about 30 years after the crucifixion of Christ was considered a sect (heresy) within the framework of Judaism.

          It is reliably known about the existence of three currents in Judaism before the advent of Christianity: the Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes. How many less significant ones still exist is unknown.
          "Within the framework of Judaism" Christianity is still considered sectarianism and a false teaching.
          Quote: Ingvar 72
          And it is these religions that pull a blanket over themselves in the debate of the only true creed.

          Not just these, but all existing ones. It is so obvious that I don’t even see the point of proving.
          Quote: Ingvar 72
          Well, only I would not refer to Nero

          Here I did not understand a little: it is not necessary to refer to Nero at all, or is it necessary to refer not to him alone? In ancient times, the Jews were "exclusive" monotheists. And that the "polytheists" around them did not attack them, did not destroy the Temple, did not force them to abandon their faith and worship their idols?
          The Communists had at least three idols: Marx, Engels, Lenin, why not polytheism? Can you tell about the tolerance of the Communists?
          Quote: Ingvar 72
          Gnostics, Arians - the losers in a religious feud.

          How did you define them as losers? They still exist under other names, and yes, all other teachings are called heresies, not only "modern Christianity." What is their loss? hi
          1. Ingvar 72
            Ingvar 72 26 January 2016 11: 24
            0
            Quote: Castor
            Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes.

            The Qumranites have been forgotten. But there were more.
            Quote: Castor
            Not just these, but all existing ones.

            Yes, what are you? belay Even Buddhism? Or Hinduism? laughing
            Quote: Castor
            It's so obvious

            Obviously - this is when the eyes are visible. Everything else is subjective.
            Quote: Castor
            And that the "polytheists" around them did not attack them, did not destroy the Temple, did not force them to abandon their faith and worship their idols?

            Jews and Christians aloud announced the only "real" God, calling the followers of other Gods idolaters. For which they received.
            But will you now defend your religious views? Let me give you an example on a personal basis - if suddenly someone begins to tell you about your mother’s dissolute lifestyle, then you will trite him with a muzzle. But from the point of view of radical Islam, ALL of our women are dissolute. And even now many people have stronger religious affiliations than relatives. I hope you got what I meant.
            Quote: Castor
            They still exist under other names.

            Arianism and Gnosticism? belay
          2. shasherin.pavel
            shasherin.pavel 26 January 2016 22: 36
            0
            Quote: Castor
            Marx, Engels, Lenin,

            Stalin ....
        2. shasherin.pavel
          shasherin.pavel 26 January 2016 22: 32
          0
          According to another historian of Rome: Nero was on vacation outside the city, and when he saw the fire, he rushed to the city, he himself participated in putting out the fire, and gave the victims rooms of his palace. Unfortunately, historians, how magpies rush to something that glitters, it was much more beautiful to expose Nero as a hysterical woman setting fire to Rome than a secular ruler who fought against Christianity. Someone paid attention to the life story of John the Terrible, where it is said that John Vasilievich is a composer of several psalms that are still sung in the Orthodox Church. But he did not like the Orthodox Church, for its relations in Kazan, since Christian Russian churches were founded there since the days of Batu.
      2. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 26 January 2016 08: 29
        +4
        Well, no. The Romans persecuted Christians not on a religious basis, but actually on a political basis. Although in those conditions it was interconnected.
        Of persecuted for refusing to recognize the divine essence of the emperor, and therefore, this is an open confrontation of political power in the first place. The religious color of the conflict was paramount for the Christians themselves, but for the Roman authorities it was primarily a political moment.
        1. shasherin.pavel
          shasherin.pavel 26 January 2016 22: 55
          0
          Quote: abrakadabre
          this is an open confrontation of political power in the first place.

          "Zadonshchina". In the middle of the battle, the words of the boyar Bryansky, from the city of Lyubutsk on the Oka River, on the land of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Russia, Alexander Peresvet: “This is the word“ The Lutches would have cast their own swords, rather than from the filthy ones ”, were said in the middle of the battle, when "Others are already lying, cut by Don the Great on the shore." Rodion Oslyabya, also a Bryansk boyar, tonsured monks under his old age, and served with Metropolitan Cyprian. Note that Rodion Oslyabya was not in the ministry of Sergius of Radonezh, just as the governor Alexander Peresvet could not be in the service of Sergius. The relations of Sergius of Radonezh and Dmitry Donskoy were not enough to say strained, since it was Sergius who wrote letters to the prince with a request to reconcile with Mamai. Dmitry Donskoy expels Metropolitan Kipriyan, for which he betrays Dmitry anathema. “Once me and my hierarchy subjected such dishonor! By the power of grace given to me from the Most Holy and Life-Giving Trinity, according to the rules of the Holy Fathers and Divine Apostles, those who were involved in my detention, imprisonment, dishonor and reproach, and those who gave advice to that, may be excommunicated and disobedient by me, Cyprian, Metropolitan of All Russia, and cursed, according to the rules of the Holy Fathers. "
          Sergius of Radonezh was in obedience to Metropolitan Kipriyan.
          1652 summer Nikon is the patriarch of Moscow and All Russia (Nikita Minin or Minov, from the peasant family Veliaminov of the Nizhny Novgorod province) becomes the seventh patriarch, after the death of Patriarch Joseph, who died in April, during intronization, Nikon forced the tsar to promise not to interfere in church affairs. He took the title “By the grace of God, the great lord and sovereign, archbishop of the reigning city of Moscow and all Great and Malyia and Belyaya Russia and all northern countries and Pomorie and many states, the patriarch”. And in 1653 l., The Patriarch realizes his ideas of the authenticity of rituals, replaces the bow of the earth with a half-length bow, two-fingers with three-fingers.
  10. abrakadabre
    abrakadabre 25 January 2016 11: 48
    +5
    However, the article did not provide an answer to the question at the beginning of the article itself - how many world religions exist. As there is no clear definition of what religion can be called world.

    For example, on what grounds is Shinto called an international religion in the article if almost all of its followers are in Japan or are representatives of the Japanese diaspora in other countries? That is, this religion is quite mono-ethnic.

    More suitable for world candidates such as:
    Hinduism - although it is mainly localized in India, but Hindus - is a conglomerate of dozens of peoples and nationalities.
    Confucianism and Taoism are the same (the Chinese are also divided into approximately 500 peoples and nationalities)
    1. kalibr
      25 January 2016 12: 41
      +4
      Confucianism is not a religion. This is a set of moral standards; worship of anyone in it is absent. And why Shintoism - you yourself wrote better than me. And the Japanese in their country and abroad, and there are many of them, do not refuse it, although it is closely intertwined with Buddhism. However, I agree that this is a debatable issue.
      1. Mr. Pip
        Mr. Pip 25 January 2016 13: 35
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        Confucianism is not a religion. This is a set of moral standards

        In a way, this also applies to Buddhism - it is rather a philosophical doctrine than religious in our understanding - but this is also a debatable issue, where the border of religion and philosophy request
        1. Beaver
          Beaver 25 January 2016 16: 01
          +2
          Quote: Mr. PIP
          debatable question, where is the border of religion and philosophy

          Nowhere passes, philosophy is a kind of religion. Like all other religions, he is trying to explain the origin of the world and man, the place of man in the world, the meaning of existence, the purpose of life, how to act correctly to achieve the goal of life. In this case, the same techniques and methods are used, the difference is only in their names, the essence is one. Think it over.
          1. abrakadabre
            abrakadabre 26 January 2016 08: 35
            0
            Less to you for ignorance. Philosophy in its present form is not religion, but science. Because it works according to a scientific method, not blind faith. And philosophy is focused on the knowledge of the world and the acquisition of new knowledge. Unlike religion, which is focused on the observance of the canon and is engaged in the preservation of the system of knowledge within the framework of the declared doctrine.
            1. Beaver
              Beaver 27 January 2016 19: 05
              0
              Quote: abrakadabre
              works according to a scientific method, not blind faith

              You will be very surprised if it ever comes to you that many of the postulates of modern science have not yet been proven by a scientific method and exist on the basis of hypotheses, i.e. based on blind faith. And at the same time, some specific religions (and not religion in general) work quite for themselves according to the scientific method, and if they are engaged in "preserving the system of their knowledge within the framework of the declared doctrine," then only in relation to knowledge about God, but not about the environment the world. hi
              I do not put
              Quote: abrakadabre
              Less to you for ignorance.
              1. abrakadabre
                abrakadabre 2 February 2016 09: 23
                0
                Yes, put a hundred minuses. You won’t be right anyway. On blind faith, nothing is done in science. There is a harmonious system in science, as new knowledge should replace obsolete ones. Hypotheses are never presented as eternal truths. Unlike religion. Even that which studies at school and is considered to be true at the moment, always means that this is truth only at the existing level of development of science. As soon as this is reliably and verifiably refuted by new knowledge, such obsolete truths move into the section of history.
                You are not just a minus, but a fatty minuscule.
                All the postulates of modern science regularly undergo one or another revision. New ways are being invented to verify or refute them. For fundamental constants, refinement.
                1. Scraptor
                  Scraptor 4 February 2016 10: 08
                  0
                  There are no hypotheses in religion ... What kind of "knowledge" is that not only becomes obsolete but also refuted? And what about blind faith in axioms?
            2. Scraptor
              Scraptor 27 January 2016 23: 08
              +1
              Theosophy is not science?

              Quote: abrakadabre
              not blind faith.

              most likely you have nothing to do with Religion, therefore you do not know ANYTHING about it.
          2. Aljavad
            Aljavad 27 January 2016 01: 21
            0
            Castor RU January 25, 2016 16:01 ↑ New
            Quote: Mr PIP
            debatable question, where is the border of religion and philosophy
            Nowhere passes, philosophy is a kind of religion. Like all other religions, he is trying to explain the origin of the world and man, the place of man in the world, the meaning of existence, the purpose of life, how to act correctly to achieve the goal of life. In this case, the same techniques and methods are used, the difference is only in their names, the essence is one. Think it over.


            "where is the border of religion and philosophy" - Philosophy THEORETICALLY seeks answers to "eternal" questions, allowing options and their development. Religion offers READY answers, dogmas and PRACTICAL norms of life, rejecting all other options.
            But they can flow into one another. Like craft and art.
      2. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 26 January 2016 08: 22
        0
        It is at the intellectual level that Confucianism (and the adjoining Taoism) is a philosophy. At the level of ordinary followers in the mass - it has all the signs of religion. So if you look into the eyes of reality - this is religion.
  11. Mangel olys
    Mangel olys 25 January 2016 11: 54
    +2
    One could also mention Tengrianism, as well as the influence of Tengrianism and Nestorianism on each other.
  12. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 25 January 2016 12: 47
    +5
    Instead of calmly describing and enraging development, options,
    disputes and schisms of early Christianity, the author cheerfully cooked up a short
    hack.
    He did not have enough patience for Muslims. Crumpled right away. negative
    1. kalibr
      25 January 2016 13: 39
      +3
      You would be tired of reading all this. Volumes do you imagine?
      1. Scraptor
        Scraptor 25 January 2016 15: 45
        +1
        volumes will be in Protestantism
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 25 January 2016 16: 49
        +1
        "Can you imagine the volumes?" ////

        Well, then draw a kind of brief table of the main events from R.Kh.
        until the 5th century, when Christianity became established.
    2. Heimdall47
      Heimdall47 25 January 2016 14: 20
      +1
      Swing on the ruble, hit a penny))
  13. a housewife
    a housewife 25 January 2016 13: 45
    +3
    You can talk for a very long time about all religions, heresies, sects, etc. Only faith and religion are like a real landscape and its many images, in the form of a photo, oil painting, watercolors, cross-stitch and stitch embroidery, children's drawing, verbal description in prose and poetry, mosaics, mock-ups are all that the human mind can invent. The real landscape is the truth, the rest is its interpretation, and even from different points of view, that is, a review. And if artists don’t fight over their images, then the nightmare of religious wars is just hell! Some, in their fanaticism, do not accept other concepts of God, others do not give a damn about everything to gain profit, and religion is just a cover. Religious wars are the worst crime. And crime is always beneficial to someone. To the devil.
    1. Aljavad
      Aljavad 27 January 2016 01: 24
      0
      And if artists don’t fight over their images,


      Do not fight. But they’re spoiling each other’s blood. In his professional jargon.
  14. Boris55
    Boris55 25 January 2016 15: 00
    +5
    Quote: Vyacheslav Shpakovsky
    ... Emperor Nero accused them of arson of Rome in 64 g. e. ... did not fit in with what was written in the Bible ...

    Could you clarify in which year the first Bible appeared?

    Quote: Vyacheslav Shpakovsky
    ... The Ecumenical Council of Nicaea in 325 condemned Arianism and approved ...


    The Emperor, Bishops, Priests and other "responsible persons", APPROVED laws, symbols, and most importantly - assigned the status of God to the prophet Jesus, for your own purposes and for your own sake!

    1st Constantinople. Gathered in 381 at Constantinople. Clarified the interpretation of the Trinity of God in the Creed and again refused to recognize Arianism. Half of the "high clergy" who arrived at this council were killed because they did not want to act according to the devil's plan and recognize Jesus as God.

    Ephesus. Gathered at 431 in Ephesus. Condemnation of Nestorianism, but most of the time devoted to the discussion of whether a woman has a soul.
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 25 January 2016 15: 37
      +3
      He is not only a prophet but also His Son
      1. Boris55
        Boris55 25 January 2016 19: 28
        +3
        Quote: Scraptor
        He is not only a prophet but also His Son

        We are all His children, with the exception of God's servants.
        1. Scraptor
          Scraptor 25 January 2016 20: 13
          0
          He has only one son.
    2. kalibr
      25 January 2016 20: 18
      +2
      The First Council of Nicaea - the Cathedral of the Church convened by Emperor Constantine I; Held in June 325 of the year in the city of Nicaea (now Iznik, Turkey); lasted more than two months and became the first Ecumenical Council in the history of Christianity.

      The Symbol of Faith was adopted at the cathedral, the Arian and other heresies were condemned, the separation from Judaism was finally proclaimed, Sunday instead of Saturday was recognized as a day off, the time for celebrating Easter by the Christian church was determined, and 20 canons were worked out.
  15. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 25 January 2016 17: 19
    +4
    Here is a table of all religions.
    "Schaub was in order! Learn, Schaub bounced off the teeth!" laughing
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Boris55
      Boris55 25 January 2016 18: 27
      +1
      In the Internet there is such a list



      http://79.120.77.163/klin/img_site/2016/img_all/12517_20160125232404.jpg
    3. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 26 January 2016 08: 42
      +1
      Exactly. Just such a scheme should be the basis of this article. Judging by its title. The content has slipped into particular. And only in one of the religions.
      If a series of articles was supposed, then in the introduction it would be better to give a general description of religions on the basis of such a scheme, give them a brief description, at least in general, reflect the genesis of the origin in historical and geographical terms.
      More detailed coverage can easily reach up to hundreds of folios.
  16. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 25 January 2016 18: 29
    +2
    Dear Vyacheslav, I liked the article. Thank you. I expect its continuation. I hope so.
    I will try to read the missed ones.
  17. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 25 January 2016 20: 45
    +1
    It is unclear why such an honor for Scientology ??? And hatred of Judaism and Hasidism ??? And where is Siberian Shamanism? Yezidism? Voodooism - is it also shamanism? Shamans of Brazil? Aborigines of Australia? Religions Aztecs, Mayans and Kechva, living up to so far ? I would attribute the religion of Judaism and Hinduism to the Worlds. Judaism is very ancient! The oldest of the monotheistic religions that have survived until now! It has survived despite the fact that the Jews are scattered throughout the world, they have preserved their rules and customs! Hinduism --- in Nepal, Cambodia, on the island of Bali, in England, Guyana, Suriname, French GuiAne, on the islands of Fiji. Its origin is lost in the darkness of time. And It --- spreads !!!
    In Our Country, the majority of believers are Orthodox. So it happened. Orthodoxy is the unity of the Russian people in the Country! How much was interested in neopaganism ---- at first it seems --- ah! and then --- no, not that.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 25 January 2016 23: 10
      0
      Somehow I didn’t write that Hinduism in India always is itself.
      1. abrakadabre
        abrakadabre 26 January 2016 08: 49
        0
        From the point of view of Hinduism, Buddhism is a subsidiary religious-philosophical movement within Hinduism. The situation is very similar to the situation of Abrahamic religions.
    2. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 26 January 2016 08: 46
      +1
      Do not confuse the modern American pseudo-religious sect "Scientology", which, like the Freemasons, is engaged in creating a secret power corporation and depriving adherents of the dough for their own needs on a particularly large scale and the traditional release of Japan "Shinto" or "Shintoism".
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 26 January 2016 15: 18
        0
        I somehow did not understand about the "confusion". In my opinion, no one is confusing it. Yesterday I was very indignant with the table that Boris55 brought. Probably, he himself DOES NOT AGREE with it. Scientology should not be in any table at all, except that in the "table of obscurantism" !!!
        My comment turned out to be chaotic, because I do not agree with the table. When trying to revive Slavism and Paganism, some fantasies and discrepancies are often found among different authors.
        Who made this table? Who characterized the Religions elements of Navi, Reveal and Reign? Why and on what basis?
        About Hinduism and Buddhism. Honestly, dear abrakadabre, I don’t know what Hindus think about Buddhism, I only know that they worship each other's Deities. There are common Deities. There are general concepts. The law of Karma, after all. With respect.
  18. partizan86
    partizan86 25 January 2016 20: 51
    0
    To ask the first comer ... It is still funny to remember how in the days when I was still on VKontakte, many in the worldview section (like that was called) adorned the inscription "peasant" :) Then people gradually understood what they had written :)
  19. gla172
    gla172 25 January 2016 22: 00
    -4
    fanatics of Christianity should think carefully, Fanatics, and not believers, because the word FAITH has nothing to do with religion. The word FAITH means a person's achievement of enlightenment with knowledge, knowledge, and there is no and cannot be any knowledge in the Old Testament!
    Everything is just two runes BE and RA, that is, "know", "Vedat", "Light" .......
  20. olimpiada15
    olimpiada15 25 January 2016 22: 31
    +1
    The most important thing was stated in his commentary by midivan "Any truth is only the edge of truth"
    In my understanding, different religions are the facets of one of the most important truths for humanity, the essence of reason.
    The drawing is simple and straightforward. But I want to complicate a little.
    Imagine that different people were shown one amazingly beautiful vase and asked to express their opinion. Different specialists will talk about different things (can be estimated from the point of view of production, design, history, etc.) - and everyone will be right.
    So religions having a different history of origin and development, bearing reflection of different cultures and customs, with all their diversity, they are a single whole.
    Changes appear on any subject that is passed down from generation to generation. To preserve their original appearance, people are engaged in restoration - they remove time deposits, but do not violate uniqueness.
    Also with religion, wanting to understand more deeply, people need to turn to the source. For Christianity, this is the Gospel. It is better to read it and try to understand, comprehend. It must be understood that the guardians of religion were its true followers. But we must also understand that religious leaders collaborated with the authorities, supported certain management methods, and therefore distortions could appear in the interpretation of religion.
    What I understood from the gospel.
    God is the highest mind. In the modern sense, this is a special information and energy field. possessing knowledge of the development of the human mind, human civilization, of a higher order than the human mind. God can influence humanity, but humanity can not God.
    The connection with God exists through the Holy Spirit. These are such informational connections, beams that a person's consciousness can perceive in the form of thoughts, it is also perceived by a living human body in addition to human consciousness. People perceive this as a "salutary thought", "enlightenment"
    The Son of God, Jesus Christ, left mankind with the knowledge necessary to preserve human civilization.
    Based on this:
    God’s creation of the world is the emergence of the ability to think, voice them, and understand the thoughts of other people.
    The development of human knowledge, its application for the benefit of humanity is a divine matter.
    A rational man must develop his mind, master the knowledge that mankind has and apply it.
    In the Gospel, Jesus calls his followers disciples, so any person who comes into the world is a disciple of God. Learning is a right given to people from God. And the church is not right, claiming that people are God's servants — God does not have slaves, there are disciples, zealous or negligent, but disciples. The statement that people are God's slaves does not correspond to the spirit of religion, this is a raid of time that needs to be cleansed. Too much innocent blood is shed, suffering is endured, humanity has lost too much time.
    Religions must unite people.
  21. kig
    kig 26 January 2016 03: 02
    +3
    The truth of faith for some reason was proved not in disputes and disputes, but with a sword in his hands and at bonfires. In general, without religion, life would be much simpler. Although people would come up with a reason why and in the name of what to kill each other.
  22. The comment was deleted.
  23. Villon
    Villon 28 January 2016 01: 15
    0
    Quote: kalibr
    Confucianism is not a religion. This is a set of moral standards; worship of anyone in it is absent.

    Dostoevsky in his "Diary of a Writer" proposed to consider spiritualism as a religion. And in spiritualism there is no worship of anyone. I think that Dostoevsky can be considered an authority in the field of religion.
  24. The comment was deleted.
  25. Warrior2015
    Warrior2015 16 February 2016 00: 14
    0
    Quote: shasherin.pavel
    since there since the days of Batu were founded Christian Russian churches.

    Somewhere you are mistaken. Whether in the time of Batu's Kazan, it was not nebylo, and the Great Bolgar was burnt to the ground by him. It may be because the Christian church in Kazan was one and was founded solely by the will of the great princes for the sake of helping the Russian monks (to free them, which was the goal of the Kazan campaigns).

    Quote: Vladislav 73
    “What is truth?” - the famous question of Pilate to Christ. It is correctly said, how many people, so many opinions.

    The truth was spoken only by the One who Risen and granted salvation for all people, even for sinners. Only Christ and some of his followers had the resurrection; in no other religion of the world is there any longer the miracle of the resurrection of man. All the more authentically confirmed miracle. Shroud of Turin - evidence of this.

    Quote: abrakadabre
    The Romans persecuted Christians not according to a religious principle, but actually according to a political one. Although in those conditions it was interconnected.
    Of the persecuted for refusing to recognize the divine essence of the emperor, and therefore, it is an open opposition to political power in the first place.
    You yourself say that in general, there is no politics, one continuous religion! Politically Christians were LOYAL; they were excellent servants and warriors, but they didn't agree on religious issues. After all, the fact is that not only the maniac emperors "asked" to recognize their divine essence, but to honor the pantheon of pagan gods, where, after the arts of any Caligula, Nero and Heliogabals, even such "cute" entities as Baals, Astartes, etc. were included. ., from which the ancient Romans of the era of Scipio the African would have turned their backs.

    Quote: Boris55
    Could you clarify in which year the first Bible appeared?
    I will clarify instead of him - roughly the first chapter of the Bible - the book of Genesis was written by MINIMUM about 2000 BC. (Old-American clay tablets were found with almost identical narrations).

    The codification of the Torah (the Pentateuch of Moses) is approximately 1500-1400. BC.