Military Review

About military porridge and bread

26
Let us, dear readers of "Military Review", think about the field kitchens of the Great Patriotic War. For our soldiers, they were not just mobile canteens, where you can satisfy your hunger. Field kitchen helped to remember the expensive atmosphere of a peaceful life. Moreover, there were often not only soldiers, but also locals here.


Such kitchens were based on a mobile chassis or truck platform and usually included from one to four large boilers. The leadership of our army proceeded from the fact that the soldier himself in his separate pot should not cook - a common meal, cooks for everyone, and this is very true and logical. And in the boiler, the water usually boiled over forty minutes - if we talk about the fire, and about the kitchen itself, which was adapted for heating wood. Therefore, lunch or dinner was prepared no less than one and a half hours.

Here are some daily allowances for the Red Army men and junior commanding staff: bread - from 800 to 900 grams (depending on the season), cereals - 140 g, meat - 150 g, potatoes - 500 g, lard or combizhir - 30 g, plus more vegetables, salt, vegetable oil, tea (1 g), pasta. The diet, perhaps, is not particularly refined, but nutritious. Although, of course, the conditions of war often made adjustments to the menu. And our fighters' favorite dishes were kulesh, borscht, cabbage soup, buckwheat with meat.
Here are some recipes from the field kitchen.

Kulesh. Cut meat from brisket and put bones in water to cook 20-30 minutes. After that, fill the broth with millet, put diced potatoes. While all this is boiled, fry the meat separately with onions and also add to the future dish. Do not turn off the fire for another ten minutes. Here you have liquid porridge or thick soup, but it’s very tasty.
In general, kulesh is considered not a Russian dish, but rather a Ukrainian one. And this very name is of Hungarian origin and means “millet, millet” or “thick porridge”. I must say, special attention was paid to porridges in the field kitchen. After all, in itself cooked cereals do not give much strength and quickly become boring. Therefore, the porridge tried to diversify, making the recipes various cheap ingredients that change the taste or add spice. The main magic sticks are onions and garlic. But there were parsley, dill, angelica in great price. Instead of butter, commonly used lard: melted, salted, smoked. It was used to make cracklings and add to the porridge. And in kulesh, as can be seen from the recipe, they put not only the cereal, but also the potatoes - all the nourishing and thick.



By the way, the famous fairy tale about the soldier’s porridge from an ax appeared not just like that, but with a prehistory. On one of the days of the Alpine crossing, Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov was told that food supplies were running out, and the soldiers needed to be fed something. The great commander advised the cook to cook porridge from all that is: lard, meat, remnants of various cereals and peas. The main thing is to make the dish nourishing and preferably aromatic. The cook did just that. But the soldiers jokingly said that he had made porridge from the ax. But back to the recipes.

Millet porridge with garlic. It will take millet, water, vegetable oil, onion, garlic, salt. Proportion: three glasses of water - one glass of cereal. Pour water into the pot (this is, of course, up to date, and so in the pot), pour the cereal and put it on the fire. Meanwhile, fry the onions in the butter and add it as soon as the water boils. Salt After ten minutes, turn off the heat, put in the porridge finely chopped garlic, close tightly and, if possible, wrap for half an hour, so that the porridge is steamed and turned fragrant and tender.

Buckwheat. Fry the onions, preferably on fat. Mix it with stew and buckwheat. Salt, pour water and cook until done.
Carrot tea Grate the cleaned carrots and dry them in the oven or in a dry frying pan with chaga, and then just pour boiling water and let it brew.

"Makalovka." Frozen stew very finely chopped, fry the onion, mix it with the stew, add water and boil. A thick part of the dish was eaten like this, and slices of bread were dipped into the resulting broth, hence the name. Instead of stew, you can use lard or any fat, everything that is on hand at the cook.

About the cooks of the Great Patriotic War, too, is no good to be silent: these are people not only sharp-witted, but also brave. I can not remember history, which happened to Hero of the Soviet Union Ivan Pavlovich Sereda, cook of the 91st Tank Regiment of the 46th tank divisions of the 21st mechanized corps of the North-Western Front. In August 1941, our troops fought with the Nazis in the Dvinsk region of the Latvian SSR. In a small forest, Ivan Pavlovich was preparing dinner for his fellow soldiers. The soup was almost ready when the roar of the engine was heard very close and a German tank appeared. And our cook only has a rifle and an ax. Crossing from tree to tree and remaining unnoticed by the enemy, Sereda jumped right in front of the tank ... jumped on it and slashed with an ax along the barrel of the machine gun. He deftly threw a piece of tarpaulin onto the viewing gap and drummed it on the armor.

- Kaput! - the brave cook shouted loudly. - Prepare grenades! Surround him guys!
The Nazis were confused. And so frightened that almost immediately decided to surrender. The hatch opened, two arms extended out of it.
When the Red Army soldiers came to the chef for help, four fascists who had surrendered were already standing near the tank. Apparently, the Fritz could not believe that a single cook with a rifle and an ax handled them. And our soldiers, laughing enough, began to have their lunch still cold.

A separate conversation - about the front bread. The great merit is that the army was provided with “the head of the table” - the workers of the rear, for the most part - women.
Orders of military units were carried out by bakeries and bakeries in the first place, people did not spare themselves, sometimes working for days without days off. It was not always possible to deliver bread to the front line, and then the fighters themselves baked bread in homemade ovens. If they could not deliver the flour, then it was made from everything that was at hand at the time: vegetables, mushrooms, bran. Was added to the dust of stumps, quinoa, hay, straw, tree bark. The resulting flour was mixed with potatoes and baked soldier pancakes. Furnaces were made of clay and bricks.

So, in 1941, near the headwaters of the Volga, there was a starting line. Baking stoves were placed directly on the river bank (it was not for nothing that they were called earthen). Inside they were coated with a thick layer of clay or lined with brick. Usually, baked bread was baked in such ovens.

Several years ago I visited the upper reaches of the Volga. The guide, telling about the war years, showed up on the shore and said: “Here, on this earth, both battles were fought, concerts were held during a lull, and the injured were treated, and dinners were cooked, and pancakes were baked in homemade ovens ...”

Often the locals delivered bread to the fighters. Here are the memories of a participant in the Rzhev operation, Viktor Alekseevich Sukhostavsky: “After fierce battles, our part in the spring of 1942 was taken to the village of Kapkovo. Although this village was located at a distance from the fighting, but the food business was still rather weak. Village women brought us Rzhevsky bread, it was baked from potatoes and bran. They carried this bread to us every day, and we all thought: how do these women manage to bake so much bread? And most importantly - how much is left to them? It is unlikely that there is enough time for a full life ... ”

Here is the recipe for this "Rzhevsky" bread: boil potatoes, peel and crush thoroughly. Add bran, salt, knead the dough and bake.

Rye flour was not enough during the war, it was often replaced with barley. This did not make any special changes to the baking technology, except that the cooking time was increased, since the dough kneaded on barley flour is denser, it takes longer to bake. And the bread was delicious.

It is impossible not to recall the blockaded bread ... After the fascists took the city into a ring, the city’s reserves were quickly depleted (later they began to deliver the flour to the Road of Life). The composition of the besieged bread included wallpaper flour, oil cake, flour brooms from equipment, food pulp, and needles.
The former director of the Lipetsk school No. XXUMX, a native from Leningrad, Antonina Alexandrovna Karpova (nee Eliseeva), recalled: “For us it was something sacred. Total 29 grams of bread, you hold a slice in your hand and you know that not a crumb can be dropped. My road to work lay past the bakery. Many people used to gather here — of those who could still walk. We stood and breathed a delicious smell, dizzy. In my post-war life there was not a day for me to throw away the bread, even if it was dried, moldy ... ”



But the memories are also native Leningrads of Alexandra Mikhailovna Medvedeva (Leonova): “On the second day of the war I turned eleven, I graduated from the third class. My sister was four years old. When in the 1941 year, in November, they reduced the bread rate to 125 grams for children and 250 grams for workers, mother began to buy it herself. I went to the store in the evening, after work. In the apartment we had an old bookcase with a cabinet. The doors of the locker are carved, with a key. Our bread was kept in this locker under the lock. In the morning, before leaving for work, mother took out the bread, divided it into three parts, then each part into three more. Leave us for breakfast and lunch, the rest - for dinner - closed in the locker, and took the key with her. Somehow my mother forgot to take the key. When I went to the canteen to buy food stamps for cereal, my little sister, Svetlana, was visited by girlfriends. Svetlana opened a locker, and the girls ate bread. In the evening, mother came home from work with bread for tomorrow. He approaches the locker, opens it and sees: there is no bread for dinner. He asks: "Who ate the bread?" Svetlana burst into tears and told everything. Wiping tears, said: "Mom, kill me, still die." Mom looked at her - skin and bones - and wept. We had dinner without bread. The mom never touched the bread rate for tomorrow. She strictly observed that bread was consumed daily. "

And this, dear readers, is the memoirs of Dmitry Mikhailovich Ivanishchev, a war veteran. Dmitry Mikhailovich was drafted into the army in the 1941 year, served as a sergeant in the 422 rifle regiment of the 194 separate sapper battalion. Passed concentration camps - Auschwitz and Buchenwald - but survived. He met the victory in Berlin, and then for a long time worked in Ishim at a carpet factory.

About military porridge and bread


“The bread of war cannot leave anyone indifferent, especially someone who has experienced terrible hardships during the war — hunger, cold, bullying. By the will of fate, I had to go through the Nazi camps. We are prisoners. We know the price of bread and adore it. The Nazis baked bread for Russian prisoners of war according to a special recipe. It was called “osten-ford” - only for Russians. Here is his approximate recipe: 40% extraction of sugar beet, 30% bran, 20% sawdust, the rest is flour from leaves or straw. True, in many camps did not give such bread. But I tried it ... "

I bow to you, veterans of the Great Patriotic. The path today on your table will be delicious ...
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 12 January 2016 07: 33
    14
    Thanks to the author, the article is good and informative. Not only from the historical, but also from the culinary side.
    I wanted to cook porridge right away.
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 12 January 2016 07: 38
    11
    No words! The victory was very expensive. The whole people made a feat. But about nutrition at that time when I served, I can only add on my own that when fresh vegetables ran out and switched to dry potatoes, cabbage and other vegetables, we collected wild plants: onions, wild garlic, garlic mushrooms. Each unit had its own plot in the taiga, where we collected all this grace. We fed not bad in those years, the army switched to TWO years of service, but I still wanted to pickle them.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 12 January 2016 08: 10
    +7
    Thanks, wonderful article! Bow to you, veterans of the Great Patriotic War. Delicious dishes will be on your table today.... I join ...
    1. Aleksandr72
      Aleksandr72 12 January 2016 10: 09
      12
      I was surprised to learn that before the war the Red Army provided for a special diet (ration) for vegetarians, which I quote below if you are interested:
      "NORMS OF DAILY PLEASURE FOR VEGETARIAN SALES
      Product Name Weight in grams
      Wallpaper rye bread:
      for winter time (October - March) 700
      for summer time (April - September) 600
      Wheat flour 2 grades 20
      Different groats 160
      Vermicelli pasta 30
      Soya deodorized flour 30
      Overalls and lard 30
      Vegetable oil 20
      Sugar 25
      Tea (per month) 30
      Vegetables
      potatoes 500
      fresh or pickled cabbage 170
      carrots 45
      beetroot 40
      onion 30
      roots, greens, cucumbers 35
      Total 820
      6 Tomato Paste
      Vinegar 2 "

      And I know the price of bread obtained by peasant sweat and blood since childhood. Respect for this products was instilled into me by my late parents, whose childhood and youth fell on the hungry military and post-war years.
      I have the honor.
  4. Rambiaka
    Rambiaka 12 January 2016 08: 16
    +6
    Our children need to read such articles! So that they did not think that it was always so wonderful to live like them !! Informative and useful !!!
    1. Uncle VasyaSayapin
      Uncle VasyaSayapin 12 January 2016 12: 24
      +4
      Children and parents could explain. After all, parents are needed not only to buy a tablet and give pocket money.
  5. hohryakov066
    hohryakov066 12 January 2016 08: 24
    +5
    Thanks to the author. Now the young have begun to forget about the price of bread. My grandmother, who survived the evacuation from Chernigov to the Urals with three young children and an old grandfather, worked all the war and raised all the children, collected the rest of the bread from the table in a handkerchief, wrapped it up and put it in the refrigerator. I never threw it away! For a piece that was not finished, one could get a crushing crack from it. This despite the fact that she was very affectionate with her grandchildren! Bread was holy for her!
    1. Uncle VasyaSayapin
      Uncle VasyaSayapin 12 January 2016 12: 16
      +5
      Young people who have already become elderly are forced to eat their children and grandchildren, persuade them. Although everything is simple: if you do not want to eat, it’s free. You just need to cook well, and for this you need to treat the products with respect, and above all, of course, bread.
    2. igordok
      igordok 12 January 2016 15: 04
      +1
      Quote: hohryakov066
      Thanks to the author. Now the young have begun to forget about the price of bread. My grandmother, who survived the evacuation from Chernigov to the Urals with three young children and an old grandfather, worked all the war and raised all the children, collected the rest of the bread from the table in a handkerchief, wrapped it up and put it in the refrigerator. I never threw it away! For a piece that was not finished, one could get a crushing crack from it. This despite the fact that she was very affectionate with her grandchildren! Bread was holy for her!

      My grandmother, collecting all the bread crumbs from the table, drooling finger. Sometimes shy when we beat next. But you cannot change an entrenched habit.
  6. bubalik
    bubalik 12 January 2016 08: 32
    14
    Breastplate "Excellent cook", approved by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR dated July 08, 1943.
    1. moskowit
      moskowit 12 January 2016 19: 20
      +2
      They did it right. In the Red Army, they tried to encourage military and professional skill!
      At the same time, such a sign was established for magicians of soldier's food ...
  7. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 12 January 2016 09: 23
    +2
    Thank you very much for the story. This year is your first story. I wrote you in PM YET.
    Sincerely.
    1. Sofia
      12 January 2016 09: 24
      +3
      Yes thank you! I read today, I will also answer in PM. Thank!
  8. Mad dok
    Mad dok 12 January 2016 09: 44
    +4
    A definite plus to the article. I could put it again, I put it. Political topics prevail on the site, and here is such a pleasant unexpected. Thank.
  9. cap
    cap 12 January 2016 10: 42
    +6
    teachingsteachings
    The article is a big plus. I'm glad that under the leadership of Shoigu, the army did not forget about the rear worker.
    "I would like to draw your attention to a competition no less important than the Tank Biathlon or Aviadarts, which took place within the framework of ARMY 2015, Field Kitchen." "The battle of Russian military chefs has inspired many representatives of foreign countries. Most of them have already expressed their desire to participate in this competition next year. The third stage of the Field Kitchen competition ended on August 13, during the competition, students of military schools of cooks, as well as junior food service specialists The military districts were able to demonstrate all the subtleties in the preparation of Russian national cuisine. ”To the jury of the International Army Games, the chefs presented Russian borscht, pickle, sour and fresh cabbage soup, as well as beef goulash, fried beef, chicken stewed in a spicy sauce and fish baked with vegetables. Participants and guests appreciated the real army bread baked by military cooks. By the way, all the participants during the entire period of the competition were delighted with Russian hospitality and were happy to eat dishes, including national cuisine, which were cordially offered to them by the chefs. According to the results of three stages of the competition " Field kitchen " dye specialists of the 190th military school of cooks of the Western Military District. "
    From a report by Oleg Komarov.
  10. Was mammoth
    Was mammoth 12 January 2016 10: 42
    +5
    Somehow "partisan". Our tents were adjacent to the military school of cooks. Hundreds of two cooks were taught behind the fence. It is a mystery to me how the rear support of the army is going on now, with the liberation of the army from "unusual functions" and transferring them to civilians, especially in the field. And how the military secret is preserved. For me, the army has always been a self-sufficient organism, which itself "fed", was washed, cleaned ....
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 12 January 2016 12: 33
      +5
      Quote: There was a mammoth
      For me, the army has always been a self-sufficient organism, which itself "fed", was washed, cleaned ....

      I just now thought how proud we were that we served in military units, and looked at the utility department from a high level. But the bathhouse, the dining room, and even a lot of household work lay on their shoulders. Recently I read Yu. Slatov's book "My War" about Afghanistan .He was a political officer in the OBMO. Read how the "ordinary logisticians" were served there. For me it was a revelation. And he wrote his songs on flights and between flights. Thanks again to the author for the article about the soldiers of such a peaceful profession, without which the army cannot fight, about the soldiers of economic units.
      1. Glot
        Glot 12 January 2016 13: 08
        +6
        I was just thinking how proud we were that we served in military units, and looked at the economic department from a high level. ..........


        Often being a cook in the army is very difficult.
        We didn’t have any chefs at the "point". Me and five other people who can cook more / less tolerably in a circle were cooks. You cook for two days, then they give you a day off, and then about two weeks you are like everyone else: You trample the flanks, go to RPGs, block the paths at night, etc.
        So I assure you that these days are two cooks, it is very difficult.
        To cook something you need to find firewood! You put on a "bra", take an AKS and drove along the surrounding hills to collect dry wood. More often than not, of course, not alone, everyone who was free at that time always helped, if possible. But still, firewood in the mountains is a PROBLEM.
        Water. The nearest creek. Bucky in his arms and drove to drag.
        After breakfast, lunch, dinner, wash everything there, to the stream. No "fairies". Pens and sand. )))
        Well, the cooking itself, of course. You have to contrive that there is something to cook that the guys will eat and will not be offended by you. ))) And you get up before everyone else and go to bed later than everyone else. )))
        Sometimes, of course, hunting helped out. I remember a hog, porcupines, a bear once. )) In general, the meat was but, it happened that apart from cereals - nothing, and until the next arrival of the "board" days five to seven. Come on, guys need to eat! Although everyone was spinning at such moments, since we are our own cooks and other "train". )))
        I remember one day in April, just my shift came across, in the morning I went to the lowland where we had the types of stones laid out from the stones, and at night it rained heavily, turned this lowland into a big puddle from the hill. And our stoves, and the whole farm was there, under water. And now the guys from the night posts should return, they must be fed from, and those who will soon get up in the morning too ...
        Spin BUT FEED !!! )))
        So sometimes it’s not easy to be a cook in the army. ))) It’s good that I wasn’t a full-time cook, and occasionally (like all of us) I got into the kitchen, and then, if possible, the person who opened the door disowned this cooking. ))))
  11. podgornovea
    podgornovea 12 January 2016 13: 39
    +1
    Now, very many even those who remember the beginning of the 90's, who can’t even compare closely with the war, have forgotten what malnutrition and lack of food are.
    It’s good that we don’t starve, but I’ve bought a quarter, I’ve eaten the rest, it’s dry / sour / rotten, it doesn’t matter, I’ll throw it out, I'll buy it tomorrow.
    Already inoculated to children.
    1. gladcu2
      gladcu2 14 January 2016 23: 04
      0
      No. I’ll write for the story.

      1986-88. Poorly fed. The air defense was not particularly pressurized. They drove on physical training seriously. Jogging 3 km and a sports festival on Saturday.
      Fat-free food. There was no meat. Veins and bones. Teahouse learned. Mayonnaise. And green peas.
      It became easier when they increased the oil by 2 times and the second egg for the weekend.
  12. Elena2013
    Elena2013 12 January 2016 15: 29
    +2
    Quote: Aleksandr72
    I was surprised to learn that before the war the Red Army provided for a special diet (ration) for vegetarians

    Yes, we still do not know much. Here is another example. By the way, vegetarian raw food diet was still common for many 120 years ago. There are a lot of books on this subject of those years. Food cooked on fire is a poison that causes many diseases, directly or indirectly, as well as premature aging
    1. Glot
      Glot 12 January 2016 16: 04
      +4
      Yes, we still do not know much. Here is another example. By the way, vegetarian raw food diet was still common for many 120 years ago.



      "- Leo Tolstoy, - said Kolya in a trembling voice, - also did not eat meat.
      “Yes,” answered Lisa, hiccuping with tears, “the count ate asparagus.”
      - Asparagus is not meat.
      - And when he wrote "War and Peace", he ate meat! Ate, ate, ate! And when he wrote "Anna Karenina" - he ate, gnawed, gorged!

      Ilf and Petrov, "Twelve Chairs"


      No, on vegetables and "food of the solar wind" smile you won’t get far.
      A man needs MEAT !!! laughing
    2. The comment was deleted.
  13. Razvedka_Boem
    Razvedka_Boem 12 January 2016 16: 13
    +2
    Yes, hunger is a terrible thing. Farmers are not doing business around the world. Since any state wants a monopoly on bread. Speaking bread, I mean all food in general. Half the world lives in convenience foods. And the rest of the world are malnourished and starving.
    I remember once, I already thought that I could cook, make pilaf, I knew how to cook different dishes and soups, even on a stove, at least on a fire, in the East, in general, the ability to cook is a sign of a man. And then one grandfather tells me - And bake a loaf for me .. And I was surprised to understand that I never tried to make bread ..) A low bow to those who brought us the Victory and endured all the hardships of the war.
  14. slavgrad
    slavgrad 13 January 2016 16: 34
    +1
    Nice story. In the occupied territory, donuts made of grass flour were baked, sometimes with the addition of meal.
  15. kumaxa
    kumaxa 14 January 2016 06: 02
    +1
    Well! thanks to the author! it’s not in vain that I came to this site so much interesting and informative information.
  16. Asperr43
    Asperr43 15 January 2016 11: 42
    +1
    ''Buckwheat. Fry the onions, preferably in lard. Mix it with stewed meat and buckwheat. Season with salt, add water and cook until tender. '' I'm going to cook! In Belarus, I served as an army BIGOS !!! - I tried to cook in a saucepan, not that! ... I really wanted to go to the Army ... nk a month!)))
  17. andrewkor
    andrewkor 2 September 2017 15: 55
    0
    Tasty article, thanks for the Hero-cook, did not know!