Military Review

Birth of the country's eastern outpost

35



In the summer of 1859, Governor-General of Eastern Siberia N.N. Ants-Amur on the steamer "America" ​​entered the Gamelena Strait, which he renamed into the Eastern Bosphorus. Here, exactly 155 years ago, in 1860, the governor-general ordered that a military post be established in a deserted bay and named Vladivostok. Here, on the coast of the Golden Horn Bay, 20 on June 1860, the military transport "Manjour" arrived, landed a team of two non-commissioned officers and an 30 order soldier under the general command of warrant officer N.V. Komarov.

At the end of summer, the corvette “Gridjen” arrived in the bay for wintering, delivering a new batch of people and necessary goods. Under the guidance of the ensign artillery A.I. Kolchak team corvette were built officer wing, barracks, kitchen, barnyard. In the future, one or two ships of the Pacific squadron were constantly in the bay.

In 1861, the first official commander appeared - Lt. E.S. Burachek, written off from the ship due to illness, but left in the service. This appointment was made by the commander of the Siberian flotilla P.V. Kazakevich and the head of the Pacific squadron I.F. Likhachev, who arrived in Vladivostok on the clipper "Abrek".

The first civilian of the young Vladivostok was Ya.L. Semenov, received from E.S. Burachka in March 1862, the permit to build a house and outbuildings. It is from 1870 to 1875. was the first public warden of Vladivostok in which he lived 52 of the year. The retired naval second lieutenant, M. Fedorov, was the first to be elected head of the City Duma.

In 1862, the military post Vladivostok became a military port. If this military post in 1861 was visited by two Russian ships, then 1871 visited the port in 24, and the Russian ship visited 1875 in 51. With 1862, the construction of small ships began here.



In 1864, all the harbors of Peter the Great Bay were subordinated to the head of the southern harbors in Vladivostok. In the port, a military team and a small civilian population were headed by a port commander, to whom a civilian official in charge of civil affairs was seconded.

By 1868, around 500 military and civilian people lived in the city. Along the north coast of the Golden Horn Bay, one officer and a half lasted were the officer wing, the soldiers' barracks (line and artillery), a mechanical facility for repairing ships, various warehouses, about 50 state and private houses, and about 20 Chinese fanz.

In February 1871, the decision of Admiral-General Grand Prince Konstantin Nikolayevich took place: "Transfer the main military port with all maritime institutions from the city of Nikolayevsk to Vladivostok", and "assign the title of the Chief Commander of the Eastern Ocean Ports to the commander of the Siberian Flotilla and ports of the Eastern Ocean" directly to the navy minister. Rear Admiral A.Ye. Crone headed the ports of the Eastern Ocean. The Amur fleet crew, renamed Siberian, was also transferred to Vladivostok. In 1871-1872, the final transfer of the main military port to Vladivostok took place, and from 1873 in the year it became the main Pacific military port. At that time, the Siberian flotilla included 20 ships and vessels.

Birth of the country's eastern outpost


Life in the city gradually revived. By 1879, 7300 people lived in it, among them 3184 soldiers. The port was built 493 residential buildings, including 18 stone. The 1876-1877 built the first coastal batteries. Ships of the Siberian Flotilla and the Pacific Squadron continued geographical research of the shores of the Far East. Gulf America, Shooter, Abrek Bay, Rogue, Novik, Dzhigit, Askold Island, the main street of Vladivostok, first American, and then Svetlanskaya, and others, owe their name to the corvettes and clippers of the flotilla and squadron. Posyet Bay, Putyatin Island, Skryplev Island, Shkot Peninsula, Cape Egersheld, Shefner Street and others are named after the commanders of ships and detachments.

In 1879, the first steamboat of the Voluntary Fleet arrived from Odessa in Vladivostok, and a permanent message was opened from 1883. Since 1880, a permanent maritime transport link has been established between Vladivostok and Kamchatka, Sakhalin and Okhotsk. From 1885 to 1905, the Voluntary Fleet delivered over 300 thousands of soldiers, displaced persons, exiles to the Far East, and also transported up to 5,3 million tons of various cargoes annually. In 1883, the post of head of resettlement in the South Ussuri region was even established. Its first head was F.F. Busse. In 1884, he also became the first chairman of the created Society for the Study of the Amur Region.

In June 1880, by order of General-Admiral Vladivostok, was allocated from the Primorsky Region to the General Government and was officially called not a port, but a city. The governorship included the port, the city, the peninsula of Muravyev-Amursky, as well as Russky Island.

In December 1883 of the year, Admiral I.A. The Shestakovs allowed the publication of a local marine newspaper, and December 29 released its first issue (until the end of the 19th century, it was published on Sundays). N.V. was the first editor and publisher of the marine and social-literary newspaper "Vladivostok". Sologub.

In 1890, the Society for the Study of the Amur Region organized a museum (now it is the Primorsky State United Museum named after VK Arsenyev). The construction of the museum building was led by N.V. Sologub. Rear Admiral S.O. worked in this museum in 1895. Makarov, who at that time was sailing around the world on the Vityaz corvette.



In the same year, at the insistence of the sea minister, a decision was made to expand the port of Vladivostok to anchorage of the Pacific squadron here, whose numbers increased to 12 ships. From 1888, Vladivostok received the status of the administrative center of the Primorsky region, and in 1889, it was declared a fortress.

In 1883, the Mechanical Plant of the Marine Ministry (now Dalzavod) began to be built to repair the ships of the Pacific Squadron and the Siberian Flotilla, and in 1887, the plant became operational. A floating crane was built on it a year later, and another three years later a floating dock was installed. In 1897, the plant completed the construction of a dry dock (now Dock No. 3 Dalzavod), which received the first ship for repair - the cruiser Dmitry Donskoy.

By the early nineties of the XIX century, the city remained primarily the Pacific outpost of Russia and was located along the northern coast of the Golden Horn Bay, as well as on the Shkot peninsula and reached the First River. While the city mostly remained wooden. In 1893, the first city power station was launched. In the spring of 1891, Vladivostok laid the foundation for the Ussurian railway. And two years later, the train already went to Khabarovsk.

In winter, 1893, in the Golden Horn Bay for the first time, began icebreaking work with the Steamboat steamer. Four years later, the military port received an icebreaker "Nadezhny". In November, 1899-st opened a sea channel to Novik Bay on Russky Island.

The aggravation of Russian-Japanese relations at the end of the XIX century forced Russia to take measures to strengthen the Far Eastern borders. The Pacific squadron, still being formed by interchangeable ships of the Baltic Fleet, grew in 1895 year to 27 ships. In connection with the increase in the squadron’s strength in Vladivostok, construction began on two more dry docks in the area of ​​Rotten Ugol (completed in 1906).



In 1896, the government decided to build a commercial port in Vladivostok on the Shkota peninsula at Cape Egersheld. Two years later, construction began on port facilities and office buildings. In 1903, direct rail links opened to the western regions of the country. The Vladivostok commercial port in combination with the Siberian Railway was Russia's natural access to the Pacific Ocean. At this time, 31150 people lived in Vladivostok.

After the declaration of Vladivostok as a fortress (in 1895 year), a city defense plan was developed, developed by Colonel K.I. Velichko. For the beginning of the Russian-Japanese war for the defense of the city on the Muravyov-Amursky peninsula built forts Linevich, Suvorov and Muravyev-Amur, seven strongholds with an earthen defensive fence between them, forts and nine coastal batteries, and on the island of Russky - land forts and 13 coastal batteries.



The defeat of Russia during the war with Japan forced to decide on the further strengthening of coastal fortresses, including Vladivostok. Approved in 1909 year new construction plan of the fortress, provided for the construction of two fortresses: on p. Muravyev-Amur, and on. Russian. The last one, almost completed by 1918, was recognized as one of the best seaside fortresses in the world. It consisted of 16 forts, 11 strongholds, 11 underground cellars, 23 fortifications, 21 anti-paratroopers and 31 coastal batteries with 1400 guns. The main builder of the fortress was an engineer - Major General A.P. Shokhin.

After 1905, the Siberian military flotilla with the main base in Vladivostok remained in the Far East. By the beginning of World War I, it consisted of two cruisers, the Askold and Zhemchug, a mine brigade of 24 destroyer and destroyer, 13 submarines, a cannon boat, two mine barriers, five patrol ships, other ships and ships. For the repair of warships and ships of the flotilla, the Vladivostok military port had three dry docks. In the bay Ulysses equipped three stocks and built a workshop for assembling destroyers.



Stone construction unfolded in the city. The building of the headquarters of the Siberian Flotilla, the post office, the theater, the Oriental Institute, the commercial school, the railway station, the city hospital, trading houses and shops, many residential buildings were erected. In October, a tram was let out in 1912.

During the First World War, part of the Siberian flotilla ship were transferred to the European seas. The war entailed the almost complete disarmament of the Vladivostok coastal batteries and the sending of guns to the west.

In December 1917, the Siberian flotilla went over to the side of Soviet power. But in July, the 1918-th ships of the flotilla (14 destroyers and a number of auxiliary vessels) were captured by the invaders. In the autumn of the same year, at the direction of Vice-Admiral A.V. Kolchak in Vladivostok restored the military flotilla. The general command of the Far Eastern naval forces was assigned to Rear Admiral S.N. Timirev, and in the spring of 1919, to Rear Admiral M.G. Fedorovich. A radio school opened in the city, a naval training team was formed. The midshipmen of the Marine Corps, the Marine Engineering School, and individual midshipmen classes in practical navigation outside of Russia, as well as the fleet junker, arrived in Vladivostok. In the Shefnerov barracks restored Maritime School.



18 On June 1921, Rear Admiral GK took command of the Siberian Flotilla. Stark He was entrusted with defending Vladivostok and the coast of the Tatar Strait, organizing the fight against partisans and the defense of Kamchatka, protecting crafts and forest wealth in the coastal area, delivering cargo and replenishing troops to the shores of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk.

When the Red troops approached Vladivostok in October 1922, preparations for the evacuation began hastily. A detachment of transports was formed from private ships, steamboats of the Voluntary Fleet and ships of the flotilla. In 23 hours of October 24 1922, Vladivostok on the ships of the flotilla was left in white parts. It was a new time, a new era.



Sources:
Zakharov S., Bagrov V., et al. Red Banner Pacific Fleet. M., Military Publishing, 1981. C. 28-36.
Alekseev A. How did Vladivostok begin? Vladivostok: Far East. Prince publishing house, 1995, C. 12-14, 56-63, 78-81.
Pryamitsky S. On the shores of the Golden Horn // Sea collection. 2000. No.9. C. 85-87.
Kornilov S. Secrets of the Foundation of Vladivostok // Newspaper Vladivostok. 24 July 2003.
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 31 December 2015 07: 31 New
    +9
    My congratulations to Vladivostok and Primorye!
    There is no present without the past!
    Happy New Year to all Primorye residents!
  2. Amurets
    Amurets 31 December 2015 07: 54 New
    +9
    Thank you for a very interesting article. Thank you for expanding my knowledge about laying and starting the construction of the city of Vladivostok. I haven’t come across much about the history of Vladivostok. More materials have come across the history of the Vladivostok detachment of cruisers. For the first time I came across that the uncle of the famous admiral took part in the laying and construction of the city .Thank you for encouraging us to look at the encyclopedia. It turns out that all Kolchaks honestly served Russia. Let someone not like it because of their surname, but let Vicki, Academician look. They will find that relatives of A.V. Kolchaki (Alexandrovhttp: //www.umnov -denisov.ru/kol4ak.html under a different name honestly served and serve Russia. This is a link about Kolchak. (Served Kolchak Russia). Thanks again for the material. Happy New Year. All the best for the coming year and new, interesting publications .
    1. Aleksander
      Aleksander 31 December 2015 13: 38 New
      15
      Quote: Amurets
      Thank you for a very interesting article. Thank you for expanding my knowledge about laying and starting the construction of the city of Vladivostok


      And here's a little more background:

      Emperor Alexander Nikolayevich allowed Muravyov to enter into negotiations with China regarding the delimitation of our possessions with the Chinese on the Amur. Negotiations with the Chinese were slow. Then Muravyov personally arrived in the Chinese city of Aigun and convinced the Chinese representative to agree to all the requirements of Russia (8 May 1858 years) In addition, he obtained the consent of the Chinese that henceforth the Ussuri Territory (from the Ussuri River, the right tributary of the Amur, to the Sea of ​​Japan) was in the common possession of Russia and China.

      The Chinese government did not immediately approve Aigunsky contract. Only in 1860 the year, the Ambassador in China, Count Ignatiev, managed to get his approval. Ignatiev has achieved more. Ussuri region was completely ceded to Russia. This latest acquisition was very important, as it provided Russia with a long coastal strip of the Sea of ​​Japan. At the southern end of this coastline was soon laid important in military and commercial relations Vladivostok city. From the newly acquired possessions along the coast of the Sea of ​​Japan, with the accession of the coast of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk to them, a new region was formed - Primorsky
      .

      It struck me SPEED of development and construction Russian state, just (1860) the region became Russian and the city was laid in the same year! In only 40 (!) Years- the most beautiful large city, port; a fortress with a fleet, industry, museums, a theater, a university and a tram! In 1903 year-first train St. Petersburg - Vladivostok along the newly built Trans-Siberian Railway. It was built faster, only in a fairy tale. And still was Alekseevsky bridge (Khabarovsk) - the pinnacle of world engineering (authors and builders, Russian engineers Proskuryakov, Malyshev Khlebnikov) - the longest bridge in the world - 3890 m!
      This is how the "backward" "bast shoe" built and developed Russian empire.
      Happy New Year!
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 31 December 2015 17: 28 New
        +5
        I know the history of my land. Materials on Vladivostok and the Muravyov-Amursky peninsula were closed. Now, after Vladivostok opened documents appeared. The first rafts went along the Amur River in 1854. My native Blagoveshchensk was laid down in 1856 as the village of Ust-Zeyskaya. the settlers were the Transbaikal Cossacks and peasants, urgently transferred by N.N. Muravyov to the Cossacks and soldiers of the 13th and 14th East Siberian battalions. The fate of the Transbaikal peasants was interesting. These were the descendants of the Yaitsky Cossacks who were exiled to Nerchinsk penal servitude for participating in the Pugachev uprising. Due to the lack of troops, Aleksanr II allowed these peasants to be attracted to Cossack settlements to protect the border and to strengthen coastal protection from the mouth of the Amur to the Gulf of Imperial Harbor. The Chinese went to transfer the border from the Stanovoi Range to the Amur for the simple reason that they were defeated in the first opium war 1840-1842 and were afraid of the appearance of the British in the Ussuri Territory when the second opium war of 1856-1860 began. The first negotiations took place in 1854. Then the Chinese did not object to the passage of troops and Cossacks to the mouth of the Amur and attempts began to agree on the transfer of the Amur border. And only the beginning of the second opium war made the Chinese accommodating. In 1858, the Aigun Treaty was concluded. This was a preliminary agreement. the Chinese made their choice in 1860, since it was more profitable for them to have Russians in the Ussuri Territory than the British. In fact, if the British occupied the Ussuri Territory, China was waiting for the fate of India, and so China would remain a sovereign state.
      2. The comment was deleted.
      3. The comment was deleted.
      4. 2-0
        2-0 28 November 2016 20: 57 New
        0
        Itit !!!!! "Aleksander" changed !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Werewolves, ali naplanets ... return Sasha, bastards ...

        And Vlad, yes, nothing. Only the shortcomings inherent in all coastal cities (he was born like that), windfall, slush, and vile .... Worse in the fall, winter, spring, summer, as it happens, only in St. Petersburg (Leningrad and Kamchatsky).
        Well, and the transport component. Worse only in Nakhodka ...
    2. The comment was deleted.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 31 December 2015 08: 01 New
    +6
    A beautiful city and a wonderful story .. It was there ...
    Holiday greetings! Creative success ..!
  4. parafoiler
    parafoiler 31 December 2015 08: 25 New
    +5
    Nice and beautiful city! 12 years of service. Vladivostok, at Your lighthouse the light does not go out! I miss ...
  5. qwert
    qwert 31 December 2015 10: 04 New
    +4
    Two years of service there. This is certainly not 12, but still good memories. The city was beautiful, and warships stood almost across the bay, so you could admire them from anywhere on the coast. And from the windows of the hospital, the atomic cruiser Kirov, which was under repair at Dalzavod, was visible. The power of the country was felt and was visible. This is me about 80 years
    1. Dimon19661
      Dimon19661 1 January 2016 05: 58 New
      +3
      The nuclear cruiser FRUNZE it was.
      1. tao
        tao 3 January 2016 19: 48 New
        +2
        And he was like that in 2014, his heart bleeds on ships and the infrastructure that remains of her. In the old days, these piers were filled with BOD, SKR, destroyers.
      2. tao
        tao 3 January 2016 19: 50 New
        +1
        Frunze in 2014 in Texas
        1. Pre-cat
          Pre-cat 6 January 2016 11: 11 New
          0
          I heard that they did a ship hull repair on the star and put it on conservation. And in two years they will drive to the north for modernization. so that he will still live, will fight.
  6. Vladycat
    Vladycat 31 December 2015 10: 19 New
    +9
    My native city. He's great. Recently we have published a book (local) "The Last Campaign", which covers in some detail the last months of the stay of "whites" in the region and city. Battles for Spassk, Ussuriisk. And the city itself was simply surrendered, thanks to the "allies". The city is located on a peninsula, which is surrounded by fortifications, which at that time and by those forces simply could not have been taken. They often visit forts. They were building it (they brought cement from Novorossiysk). Until now, everything is relatively whole, although mostly abandoned.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 31 December 2015 11: 40 New
      +4
      Quote: Vladycat
      . They built it (cement was brought from Novorossiysk). Until now, everything is relatively intact, although for the most part abandoned.

      Not only you, throughout the Far East. Old buildings of that building can be demolished only by explosion. This is not a joke. We reconstructed the DVOKU, so we built the second and third floors on old foundations and walls and keeps everything. Yes and pillboxes of URs they clean the city, so it’s also easier to uproot them than to destroy them.
  7. moskowit
    moskowit 31 December 2015 12: 31 New
    +3
    Extremely interesting! An excursion into the historical past, all the more furnished with facts and real actors, allows you to understand and feel the historicism of what is happening. By the way, Kolchak is not the ancestor of the future explorer, hydrograph, mine division commander and "Ruler"?
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 31 December 2015 14: 13 New
      +3
      Quote: moskowit
      Extremely interesting! An excursion into the historical past, all the more furnished with facts and real actors, allows you to understand and feel the historicism of what is happening. By the way, Kolchak is not the ancestor of the future explorer, hydrograph, mine division commander and "Ruler"?

      No, his uncle. But the whole Kolchak family is interesting for their service to Russia to this day. I did not find the exact date of G.I. Nevelskoy to St. Petersburg but according to the documents. after 1857, Nevelskoy was no longer on the Amur. >> "Where the Russian flag is once raised, it should not go down there." Amur Nevelskoy. Earlier, during the construction of BAM, a series of books about the Far East was published, and this series included very interesting books by Zadornov. NP: the tetralogy "War for the Ocean", "Captain Nevelskoy". Happy New Year and all the best!
  8. moskowit
    moskowit 31 December 2015 12: 34 New
    +3
    It is a pity that nothing is mentioned about Nevelsky. Muravyov-Amursky was guided by his discoveries and descriptions of those places ...
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 31 December 2015 16: 01 New
      +5
      Quote: moskowit
      It is a pity that nothing is mentioned about Nevelsky. Muravyov-Amursky was guided by his discoveries and descriptions of those places ...

      Nevelskaya with his limited resources already did a lot. If you were in the Far East, you understand the saying that we have 200 miles not the distance, if you could not imagine our distances. Nevelskaya and his officers found and began to explore the magnificent Imperial Harbor. Now it’s Sovetskaya Gavan. The so-called Special Committee and the Crimean War did a lot of harm to Nevelsky’s work. Because after Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky was evacuated to Amur in 1854, the research was transferred to the Amur River and the transportation of troops and their supplies Amur was more profitable than via Yakutsk. This does not mean that Nevelskaya did not know about the presence of the Golden Horn Bay and the Bosphorus-Vostochny Bay. Investigations of the mouth of the Amur and Sakhalin did not make it possible to continue the Nevelsky exploration in a southerly direction. Moreover, after the last expedition, Gennady Ivanovich was not allowed to return to the Far East. There are many reasons for this.
  9. chunga-changa
    chunga-changa 31 December 2015 13: 33 New
    +3
    He served there. I was not used to the climate, I liked everything else.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 31 December 2015 15: 34 New
      +2
      Quote: chunga-changa
      He served there. I was not used to the climate, I liked everything else.

      Oh, not you alone! We need to get used to our climate. Not only Primorye and Vladivostok. The whole Far East is like that. What can you do? Blagoveshchensk is at the latitude of Yalta, but the climate is far from Yalta. Vladivostok is at the latitude of Sochi, but the climate is also far from Sochi.
      1. Miner
        Miner 1 January 2016 10: 18 New
        +4
        This is yes.

        Although I cannot but note that, unlike Blagoveshchensk, in Vladivostok I never cough - the air is more suitable for my bronchi than the air of my native Blagoveshchensk.
      2. tao
        tao 3 January 2016 19: 57 New
        +1
        On the contrary, it’s climate-controlled, but it’s not climate-proof at home in the Volga region, it’s too dry. At first it was even hard to breathe.
  10. Miner
    Miner 1 January 2016 10: 15 New
    +2
    What is this picture? Why without a signature?


    Could it be that the Askold cruiser and the Borodino-class battleship were at the same time in the Vladivostok bay?

    But it's not a secret for anyone that of the four Borodino-class battleships sent to help Port Arthur, three died in the Tsushima disaster, and the fourth was taken prisoner.

    And the fifth battleship of this type ("Slava") has never been in Vladivostok.


    What is this picture without a signature?
    Installation?

    Or do we not know something? ..
    1. anew
      anew 1 January 2016 11: 30 New
      +2
      Quote: Miner
      Could it be that the Askold cruiser and the Borodino-class battleship were at the same time in the Vladivostok bay?

      And there was also such a battleship "Tsarevich". From it then small strokes fashioned battleships of the "Borodino" type.
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 1 January 2016 12: 11 New
        +1
        Quote: anew
        And there was also such a battleship "Tsarevich". From it then small strokes fashioned battleships of the "Borodino" type.

        At Kostenko V.P. and Melnikov there are books about "Tsarevich", "Eagle", "Glory". The prototype for all 6 battleships of the series, including "Tsarevich", was the project of the French battleship "Lagagne".
        1. anew
          anew 1 January 2016 13: 11 New
          +3
          Quote: Amurets
          At Kostenko V.P. and Melnikov have books about "Tsarevich", "Eagle", "Glory".

          So what?
          Quote: Amurets
          was the project of the French battleship "Lagagne"

          In fact, there was no such battleship. This dude is such an engineer A. Lagagne (A. Lagan). Builder Tsesarevich.
          Quote: Amurets
          The prototype for all 6 series of battleships

          Don't fantasize. Russia bought the Tsarevich from the French and a license to manufacture a series based on it. The series was called "Borodino type".
          From myself, I can add that the Tsarevich was an unimportant battleship of the 1st class, because was redesigned by Lagan from the class 2 squadron battleship project. He had no other project, and Russia only needed EBR1. And alteration, it is alteration in Africa. It is never completely successful. But the project (and 1 "live" battleship) was bought anyway. Because of the license for cars, this was a real trouble in Russia then. During the construction of the "Borodino" project, the project was significantly revised. "Improved", so to speak. And then they also "built" it. As a result, Russia received 5 buckets of nuts. In fact, "Borodino" were very strange products. Of course, there is little left of EBR1. Maybe the official name.
          1. Dimon19661
            Dimon19661 2 January 2016 10: 08 New
            +1
            For his time, Tsesarevich was a good ship. He could well fight with any battleship of that time. Yes, and the Borodino series was not so bad.
            1. anew
              anew 2 January 2016 13: 04 New
              +1
              Quote: Dimon19661
              For his time, Tsesarevich was a good ship. He could well fight with any battleship of that time. Yes, and the Borodino series was not so bad.

              According to the main factors of combat power, Tsesarevich had one very important puncture connected with an unsuccessful reservation scheme (for ships of such displacement). The reservation scheme was continuous, it was abandoned in Russia even after Nicholas I. At that time, the EDBs in the world were built according to the citadel reservation scheme. As a result of the unsuccessful scheme, Lagan was forced to pull all the armor down to the GP along the overhead line. Although the GP itself was made short, only 1,8 m. (2,44 m at Sikishima). And on top there were generally tears. The level of surface (above the GP for overhead lines) reservations at Tsesarevich was 58,5% of the level of Sikishima. In addition, the English guns were more powerful than the Russian. As a result, Tsesarevich's armament level was 90% of the level of Sikishima.
              How could such a ship be set against Sikishima? In all factors he was weaker than him. And in a surface reservation, there could be no comparison at all.
              They tried to fix all this in Borodino. GP on VL made thinner, but higher (2,0 m). Due to the increase in displacement (600 tons), a fair amount of armor was added (the whole went up). As a result, the speed (according to the project) fell by 1 knot, which was already not enough then. It should be noted that the project Borodin were not better than Cesarevich. Yes, booking has become a little different, more rational. But the ship became a little bigger. Those. it still needed more armor. In addition, due to the increase in size, the speed dropped (the cars are the same).
              And then the "construction" began. This is a separate song altogether. In Russia, projects were almost always so different from real products that there was no point in considering them (projects). And you shouldn't blame only the shipbuilders, the design quality was also below the plinth. It was the same with the "Borodinites".
              The exhaust produced strange products. To start, the armor was the most by 200 tons (during the construction, due to overload, it was ripped off wherever they could). Moreover, formally, when booking individual segments of GPs for overhead lines, these were no longer EBR1. But that is not all. How the ships did not rip off, and overload came from 600 to 900 tons. It was possible to compensate for this only with a full supply of coal, nothing more. And he on ships on the project was 1235 tons. You can imagine what is actually left there if you take care of maintaining the full combat efficiency of the ship (in this case, this stock cannot be exceeded). Those. in fact, it was not the EDB, but the coastal defense battleships (BrBO). By the way, the captured Eagle (Iwami) in Japan was honestly BrBO, and not EBR1, as in Russia.
              Under Tsushima, the coal reserves in Borodino ranged from 1100 to 1200 tons. Those. their GP was submerged, and they had to fight with the help of the VP, whose thickness for the linear battle of the EDB was simply not serious. As a result, the Borodinites were not even BrBOs, but heavy armored cruisers. Those. ships with weak armor, but heavy weapons. Of course, the Japanese full-fledged EBR1 dealt with these "armored cruisers" quickly enough.
              By Oslyaby, a separate conversation. This hoopoe was built so badly that in wartime it was extremely dangerous to let it out of the base. In fact, by TTX it was not EBR2, but a floating floating battery (not even BrBO). And also, like the Borodinians, under Tsushima he was overloaded with coal beyond measure. With the actual maximum supply of coal before exiting the fighter. fortune of about 350 (!!!!!) tons, he carried 1400 tons. And the ships of the citadel booking scheme, like Oslyabya, overload in battle it was impossible in no case. Here, after overload, it was not worth the effort to sink it at all. A pair of hits in unarmored ends, and that’s it. Which is what happened.
              1. Amurets
                Amurets 3 January 2016 07: 38 New
                0
                Quote: anew
                By Oslyaby, a separate conversation. This hoopoe was built so badly that in wartime it was extremely dangerous to let it out of the base.

                Thanks for the comment. Not only about Oslyabya, you can write the same thing about the whole series: Victory; Peresvet and Oslyabya. Academician Krylov called them kami. Neither cruisers nor battleships. Now further. In the book of R.M. Melnikov "Tsesarevich" facts and secrets of ordering ships of this series are given, after all, EB of the "Borodino" and "Tsesarevich" type were built according to the same project. And also what role did the General-Admiral Grand Duke Alexei Alexandrovich, Kostenko, V.P. in his book "On the Eagle in Tsushima" describes the construction of the "Eagle" and the campaign. I will not write about the rest of the troubles of the Russian fleet of that time. There are disgusting shells and bad fuses and a bunch of problems that began to be solved only after the Russo-Japanese War.
                1. anew
                  anew 3 January 2016 16: 26 New
                  0
                  Quote: Amurets
                  about the whole series you can write the same thing: Victory; Relight and Oslyabya. Academician Krylov called them kami. Neither cruisers, nor armadillos.

                  There are 2 aspects.
                  1. The idea. The idea was quite normal. Make an EDB class 2 for existing class 1 EDBs. By EBR1 we mean Petropavlovka (3 pcs), Sisoy, Navarin and others not worth listing. Those. to make ships that later, in the era of battleships, were called battlecruisers. It is a logical and sound idea, in fact.
                  2. Execution. There was trouble here. There were absolutely no suitable cars in Russia. The license for their production was bought only for the Borodino series, together with the Tsarevich. Therefore, there were two alternative projects. These are actually overexposures. Freaks of a three-machine and three-screw scheme. And Stormbreaker. No, no, not Stormbreaker himself. And the "trough" of the Thunderbolt. Rather, the "trough" of the rejected project later went to the Thunderbolt project. Why should the effort be wasted? Only Stormbreaker was also three-machine and three-screw. And the rejected project was a four-machine and two-screw. Those. it used Rurik's machine diagram. A very successful scheme in the absence of normal cars, I must say. But slightly hemorrhoid in service. And hemorrhoids were not needed. Better easier, albeit worse. On that and decided. So we decided to build three-screw overexposures.
                  In fact, out of this entire series, only Pobeda could hardly pull out on the "outdated EBR2". Oslyabya was a floating armored artillery battery. almost completely did not have any range in a combat-ready state (no more than 900 nm at a stroke of 10 knots). Peresvet was better built and was in fact a typical coastal defense battleship (2600 NM at 10 knots). In the Japanese navy he was (Sagami). Just in case, from Port Arthur to Vladivostok by the shortest route 1100 NM.
                  It is impossible not to note the "savings". Peresvet was armed with defective (!!!) and repaired main guns. They were weakened to be usable. Oslyaby's cannons were weakened from the very beginning, as were of the same type as the guns of Peresvet. Only Pobeda was armed with good main guns. What was the cost of replacing the defective guns at Peresvet and Oslyab? Not very expensive. Moreover, later they could be put on the Ushakovs, instead of those who were shot. But, "savings".
                  Oslyabya came into operation later than the Victory. What prevented replacing his patch armor with Krupp, slightly smaller thickness, but with the same degree of protection? There would already be a noticeable saving in weight, and then, perhaps, it could be used. Because to save weight, you could download extra. coal.
                  And even better was to buy ships abroad. Normal, not like Tsesarevich. And to build something licensed and smaller at home. And gradually increase the size, as you acquire the necessary skill. And then, after all, there is especially nothing to remember with a kind word.
          2. 2-0
            2-0 28 November 2016 21: 53 New
            0
            As for the name and the engineer - uel "Amur", so uel !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 1 January 2016 11: 52 New
      +3
      Quote: Miner
      in Vladivostok, I never cough - the air is more suitable for my bronchi than the air of my native Blagoveshchensk.

      In Vladivostok, all the rubbish from the thermal power plant does not fly to the city, unlike Blagoveshchensk. For this rubbish, I must say thanks to the unforgettable S.S.Avramenko who decided to build the thermal power plant that the emissions fly to the city.
      In the photo the battleship "Tsesarevich", which served as a prototype for the battleships of the "Borodino" type. I did not find the exact date, but it is somewhere in December 1903
  11. bravo-fab
    bravo-fab 1 January 2016 13: 47 New
    +5
    on the 1st photo you can see my house. wink
  12. bbss
    bbss 2 January 2016 02: 05 New
    +2
    I was lucky to visit Vladivostok.
  13. Lyton
    Lyton 2 January 2016 05: 45 New
    +6
    May God bless my hometown of Vladivostok, where I was born and live my whole life of prosperity and well-being, health to all citizens, Happy New Year to all.
  14. Normal ok
    Normal ok 4 January 2016 15: 41 New
    0
    I have half of the relatives from Vladivostok. In Soviet times still came to us occasionally. And now it’s unrealistic. It is a pity that he himself was not. I'd love to visit.
    Happy New Year and Merry Christmas!!!
  15. Pre-cat
    Pre-cat 6 January 2016 11: 05 New
    0
    The first artillery battery to protect the Golden Horn was built on Cape Goldobin. it blocked the Eastern Bosphorus Strait. A little later, a second battery was added to the same cape - it blocked the passage between Helena and Egersheld. During the Great Patriotic War, a battery was located on Goldobin that was supposed to prevent the landing of the assault force (unfortunately I’m hard to name the caliber, some sources say 76 mm, others say 152 mm. Maybe there were different guns in different years). She was covered by two anti-aircraft batteries - medium and small calibers.
    During the years of Soviet power, in 1931, after the invasion of Japanese troops in Manchuria, Vladivostok sent naval guns mounted on railway conveyors to hastily strengthen its defense. Three railway batteries were formed from them - No. 1 for 2–203 mm guns, No. 2 for 3–152 mm Kane guns and No. 3 for 3–130 mm guns. In January 1932, they took up firing positions. These batteries made up the 5th separate railway artillery division. They were placed on the railways that ran along the coast of the Amur Bay on the western shore of the Shkota Peninsula. Soon, battery No. 1 was transferred to the coast b. Ulysses, where a special railway line was laid. At the same time, the Leningrad Metal Plant hastily carried out work on the manufacture of three railway conveyors TM-1-14. For them, 356 mm guns from the unfinished battle cruiser Izmail were used. These artillery systems could fire from 360 ° specially equipped concrete bases. In November - December 1933, battery No. 6 of three TM-1-14 guns was transferred from Leningrad to Vladivostok. By 1934, concrete foundations were built at the position of “First River” in the valley of the river. The first river and prepared position “Rotten corner” in the valley of the river. Explanations If at the position of “First River” they used the railway built in 1905 for the needs of the Vladivostok fortress, then the branch to the “Rotten Corner” had to be built specially. The Egerscheld position was also built. To ensure quick maneuver of artillery systems in 1933 - 1935 struck a special railway tunnel “them. comrade Stalin ”over 1,3 km long. The transfer of TM-1-14 transporters to Primorye became a whole special operation due to the severity and dimensions of the gun conveyors. First, a special team of engineers drove along the Trans-Siberian Railway, noting the places where it is necessary to strengthen the bridges. the way. in several places it was even necessary to shift the paths by changing the turning radius. The transfer was monitored by the Central Committee and personally by Comrade Stalin. Even in the 80s, concrete bases for guns were visible in the area of ​​the First River. And the Stalin tunnel is still operating. True, they are putting it on reconstruction now. The transfer of such solid artillery systems, of course, did not go unnoticed by foreign states (or maybe they specially organized the leak), which significantly cooled the warlike fervor of the Japanese. During the conflict at Khalkhin Gol, despite the then weakness of the Pacific Fleet, not a single Japanese warship even tried to approach Vladivostok.
  16. Pre-cat
    Pre-cat 6 January 2016 11: 06 New
    0
    By the way, in the years 30-40 there was a Japanese consulate in Vladivostok. From a book on the history of counterintelligence of the Pacific Fleet, I learned that from the windows of this consulate the whole Golden Horn and almost the entire Bosphorus East were perfectly visible. That is, the exit of any TF ship to the sea was controlled by the Japanese. In order to stop this outrage under the windows of the consulate, they allegedly started a construction site and surrounded it with a tall fence that tightly blocked the views of the seascape to the Japanese. The sons of the rising sun complained very bitterly, they say, about the lack of aesthetics and harmony outside the window. And the entrance to Ullis Bay, where submariners and patrol ships were based, was blocked by a huge tarp mounted on two barges when passing foreign vessels. And in conclusion. Our ancestors were also normal people. They could have accomplished the feat, but they could have done it. So the first commander of the post Vladivostok, ensign Komarov, was removed after the first wintering due to failure to fulfill the construction plan and the lack of several buckets of breech vodka. Apparently he had fun all winter alone. So, the first drunkard of Vladivostok is documented. By the way, now I dwell on the street of his name and notice that the aura of the name is valid from time to time. laughing
  17. kig
    kig 7 January 2016 20: 48 New
    0
    The city, in principle, is wonderful. BUT: the housing is expensive, the products are expensive, there are no roads, there are few greens, there are no parking lots at all, but there are no cars in bulk ... There were no treatment facilities either. What was built with fanfare before the summit is basically not connected to urban sewage systems. So swimming on city beaches ... is possible if you are not interested in the result. True, urban thermal power plants are converted to gas, so that the surrounding residents can breathe deeply. Before perestroika, 640 thousand people lived here, plus the unaccounted for military personnel, now a little over 600, and this time everything has been taken into account. Well, almost everything, for example, they didn’t count me ... In Soviet times, dozens of ships were waiting in line for mooring at the raid, now the seaport is gaping with empty moorings, the fishing port is not clear why, instead of a ship repair plant, an embankment with granite slabs was built, but without a single bush or trees ... But people live and praise.