Military Review



190 years ago, on December 14 (26), 1825, battalions of the Life Guards of the Moscow and Grenadier Regiments and Navy crew left on Senate Square. Alignment of ranks. The splendor of the uniforms. Glitter epaulette. Bright plumes on shakos. Crowds of the metropolitan public. Carriages of ladies dying of excitement. Thoroughbred horses. French speech. The holy halo of the struggle for freedom ... Volleys of buckshot. Bloodied snow. Five condemned on the gallows. Pestel, Ryleyev, Muravyov-Apostol, Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Kakhovsky. Selfless wives and brides traveling through the snow to the terrible remote Siberia ... This painting has excited the imagination of the intelligentsia and young people for two centuries. Remember how you watched the film “The Star of Captivating Happiness”, how the song “Cavalier Guard was short-lived ...”, how sorry they were, the dashing and beautiful “cavalry guards”.

And in the days of perestroika and democratization, historians, journalists, and publicists sighed at the drama of the Decembrists: why did they fail to win? After all, probably our whole история Would you go the other way? An enlightened democracy would have been established in Russia, the country would have avoided the 1917 catastrophe of the year, would have developed and grown rich, like America. Such reflections ended with a sacramental phrase: "Alas, history has no subjunctive mood."

But at the same time, a very important side of the issue remains outside the attention of researchers. After all, it was not by chance that in pre-revolutionary Russia they put in one row “external and internal enemies”. And they really were interconnected. The secret war, the use of alien strife since ancient times were powerful tools of international politics. Even in the era of Kievan Rus, the kings of Poland, Hungary, the German emperor and other monarchs supported certain candidates for the Russian princely desks - of course, not from altruism, but on the basis of their own benefits. However, the Russian princes used the same methods.

Well, when Moscow Russia began to grow stronger, the factor of confrontation East-West also manifested itself. First, during the 300 years, Russia had to fight for its very existence with Lithuania and Poland. In the course of this struggle, secret methods were also widely used. The Polish kings welcomed and enticed the turncoats, supported the opposition of the boyars and appanage princes, and the separatists in Novgorod. They used Kurbsky and others like him for the information war, spreading slander about our country. They sent agents for assassinations of Russian rulers. Ideological sabotage was arranged. In the XVI century, starting a war with Russia, Sigismund II first advanced the propaganda slogan of its “liberation” from the royal “tyranny”. And the biggest sabotage was Smoot 1604 – 1613, organized by dropping the False Dmitrys.

Only under Alexey Mikhailovich, in the 1654 – 1667 war. Poland managed to break, she rolled into decline. Russia has become the undisputed leader of Eastern Europe. But after that France becomes its main rival - the leader of the then Western Europe. She took under the protection and weakened Poland. It was France that had plagued Russia for a century and a half, inciting its neighbors — the Swedes, the Turks, the Poles — against it. And all this time backstage subversive methods have been used again. Well, when Russia managed to crush France, England became its main rival. After all, she claimed world domination and was in the XIX century the greatest empire on Earth (including many colonies and semi-colonies). And Britain in the fight against Russia took the patronage of France ...

But the confrontation of our country with the West turned out to be much deeper than the usual international competition. It was not only political and economic, but also spiritual. Since the death of Byzantium, Russia has become the world center and stronghold of Orthodoxy. This provoked violent hostility from Western Catholicism. The Poles in the wars with the Russians received support from all of Europe.

From the 16th century, Catholicism began to collapse intensively. Zaburlila Reformation. For the higher strata of Western society, the foundations of Christian morality in general became a hindrance. The reorientation went to philosophical theories, essentially anti-Christian, where priority was given not to faith, but to reason. On the other hand, the bourgeoisie, the people who were born, rushed to power. Financiers, merchants, industrialists gained strength under the auspices of absolutism. Strong monarchies protected them, opened the way for enrichment. So it was in Holland and in England, later in France. But monarchies and the church limited predation. Now the bigwigs wanted to seize the control levers under their own control. Protestant religions became the ideological banner of "bourgeois revolutions."

However, the fanaticism of the radical sectarians was too destructive force, did terrible misfortunes in those very states where the bourgeoisie inflated revolutionary storms. For circles wishing to continue rebuilding the world in their favor, they needed another tool, other forms of organization. Masonic lodges became such a tool. As if non-religious, emphasizing "enlightenment" - but in reality militant "enlightenment" was opposed to Christianity, the traditional foundations of statehood, morality. Freemasonry formed the ideology of liberalism, the cult of "freedom."

In the 18th century, the lodges sprang up and multiplied in different countries, and their first major victory was the so-called French Revolution, which destroyed the king, the aristocracy, the French church, and flooded the country with blood. But Freemasonry was not atheistic either. Destroying Christianity, it turned to the "wisdom" of ancient sacral cults, Kabbalism, Gnosticism. In the period of the same “great” revolution, the Jacobins tried to introduce the cult of the “world mind” or some kind of “higher being” that was by no means a Christian God. Rather, its opposite. However, behind the scenes of Freemasonry there were always other “higher beings,” earthly oligarchs. And if the Jacobins were eventually sent to the guillotines, if after the theft and rampant of the Directory Bonaparte came to power, then his victory was ensured not only by military talents. Ensured that he was a protege of the Rothschilds. And Napoleon also effectively used the ideas of liberalism - for example, spreading the notorious “Napoleon Code” in countries of potential adversaries (which he never intended to introduce in his own power).

Russia on the path of historical development was attacked by various ideological forces. At first it was intensively treated by the Catholic agents, the Jesuits. They tried to persuade the sovereigns to accept the union, sending agents of influence like Simeon of Polotsk. They drew into their networks inclined to the “Westernism” of statesmen - Chancellors Ordin-Nashchokina, Golitsyna, Tsarevna Sofia Alekseevna. Protestant sects, such as "Jewish", were also introduced into our country. And from the XVIII century, Masonic structures began to bud.

Their activity in Russia was forbidden three times - by the decrees of Catherine the Great, Paul I and Alexander I. But the decrees were not executed. Pavel I himself was assassinated by Freemason conspirators. And during the reign of Alexander, the “free masons” lodges bred to the fullest extent. This was greatly facilitated by the strong cosmopolitanization of the Russian aristocracy and nobility. They were related to foreigners, and the tutors and tutors hired foreigners; in “high society”, Jesuit schools and institutions were considered the most prestigious. At the end of the 18th century, Suvorov inspired officers and soldiers with the words: “You are Russian!”, And already at the beginning of the 19th century, Russian aristocrats communicated among themselves in French, their children did not know how to write in Russian.

With such a separation from the national roots, the top of society was infected with the teachings of the spiritualists, the mystics, and Freemasonry became the craze of young people, as if in a fashionable "game." But the game was not harmless. In England and France there was a merger of large capital and state power, and Masonic ties, ideas were used by these powers for well-defined political goals. When the freemason Radishchev, a mentally ill person, published “Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow,” hypertrophically thickening black colors, did he really intend his work for the Russian “public”? Yes, all the color of his modern "public" consisted of landlords-feudal! No, it was an ideological diversion designed for resonance abroad. And that is why Catherine considered that he was "a rebel more dangerous than Pugachev." But the freemason Karamzin was never listed as a rioters. But he did much more harm to Russia than Radishchev, by distorting the history of his country. Moreover, he provided a distorted foundation for future foreign and domestic historians. But the king did not condemn him, but on the contrary, he was cherished - because he himself was already infected with “enlightened” westernism.

Well, in case of victory of the Decembrists, the history of Russia really would have followed a completely different path. But not on the path of good and prosperity. She would have simply collapsed into chaos a hundred years earlier. Despite the fact that "the history of the subjunctive mood does not have," it is not difficult to calculate. After all, shortly before Russia, England and France carried out a similar operation with Spain. At the beginning of the XIX century, it remained the most extensive world power. Moreover, it was the main stronghold of the Orthodox Catholic Church. It was not by chance that Spain, along with Russia, was one of two countries that Napoleon could not defeat. The peasants there retained their sincere faith in God, desperately went to their death, but exterminated the invaders.
The greatness of Spain in the international arena and its economic foundation provided possessions in America. They flourished, lived very richly. Overseas provinces inhabited different nations, but the administration, the aristocracy, the intelligentsia consisted of the same Spaniards as in the metropolis. They had relatives in Spain, they went there, were educated in Spanish universities. There was no infringement of rights. However, among the officers, intellectuals, landowners, as in Russia, the Masonic organizations multiplied. Creoles - that is, the Spaniards who were born in America, through these structures inculcated the belief that they are another people, Spain suppresses their independence. Must fight! In 1810 – 1820's a chain of national liberation revolutions rolled through America.

But at the same time, in Spain itself, other ideas were being introduced to the Freemasons - the monarchy became a brake on progress, it was time to overthrow it. On the Iberian Peninsula, too, a revolution broke out. And the Spanish revolutionaries did not recognize the separation of American possessions. They demanded to restore the state, sent troops overseas. Yeah where there! In the civil war, the monarchists were merging with the Republicans, revolts and coups exploded, and in Madrid power was changing. Suppress the uprising in America, Spain could not. Overstrained, weakened and generally dropped out of the number of "great powers", for a long time slipped to the level of a secondary state. Her policies began to regulate France and England.

But Latin America under the rule of Madrid was united, dividing only into administrative units - the vice-kingdom, the governorship. Now, residents of various provinces not only fell away from Spain, but also fought among themselves. They quarreled over the personal leadership of the leaders, because of differences in management systems. The civil wars claimed a million lives for 1,5. As a result, Latin America gained independence, but fragmented, bloodless, impoverished. Got into full economic and political dependence on the same England.

Later it was changed in the role of "owners" of the United States. And the fate of the Latin American states was almost two centuries of hesitation. In one direction - to liberalism, democracy, "freedoms". What turned out to be corruption, theft, rampant crime and anarchy. For salvation attempted coups, established dictatorships. And when the police regime bothered the people, the struggle for democracy unfolded again. The “masters” could only regulate this process, supporting either dictators or “freedoms”.

Matter of course, Latin American masons, unfolding the struggle for freedom, did not set themselves the goal of turning their countries into “banana republics”. Among them were heroes who sacrificed their lives, as they believed, for a bright future. Yes, and the Spanish Masons, starting the revolution, did not want to ruin his power. Those and others sincerely believed that under the flags of "freedom, equality, fraternity," progress and prosperity would be achieved. But Freemasonry is false. It pushes its adepts wherever the higher hierarchs need. Supports them while they are needed, and easily donates when it proves appropriate.

In this case, the actions of both sides were coordinated and directed by directors from London and Paris. And they had a great idea of ​​what they wanted and what should happen in the played combination. By the way, another result of the collapse of the Spanish world empire was the final undermining of the positions of the Catholic Church. Rome began to lord it over to French, Austrian, Italian politicians, intertwined with Freemasonry, and the Vatican itself lost its independence, turning into a tool for Western backstage circles.

Russia was the second power, which turned out to be too tough for Napoleon. And the first who could crush him. The victory lifted our country to the top of world politics. Is it any wonder that at the same time as Spain, we have activated similar processes? One by one, secret circles were born - Union of Salvation, Union of Welfare, Society of First Consent, Society of United Slavs, Society of Military Friends. Behind the covered tables argued what to build after the overthrow of the autocracy? Constitutional monarchy, like in England? Or the republic, as there was some time in France? Kill the king or just depose? There was no dispute about overthrowing and undermining; it was perceived as an axiom. The beautiful slogans of "freedoms" were drunk even better than wine.

But in the real speech of the Decembrists, the beautiful and the sublime was not enough. When it reached the point, half the conspirators, who excitedly talked about violent parties about constitutions and regicides, tried to evade. Stusil, sat at home - including Trubetskoy, who was already identified as a "dictator", the leader of the revolution.

The soldier was meanly deceived - they took advantage of the fact that after the death of Alexander I, the troops initially swore allegiance to Konstantin Pavlovich. But he abdicated the throne, and the repeated oath, Nicholas I, the conspirators declared illegal. They took the columns to the Senate Square and stood aimlessly. This was caused not only by confusion, but also by another important circumstance. Soldiers and sailors would not go against the king! The day was frosty, the lower ranks in the ranks were desperately cold, standing hungry. Although the officers, of course, the orderlies delivered fur coats, they found something to eat.
If there was anything heroic in the uprising, it was only the courage of the governor-general of St. Petersburg Miloradovich, who tried to do without blood and left to persuade the rebels. The soldiers loved him, began to give in. But Kakhovsky shot on the sly, in fact, during the negotiations, defeating the honored commander. Tsar Nicholas, who decisively headed the suppression, showed himself worthily. And as soon as the smell of fried, most of the officers ran away, leaving their subordinates to fend for themselves.

Echo of the insurgency responded in other places. In Ukraine, having learned about the failure and arrests in the capital, Muraviev-Apostol senselessly raised the Chernigov regiment. The regiment commander was killed, Muravyov-Apostol led the soldiers to some unknown place and why. Far from gone. They were intercepted by cavalry and artillery. They were shooting, blood was flowing again, and the regiment surrendered. In Lithuania, the troops tried to rebel Ingelstrom and Vigelin, although they did not succeed.

But the conspiracy network was liquidated very quickly. Because the captured Decembrists immediately began to pawn all friends and acquaintances. Many were not guilty, then they were released. The crimes were very serious - armed coup in the army, an attempted coup that caused significant human casualties. Punishment for such a fault can not be called overly harsh. Executed just five, the main instigators. The lower ranks and some of the officers involved in the insurrection were not even expelled from the guard. Of them were composed of the Life Guard Consolidated Regiment and sent to the Caucasus, to atone for the blame in the battles.

Those who found themselves “in the depths of Siberian ores” did not torture us with overwork, they worked in the mines for three hours a day. And the majority of convicts fell into exile. Or in time they were transferred from prison to settlement. They could get land in Siberia, work - if there was a desire. If it was not, they could live on the benefit from the treasury. Some, like the Bestuzhev brothers, became rich Siberian entrepreneurs. Others wrote petitions to be enlisted in the army as soldiers. But to serve them was not in such conditions as the ordinary private. Among the officers they had acquaintances, other commanders pitied them. Provided indulgences. And most importantly, they gave the opportunity to distinguish themselves so that they could be made ensigns. Having received at least the lowest officer's rank, the Decembrist acquired the right to retire and go home.

No, of course, the victory of a hypothetical revolution would benefit not Russia. But for the enemies of our country, even defeat fit. He earned a propaganda apparatus, constructing a beautiful myth about the Decembrists, surrounding them with the glitter of romance and the aura of martyrs. On this myth new generations began to be brought up. Moreover, the bright substitutes created in this way turned out to be extremely persistent. After all, they were enough for our share with you.
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  1. Obolensky
    Obolensky 11 January 2016 19: 02
    Read. I read it a couple of times. There is an impression of underestimation.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Baikal
      Baikal 11 January 2016 20: 05
      The aristocracy and the military could be mistaken, of course, and their heads could be fooled, as we were at one time, although it was they who were the color of the nation and, I am sure, made changes from a sense of belief and honor. Let false beliefs.

      On the other hand, it is not easy to draw parallels with the present, because the methods of "moronization" have changed. How can you compare the same Bestuzhev-Ryumin (participant in the war 1812, campaigns 1813 — 1814, participated in the battles of Vitebsk, Borodin, Tarutin, Maloyaroslavets, Krasny, Bautzen, Leipzig, Fer-Champenoise, Paris, had military awards) with the same Shenderovich, who became famous only for fucking a mattress for foreign grants?

      With regards to the Decembrists, they paid for their mistakes and it is sad that such significant and necessary people for Russia allowed themselves to be deceived. And that's why I'm sorry for them. The modern "oppositionists", at best, want to be boiled in oil.
      1. excomandante
        excomandante 11 January 2016 22: 25
        Unfortunately, participation in a war in itself is not a sufficient condition for the existence of rationality and common sense. Even personal courage does not guarantee that a brave person is necessarily intelligent and patriotic. Alas, mind manipulation is a very powerful weapon. And God himself ordered the Decembrists to "Jacobin" - they quite clearly separated themselves from the people, considered the Russian people exclusively the object of supposed idiotic Masonic-Jacobin experiments. Closer to us. How many of us quite heroic veterans suddenly went berserk in the days of "glasnost" ?! Even if Astafiev and Pikul hysterically cursed Stalin? Even writing talent is also not a guarantee of reasonableness and honesty. Unless Bondarev managed to preserve his conscience. If a person succumbs to enemy propaganda, he succumbs. Amen.
        1. Alena Frolovna
          Alena Frolovna 11 January 2016 23: 06
          So much has been written about the Decembrists: admired, compassionate, and critical. You cannot refute everyone. You won’t confirm everything. There is a proven method: know the tree by its fruits. And not for the wrappers in which they are sold. So what's the bottom line? Without touching stories about complex spiritual pursuits, brilliant education and the inability to apply unique talents in an autocracy?

          Those scholars who happened to outline Lenin remember his description: “The circle of these revolutionaries is narrow, they are terribly far from the people. But they woke Herzen ... ". It is A.I. Herzen, the talented journalist who worked in England, that we owe the Decembrist myth. Later, the picture only became more complicated, but did not change in essence.

          The printing house of The Bell and the North Star was located in London. England after the Napoleonic Wars - the largest heavyweight player in the European arena. The most dangerous enemy of the Russian Empire. Therefore, support for an opposition journalist has always been provided. In London, for example, Nikolai Turgenev, one of the then “Decembrist" defectors, was hiding. Master of high initiation. The man whom Alexander I was afraid to arrest at home, simply writing to him: "My brother, leave Russia." But Nicholas I demanded extradition.

          At school, everyone was asked "Past and Thoughts." I did not want to read further than the scene of the oath of little Herzen and Ogarev on the Sparrow Hills. Forced. Instructive. And transparent. Why suddenly two boys were filled with hatred for the young emperor, who had just arrived in Moscow for the coronation? The sacred action itself infuriates and annoys them. The sovereign appears to be a monster from whom Freedom must be protected. Who she is is still unclear, but the sea of ​​anger and frustration. Before us is a story about childhood obsession. About the fruit that has rotted and blackened even in the ovary. But the flower has blossomed. And this ugly flower turned out to be very attractive for people with a broken spiritual sense of smell.

          Herzen chose the famous bookplate for the Polar Star almanac - profiles of five executed Decembrists. It was he, in his publications, who was inconspicuous for readers to combine two key archetypes - Christian and pagan. Personal sacrifice for a new, nascent world. Five martyrs for truth voluntarily ascend the scaffold. And five heroes - with all the attributes of ancient athleticism, beautiful soul and body - fighters for the republic, the Gracchus brothers, the new Kassiev and Brutus, thrown to the mercy of the predatory beasts of the autocracy ... There is also the executioner - the new Caesar. And performers, rank lower. And those who tremble do not dare to support, but sympathize. This is us.

          Sad conclusions

          Why are the souls of our compatriots so easily succumbed to the temptation for two centuries in a row? First of all, because life in Russia is by no means dotted with roses. It was not for nothing that during the investigation, people on similar sides of the world found themselves on different sides of the table, just some considered the military rebellion an acceptable means of correcting reality, while others saw in it only the path to the rivers of blood and stopped without crossing the terrible line.

          But, in addition, natural compassion, which is almost understood as a moral, religious duty, renders us a bad service. Suffering has always been perceived among the people as a mark from above, a manifestation of God's special love. Sufferers are chosen. They suffer for the Truth. Recall Marina Tsvetaeva: "Decembrists and Versailles - your regiment." That is, those who are beaten are right. But suffering happens in both purification and atonement. The history of the Decembrists is an example.

          Now the study of Decembrism in a new round. There was an opportunity to talk about the connection with Freemasonry, and about foreign societies of military conspirators. You can explore the "light and shadow" movement. You can tell a lot about life in the settlements in Siberia and the exploit of wives. You can, you can, you can ...
          1. cap
            cap 12 January 2016 03: 10
            Quote: Alena Frolovna
            Why are the souls of our compatriots so easily succumbed to the temptation for two centuries in a row? First of all, because life in Russia is by no means dotted with roses. It was not for nothing that during the investigation, people on similar sides of the world found themselves on different sides of the table, just some considered the military rebellion an acceptable means of correcting reality, while others saw in it only the path to the rivers of blood and stopped without crossing the terrible line.

            No, of course, the victory of a hypothetical revolution would benefit not Russia at all.
            Moreover, bright surrogates created in this way turned out to be extremely persistent. After all, they were enough for our share with you.
            Author Valery Shambarov
            “In 1661, after the Restoration, the royalists removed the embalmed body of Cromwell from Westminster Abbey and hung it on the gallows for criminals in Tyburn, then they burnt it and mixed it with ashes, but they stuck their head on a stake in Westminster, where it remained until the end of Charles II’s reign . But they were not able to destroy what this man achieved. ”
            Conclusions, if done correctly, are beneficial. The truth is not for everyone and not always.
            MacLeod is not in vain popular. And not only at home. What is it worth "Only one should remain." hi
            1. Scraptor
              Scraptor 12 January 2016 08: 36
              Cromwell in England do not like. Just like the iron lady

              "Well, when it began to intensify" from the article, it all apparently went from the destruction of the Polabian Slavs in the west, and in the east and south there were numerous wars with various kaganates, before that in prehistoric times with the Chinese and which are reflected in their legends
    3. Reserve officer
      Reserve officer 11 January 2016 21: 54
      Quote: Obolensky
      Read. I read it a couple of times. There is an impression of underestimation.

      Of course it’s left. Maybe I was so unlucky with the historical works on this topic that I read, but there is still no unambiguous assessment of those events. Although, for sure, there are objective professional assessments, somewhere in the archives. Awaiting their understanding.
      And I don't want to make comparisons with the current "revolutionaries". They are certainly driven not by the love of a middle name and not by the desire for real changes for the better, but by the love of American banknotes.
      1. excomandante
        excomandante 11 January 2016 22: 27
        Read the programs of the Southern and Northern Societies of the Decembrists! This sick delirium - "the desire for real changes for the better" ?!
      2. Obolensky
        Obolensky 12 January 2016 14: 47
        I have no doubt that somewhere there are archives and even people who understand more professionally. But something tells me that no one will dig "seriously".

        Oh, you're right. These revolutionaries openly know how to blame the existing order and ask resources from other states also openly, to change the situation in the country. A kind of revolution. Oh and yes. They also know how to cry openly, how they are oppressed by such gentle and loving Russia. Well, yes, not the XIX century, more and more direct.
  2. The comment was deleted.
  3. bovig
    bovig 11 January 2016 20: 21
    There is a positive result that cannot be kept silent ... The same Decembrists formed cultural centers in Siberia, which were not mentioned before ... The same Irkutsk can be taken as an example ...
    ZYRYANIN 11 January 2016 20: 34
    Quote: Obolensky
    Read. I read it a couple of times. There is an impression of underestimation.

    Quote: Baikal
    went for a change out of a sense of conviction and honor. Albeit false

    For 55 years of life, a lot had to be overestimated! One position was presented at school: any opposition to the tsarist power is a blessing. But the truth is different - any revolution is the blood and suffering of people! With regard to a social revolution, I am more impressed by the definition of "coup"! And revolution is by no means identified with the word "progress"! It's time to connect your brains!
    1. Baikal
      Baikal 11 January 2016 21: 31
      Nobody argues with this. But we were able to understand this, that revolution in any case is evil - through the prism of both historical experience and our own. But they are not ... And they - patriots and often honored heroes of the fatherland - are sincerely sorry.
      Modern "revolutionaries", who know perfectly well what they are doing, must be burned in public. Definitely.
      1. Sergey S.
        Sergey S. 11 January 2016 23: 21
        Quote: Baikal
        Nobody argues with this. But we were able to understand this, that revolution in any case is evil - through the prism of both historical experience and our own. But they are not ... And they - patriots and often honored heroes of the fatherland - are sincerely sorry.
        Modern "revolutionaries", who know perfectly well what they are doing, must be burned in public. Definitely.

        Everything is debatable ...
        And the affairs of the Decembrists are quite controversial, because they were unfinished and even unsaid ...
        In fact, it was a meeting of people who realized that the monarchy is already a brake for Russia. And in this the Decembrists were right ...
        Nicholas I was a good enough emperor, did a lot of "good" for Europe and Turkey, and ... fell into the trap of the Crimean War ...
        The fact is that the concepts of good and evil have changed, public opinion has changed towards the world order, and we have everything "hay" and "straw".

        As for the idea of ​​revolution in general, it is not true that revolution is evil.
        Any natural concept in certain conditions is useful and necessary ...
        Or is someone against the revolt of Spartacus, the baptism of Russia, the Ascension to the throne of Catherine in the great future, and the Bolsheviks taking the orphan power in October 1917?

        But the "revolution" of 1991 and the counter-revolution of 1993, indeed, should be condemned as colored and treacherous.
        1. oldkap22
          oldkap22 12 January 2016 12: 32
          It seems to me that any revolution is "Evil", but most of the blame for its appearance still lies not with the "Abroad" not with the "Revolutionaries" ... but with the ruling class ... who allowed a gap between the elite (aristocracy (CPSU)) and the bulk of the active people ... allowing anti-state propaganda. without explaining the policy (not to consider political engagement as a normal job) as soon as the elite makes the civil service a feeding trough for themselves, start preparing for the change of the elite ...
    2. swertalf
      swertalf 11 January 2016 22: 05
      Sorry, but you confuse these concepts and mislead others.
  5. Alf
    Alf 11 January 2016 22: 00
    Ah, what wonderful ideas were the Decembrists and how cruelly the royal executioners acted with them.
    Here are the ideas of the Decembrists.
    It was N.M. Muravyov drew up the program of the Northern Society, which went down in history under the name "The Constitution of Nikita Muravyov," the second most important document of Decembrism after Pestel's "Russian Truth". Muravyov's "Constitution" raised the same questions as in "Russkaya Pravda", but they were resolved less radically.
    According to his project, Russia was declared a federal state, consisting of 14 powers and two regions. The powers were divided into counties, and those, in turn, into volosts. It was proposed to make Nizhny Novgorod the capital of the federation, renamed Slavyansk. The "Constitution" divided power into legislative, executive and judicial. The highest legislative institution was proclaimed a bicameral People's Chamber, which consisted of the Supreme Duma (upper house) and the House of People's Representatives (lower house). It was proposed to elect 42 deputies to the Supreme Duma, 450 to the House of People's Representatives. The deputies to both chambers were elected for six years (deputies were re-elected every two years).

    Enough? And what did our liberals want in the early 90's? The same, the division of Russia into many states. But crap is bad, and Decembrists are good ...
    1. Uncle VasyaSayapin
      Uncle VasyaSayapin 12 January 2016 13: 33
      "Manifesto of the Decembrists

      Destruction of the former government;

      The establishment of a temporary, until the establishment of a permanent elective;

      Free stamping, and therefore the destruction of censorship;

      Free worship for all faiths;

      Destruction of property rights that applies to people;

      The equality of all classes before the law and therefore the destruction of military courts and all kinds of judicial commissions, from which all judicial cases go to the department of the nearest civil courts;

      The announcement of the right to every citizen to do what he wants and therefore - a nobleman, merchant, tradesman, peasant, still have the right to join the military and civil service and the clergy, to wholesale and retail, paying the established duties for bidding; to acquire all sorts of contention, such as: land, houses in villages and cities; conclude all kinds of conditions among themselves, compete with each other before a court;

      Addition of poll taxes and arrears thereof;

      Destruction of recruits and military settlements;

      The destruction of monopolies, such as: salt, sale of hot wine and so on. and therefore the distillery and the extraction of salt with payment for industry from the amount of extraction of salt and vodka;

      Reducing the military service for the lower ranks, its distribution will follow the equation of military service between all classes;

      The resignation of all without removing the lower ranks, who have served for 15 years;

      Establishment of hairy, county, provincial and regional boards, which should replace all officials hitherto appointed by the civil government;

      Publicity of ships;

      The introduction of juries in the courts of criminal and civil.

      It establishes a board of 2 or 3 persons, to which it subordinates all parts of the higher management, i.e. all ministries, Council, Committee of Ministers, army, navy. In a word, the entire supreme, executive branch, but by no means legislative or judicial.

      For the latter, there remains a ministry subordinate to the Provisional Government, but for the judgment of cases not resolved in the lower instances, the Senate's criminal department remains and a civil department is established, which are finally decided and whose members remain until the establishment of a permanent government. "

      Federalization of the country, the creation of parliament and the transfer of the capital to N. Novgorod is a blessing. The first two points were realized subsequently and no one is going to cancel them. And the reforms had to be done on time, and not wait for the valves to fail.
  6. swertalf
    swertalf 11 January 2016 22: 03
    All the time I am outraged by the fact that while singing the noble Decembrists, who in principle easily got off, Russian historians, even Soviet ones, forgot about the fate of several thousand soldiers, which the latter provoked to rebellion. For the most part, these were veterans of the war with Napoleon. They entered Paris as victors, they saw how people live without slavery, they were infected by the spirit of freedom, and represented a real danger, as its carriers. Therefore, when suppressing the rebellion with the soldiers did not stand on ceremony. They were shot by artillery, and the survivors were driven out through the ranks, which at that time was often tantamount to the death penalty. The names of the noble Decembrists are well known. The lower ranks never interested anyone.
    1. Sergey S.
      Sergey S. 11 January 2016 23: 34
      I agree.
      A monument to the soldiers and sailors should be put.

      But he will not be.
      This is the essence of the historical process.
      "Revolution! You taught us to believe in the injustice of good ..."

      No state will erect such a monument ...
      And the people remember. And your post is a worthy example.

      History remembers Heroes ...
      And those who turned out to be cannon fodder, are both conscious and heroic, history does not remember.

      The worst thing is that V.I. is completely right in relation to the Decembrists Lenin:
      They are terribly far from the people ...

      In addition to the Decembrists, thousands of sympathetic civilians gathered in the squares of St. Petersburg, but they were not called into the revolution, they did not become participants in the events.

      The leaders of the Decembrists are to blame - they did not understand the power of the people, but they talked about the suffering of the people ...
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 12 January 2016 08: 44
        Lenin himself was terribly far from the people, I would not refer to him. And your previous comment: ".....The fact is that the concepts of good and evil have changed, public opinion has changed on the world order ..... ", in my opinion, erroneous. The very concepts of Good and Evil, the World Order cannot change. We are now once again witnessing attempts to change all these concepts - tolerance (delicately said), horse races on the Maidan, etc., etc. Since the creation of the world, nothing has changed, even if you call it Decembrists, or Herzen, or Copernicus.
    2. oldkap22
      oldkap22 12 January 2016 12: 39
      But is anyone now interested in "defenders of the white house" or "heroes of the Maidan" guys have done their job ... the most nimble at the trough and others ...!? others are out of luck (but still won't work ....)
  7. cap
    cap 12 January 2016 03: 25
    "Conclusions, if done correctly, are beneficial. True, not for everyone and not always.
    MacLeod is not in vain popular. And not only at home. What is it worth "Only one should remain." hi[/ quote] "

    Left without relatives in Russia. They grieve. They live modestly. And no revolutions.

    "In the 2013-2014 fiscal year (ended March 31), the maintenance of Queen Elizabeth II and her relatives cost the British £ 35,7 million ($ 60,9 million)," a report from Buckingham Palace, the official residence of the monarch, said, according to ITAR-TASS.
    Thus, in real terms, the royal family expenses increased by 1,9 million pounds ($ 3,2 million) or 5,7% compared with the previous year. Local media have already calculated that in the 2013/14 fiscal year, each British taxpayer allocated 56 pence (almost $ 1) to maintain the monarchy.
    More than a third of all expenses - 13,3 million pounds ($ 22,7 million) - went to the maintenance and repair of royal palaces. This is almost 50% more than a year earlier. However, representatives of the august family explain this fact by the completion of "a large number of long-term projects", as well as "the repayment of debts over the past years."
    That something like this. hi
    1. Scraptor
      Scraptor 12 January 2016 08: 40
      Excursions are led to these palaces as well as to the Kremlin. And the queen at her post, as well as members of the government who also get paid.
  8. drop
    drop 12 January 2016 08: 37
    For the readers of "VO" I consider it necessary to add the following:
    1. The Decembrists wanted to ruin Russia to entice England;
    2. Miloradovich and the Governor-General of Moscow knew their names, but spared. Since they fought with many in 1812-1814 years. Miloradlvich, even one of the instigators of the Moscow clan of the Decembrists, was swept away during business trips abroad;
    3. According to my story and insistence, I managed to erect a monument to M.A. in St. Petersburg Miloradovich. It was opened on December 4 2015 of the year. While preparing material for the monument, I looked at a lot of documents and I can say that God forbid the Decembrists would have won in 1825;
    4. According to documents, Kakhovsky was expelled from the army for debts and drunkenness. He leaned across Russia without finding himself an occupation. There should not have been an egol in the square, and moreover, in the arrangement of the troops. How he was able to grab a gun from an officer and injure the Savior of Russia - Miloradovich. It was a criminal;
    5. After the battle of Borodino, Miloradovich managed to conclude a truce for 24 hours with Murat (his old acquaintance) and thereby ensured the separation of Kutuzov’s army from the French at 25 versts. You know that the old guard of Napoleon did not participate in the battle of Borodino, and this is 30 thousand bayonets. She was supposed to defeat the army of Kutuzov on the retreat after Borodino.
    Read the documents, dear readers of "VO", and honor the true heroes who are doing everything for the prosperity of Russia. I have the honor.
  9. lysyj bob
    lysyj bob 12 January 2016 10: 45
    As a military man, for men it always remained a mystery how they were going to win the battle, having built themselves on the square under the shooting of guns. And if they just wanted to take the EMPEROR to the show off, then they are not smart. It is not surprising that the idea failed, only the soldiers were put in vain. To the king’s honor, he did not punish ordinary soldiers, they were only sent to different regiments. And he sent the stupid rebels to be martyrs by hanging in vain. It was possible to do otherwise, but so that they not associated with the struggle for freedom.
  10. Asperr43
    Asperr43 15 January 2016 13: 49
    The film '' The Star of the Captivating ... '' is a genius! And the romance and the cast. Well done! One Lebanon is worth something! But it's just an episode ... Pushkin, they write, did not make it to the Senate ... Superstition saved!