190 years ago, on December 14 (26), 1825, battalions of the Life Guards of the Moscow and Grenadier Regiments and Navy crew left on Senate Square. Alignment of ranks. The splendor of the uniforms. Glitter epaulette. Bright plumes on shakos. Crowds of the metropolitan public. Carriages of ladies dying of excitement. Thoroughbred horses. French speech. The holy halo of the struggle for freedom ... Volleys of buckshot. Bloodied snow. Five condemned on the gallows. Pestel, Ryleyev, Muravyov-Apostol, Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Kakhovsky. Selfless wives and brides traveling through the snow to the terrible remote Siberia ... This painting has excited the imagination of the intelligentsia and young people for two centuries. Remember how you watched the film “The Star of Captivating Happiness”, how the song “Cavalier Guard was short-lived ...”, how sorry they were, the dashing and beautiful “cavalry guards”.
And in the days of perestroika and democratization, historians, journalists, and publicists sighed at the drama of the Decembrists: why did they fail to win? After all, probably our whole история Would you go the other way? An enlightened democracy would have been established in Russia, the country would have avoided the 1917 catastrophe of the year, would have developed and grown rich, like America. Such reflections ended with a sacramental phrase: "Alas, history has no subjunctive mood."
But at the same time, a very important side of the issue remains outside the attention of researchers. After all, it was not by chance that in pre-revolutionary Russia they put in one row “external and internal enemies”. And they really were interconnected. The secret war, the use of alien strife since ancient times were powerful tools of international politics. Even in the era of Kievan Rus, the kings of Poland, Hungary, the German emperor and other monarchs supported certain candidates for the Russian princely desks - of course, not from altruism, but on the basis of their own benefits. However, the Russian princes used the same methods.
Well, when Moscow Russia began to grow stronger, the factor of confrontation East-West also manifested itself. First, during the 300 years, Russia had to fight for its very existence with Lithuania and Poland. In the course of this struggle, secret methods were also widely used. The Polish kings welcomed and enticed the turncoats, supported the opposition of the boyars and appanage princes, and the separatists in Novgorod. They used Kurbsky and others like him for the information war, spreading slander about our country. They sent agents for assassinations of Russian rulers. Ideological sabotage was arranged. In the XVI century, starting a war with Russia, Sigismund II first advanced the propaganda slogan of its “liberation” from the royal “tyranny”. And the biggest sabotage was Smoot 1604 – 1613, organized by dropping the False Dmitrys.
Only under Alexey Mikhailovich, in the 1654 – 1667 war. Poland managed to break, she rolled into decline. Russia has become the undisputed leader of Eastern Europe. But after that France becomes its main rival - the leader of the then Western Europe. She took under the protection and weakened Poland. It was France that had plagued Russia for a century and a half, inciting its neighbors — the Swedes, the Turks, the Poles — against it. And all this time backstage subversive methods have been used again. Well, when Russia managed to crush France, England became its main rival. After all, she claimed world domination and was in the XIX century the greatest empire on Earth (including many colonies and semi-colonies). And Britain in the fight against Russia took the patronage of France ...
But the confrontation of our country with the West turned out to be much deeper than the usual international competition. It was not only political and economic, but also spiritual. Since the death of Byzantium, Russia has become the world center and stronghold of Orthodoxy. This provoked violent hostility from Western Catholicism. The Poles in the wars with the Russians received support from all of Europe.
From the 16th century, Catholicism began to collapse intensively. Zaburlila Reformation. For the higher strata of Western society, the foundations of Christian morality in general became a hindrance. The reorientation went to philosophical theories, essentially anti-Christian, where priority was given not to faith, but to reason. On the other hand, the bourgeoisie, the people who were born, rushed to power. Financiers, merchants, industrialists gained strength under the auspices of absolutism. Strong monarchies protected them, opened the way for enrichment. So it was in Holland and in England, later in France. But monarchies and the church limited predation. Now the bigwigs wanted to seize the control levers under their own control. Protestant religions became the ideological banner of "bourgeois revolutions."
However, the fanaticism of the radical sectarians was too destructive force, did terrible misfortunes in those very states where the bourgeoisie inflated revolutionary storms. For circles wishing to continue rebuilding the world in their favor, they needed another tool, other forms of organization. Masonic lodges became such a tool. As if non-religious, emphasizing "enlightenment" - but in reality militant "enlightenment" was opposed to Christianity, the traditional foundations of statehood, morality. Freemasonry formed the ideology of liberalism, the cult of "freedom."
In the 18th century, the lodges sprang up and multiplied in different countries, and their first major victory was the so-called French Revolution, which destroyed the king, the aristocracy, the French church, and flooded the country with blood. But Freemasonry was not atheistic either. Destroying Christianity, it turned to the "wisdom" of ancient sacral cults, Kabbalism, Gnosticism. In the period of the same “great” revolution, the Jacobins tried to introduce the cult of the “world mind” or some kind of “higher being” that was by no means a Christian God. Rather, its opposite. However, behind the scenes of Freemasonry there were always other “higher beings,” earthly oligarchs. And if the Jacobins were eventually sent to the guillotines, if after the theft and rampant of the Directory Bonaparte came to power, then his victory was ensured not only by military talents. Ensured that he was a protege of the Rothschilds. And Napoleon also effectively used the ideas of liberalism - for example, spreading the notorious “Napoleon Code” in countries of potential adversaries (which he never intended to introduce in his own power).
Russia on the path of historical development was attacked by various ideological forces. At first it was intensively treated by the Catholic agents, the Jesuits. They tried to persuade the sovereigns to accept the union, sending agents of influence like Simeon of Polotsk. They drew into their networks inclined to the “Westernism” of statesmen - Chancellors Ordin-Nashchokina, Golitsyna, Tsarevna Sofia Alekseevna. Protestant sects, such as "Jewish", were also introduced into our country. And from the XVIII century, Masonic structures began to bud.
Their activity in Russia was forbidden three times - by the decrees of Catherine the Great, Paul I and Alexander I. But the decrees were not executed. Pavel I himself was assassinated by Freemason conspirators. And during the reign of Alexander, the “free masons” lodges bred to the fullest extent. This was greatly facilitated by the strong cosmopolitanization of the Russian aristocracy and nobility. They were related to foreigners, and the tutors and tutors hired foreigners; in “high society”, Jesuit schools and institutions were considered the most prestigious. At the end of the 18th century, Suvorov inspired officers and soldiers with the words: “You are Russian!”, And already at the beginning of the 19th century, Russian aristocrats communicated among themselves in French, their children did not know how to write in Russian.
With such a separation from the national roots, the top of society was infected with the teachings of the spiritualists, the mystics, and Freemasonry became the craze of young people, as if in a fashionable "game." But the game was not harmless. In England and France there was a merger of large capital and state power, and Masonic ties, ideas were used by these powers for well-defined political goals. When the freemason Radishchev, a mentally ill person, published “Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow,” hypertrophically thickening black colors, did he really intend his work for the Russian “public”? Yes, all the color of his modern "public" consisted of landlords-feudal! No, it was an ideological diversion designed for resonance abroad. And that is why Catherine considered that he was "a rebel more dangerous than Pugachev." But the freemason Karamzin was never listed as a rioters. But he did much more harm to Russia than Radishchev, by distorting the history of his country. Moreover, he provided a distorted foundation for future foreign and domestic historians. But the king did not condemn him, but on the contrary, he was cherished - because he himself was already infected with “enlightened” westernism.
Well, in case of victory of the Decembrists, the history of Russia really would have followed a completely different path. But not on the path of good and prosperity. She would have simply collapsed into chaos a hundred years earlier. Despite the fact that "the history of the subjunctive mood does not have," it is not difficult to calculate. After all, shortly before Russia, England and France carried out a similar operation with Spain. At the beginning of the XIX century, it remained the most extensive world power. Moreover, it was the main stronghold of the Orthodox Catholic Church. It was not by chance that Spain, along with Russia, was one of two countries that Napoleon could not defeat. The peasants there retained their sincere faith in God, desperately went to their death, but exterminated the invaders.
The greatness of Spain in the international arena and its economic foundation provided possessions in America. They flourished, lived very richly. Overseas provinces inhabited different nations, but the administration, the aristocracy, the intelligentsia consisted of the same Spaniards as in the metropolis. They had relatives in Spain, they went there, were educated in Spanish universities. There was no infringement of rights. However, among the officers, intellectuals, landowners, as in Russia, the Masonic organizations multiplied. Creoles - that is, the Spaniards who were born in America, through these structures inculcated the belief that they are another people, Spain suppresses their independence. Must fight! In 1810 – 1820's a chain of national liberation revolutions rolled through America.
But at the same time, in Spain itself, other ideas were being introduced to the Freemasons - the monarchy became a brake on progress, it was time to overthrow it. On the Iberian Peninsula, too, a revolution broke out. And the Spanish revolutionaries did not recognize the separation of American possessions. They demanded to restore the state, sent troops overseas. Yeah where there! In the civil war, the monarchists were merging with the Republicans, revolts and coups exploded, and in Madrid power was changing. Suppress the uprising in America, Spain could not. Overstrained, weakened and generally dropped out of the number of "great powers", for a long time slipped to the level of a secondary state. Her policies began to regulate France and England.
But Latin America under the rule of Madrid was united, dividing only into administrative units - the vice-kingdom, the governorship. Now, residents of various provinces not only fell away from Spain, but also fought among themselves. They quarreled over the personal leadership of the leaders, because of differences in management systems. The civil wars claimed a million lives for 1,5. As a result, Latin America gained independence, but fragmented, bloodless, impoverished. Got into full economic and political dependence on the same England.
Later it was changed in the role of "owners" of the United States. And the fate of the Latin American states was almost two centuries of hesitation. In one direction - to liberalism, democracy, "freedoms". What turned out to be corruption, theft, rampant crime and anarchy. For salvation attempted coups, established dictatorships. And when the police regime bothered the people, the struggle for democracy unfolded again. The “masters” could only regulate this process, supporting either dictators or “freedoms”.
Matter of course, Latin American masons, unfolding the struggle for freedom, did not set themselves the goal of turning their countries into “banana republics”. Among them were heroes who sacrificed their lives, as they believed, for a bright future. Yes, and the Spanish Masons, starting the revolution, did not want to ruin his power. Those and others sincerely believed that under the flags of "freedom, equality, fraternity," progress and prosperity would be achieved. But Freemasonry is false. It pushes its adepts wherever the higher hierarchs need. Supports them while they are needed, and easily donates when it proves appropriate.
In this case, the actions of both sides were coordinated and directed by directors from London and Paris. And they had a great idea of what they wanted and what should happen in the played combination. By the way, another result of the collapse of the Spanish world empire was the final undermining of the positions of the Catholic Church. Rome began to lord it over to French, Austrian, Italian politicians, intertwined with Freemasonry, and the Vatican itself lost its independence, turning into a tool for Western backstage circles.
Russia was the second power, which turned out to be too tough for Napoleon. And the first who could crush him. The victory lifted our country to the top of world politics. Is it any wonder that at the same time as Spain, we have activated similar processes? One by one, secret circles were born - Union of Salvation, Union of Welfare, Society of First Consent, Society of United Slavs, Society of Military Friends. Behind the covered tables argued what to build after the overthrow of the autocracy? Constitutional monarchy, like in England? Or the republic, as there was some time in France? Kill the king or just depose? There was no dispute about overthrowing and undermining; it was perceived as an axiom. The beautiful slogans of "freedoms" were drunk even better than wine.
But in the real speech of the Decembrists, the beautiful and the sublime was not enough. When it reached the point, half the conspirators, who excitedly talked about violent parties about constitutions and regicides, tried to evade. Stusil, sat at home - including Trubetskoy, who was already identified as a "dictator", the leader of the revolution.
The soldier was meanly deceived - they took advantage of the fact that after the death of Alexander I, the troops initially swore allegiance to Konstantin Pavlovich. But he abdicated the throne, and the repeated oath, Nicholas I, the conspirators declared illegal. They took the columns to the Senate Square and stood aimlessly. This was caused not only by confusion, but also by another important circumstance. Soldiers and sailors would not go against the king! The day was frosty, the lower ranks in the ranks were desperately cold, standing hungry. Although the officers, of course, the orderlies delivered fur coats, they found something to eat.
If there was anything heroic in the uprising, it was only the courage of the governor-general of St. Petersburg Miloradovich, who tried to do without blood and left to persuade the rebels. The soldiers loved him, began to give in. But Kakhovsky shot on the sly, in fact, during the negotiations, defeating the honored commander. Tsar Nicholas, who decisively headed the suppression, showed himself worthily. And as soon as the smell of fried, most of the officers ran away, leaving their subordinates to fend for themselves.
Echo of the insurgency responded in other places. In Ukraine, having learned about the failure and arrests in the capital, Muraviev-Apostol senselessly raised the Chernigov regiment. The regiment commander was killed, Muravyov-Apostol led the soldiers to some unknown place and why. Far from gone. They were intercepted by cavalry and artillery. They were shooting, blood was flowing again, and the regiment surrendered. In Lithuania, the troops tried to rebel Ingelstrom and Vigelin, although they did not succeed.
But the conspiracy network was liquidated very quickly. Because the captured Decembrists immediately began to pawn all friends and acquaintances. Many were not guilty, then they were released. The crimes were very serious - armed coup in the army, an attempted coup that caused significant human casualties. Punishment for such a fault can not be called overly harsh. Executed just five, the main instigators. The lower ranks and some of the officers involved in the insurrection were not even expelled from the guard. Of them were composed of the Life Guard Consolidated Regiment and sent to the Caucasus, to atone for the blame in the battles.
Those who found themselves “in the depths of Siberian ores” did not torture us with overwork, they worked in the mines for three hours a day. And the majority of convicts fell into exile. Or in time they were transferred from prison to settlement. They could get land in Siberia, work - if there was a desire. If it was not, they could live on the benefit from the treasury. Some, like the Bestuzhev brothers, became rich Siberian entrepreneurs. Others wrote petitions to be enlisted in the army as soldiers. But to serve them was not in such conditions as the ordinary private. Among the officers they had acquaintances, other commanders pitied them. Provided indulgences. And most importantly, they gave the opportunity to distinguish themselves so that they could be made ensigns. Having received at least the lowest officer's rank, the Decembrist acquired the right to retire and go home.
No, of course, the victory of a hypothetical revolution would benefit not Russia. But for the enemies of our country, even defeat fit. He earned a propaganda apparatus, constructing a beautiful myth about the Decembrists, surrounding them with the glitter of romance and the aura of martyrs. On this myth new generations began to be brought up. Moreover, the bright substitutes created in this way turned out to be extremely persistent. After all, they were enough for our share with you.