Military Review

PUBLIC RELATIONS as a weapon of information struggle

26
Why does a dog wag its tail?
Because she is smarter than the tail.

If the tail were smarter, he would wag the dog.
(Larry Beinhart. "Wagging Dog: Roman")


The VO pages have already published materials on how PR technologies affect the masses. Yes, but what is the place and role of PR activities in the communication process? In what forms of communication practices "public relations" are capable of deforming, reforming and, at times, transforming both the information environment surrounding us and the very nature of the interaction of the communicants in it. First of all, it should be said that PR is precisely a system of communication practices that includes absolutely everything: the appearance of the TV announcer, his soulful or firm voice, and the general direction of the entire flow of information. That is - how, about what and in what form to write and accordingly - about what to write (and what to show) is not necessary at all.

PUBLIC RELATIONS as a weapon of information struggle

Of course, you all saw this poster ...

Phenomena of communicative activity were reviewed by well-known American researcher and information theorist James Grunig, who identified four main models of PR practices. His model is accepted today by experts all over the world, and in total there are four models of communications, both asymmetrical and symmetrical.

The first model - PR in the form of manipulation and propaganda has been known for a very long time. A good example of such a model today is advertising, stimulating the sale of goods, etc. This is an asymmetric model and is limited to one-way communication with the public. At the same time, with the help of information pressure, some people try to attract the attention of the audience and get the necessary actions from it. The recipient of information in this model is a passive object, and the objectivity of the transmitted data does not matter (“the planet Nibiru flies to Earth and will soon face us!”). After all, the purpose of such communication is the attention of the public.

Here you should digress a little and ask readers about the people with what level of education most often become victims of deception by gypsies? Do you think those who have the lowest level of education? And no! The data of the Ministry of Interior suggests the opposite! More often come across people with incomplete higher! And higher! And why? And because they heard about telepathy, telekinesis, mesmerism, hypnosis and ... they were also brought up. But some semi-literate girl from Tmutarakan (and there were such in the past time, and now they are) does not know this, but her mother said to her - “Gypsy are cheating, it will do - say I went to ...!” how to cheat such? Then, as for the “educated”, the first thought is “what if, really?”, “What if Nibiru still falls ?!” This is what “what if?” They are caught! And the gypsy, and ... "catchers of souls" with a university degree! Although this work and levels many ethical aspects of the information impact on society. That is, the main tools of this model are propaganda and agitation. They are often confused, like damask and Damascus steel, but in fact they are very easy to distinguish. Propaganda refers to the general, and agitation - to the private! For example, “Long live freedom, equality and fraternity!” (The slogan of the French Revolution) is propaganda. “Vote for the friend of the people of Jean-Paul Marat - the true advocate of the disadvantaged!” - this is agitation. Or: “Wash your hands before eating!” - promoting a healthy lifestyle. “Wash your hands before eating Soop soap!” - agitation.

Now let us turn to the second model of PR practice “according to Grunig” - informing the public. The main idea here is not to get publicity or advertising, but to give the population as much accurate and accurate information as possible. But the flow of information remains asymmetrical, one-sided. Such a model of PR today is used by the authorities, political organizations, associations, non-profit organizations. In this case, the subjects of information themselves decide what information the public needs to know. And much depends on their honesty and decency, professional skills and ... money! However, there are some “pitfalls” here. You can tell a lot by just informing you. Watch the feature film “Trick or Wag the Dog” and ... you will get a comprehensive idea of ​​how such information can be carried out in the interests of the “public”!

The third model is two-way asymmetric communication. How to understand this? And so! PR work is carried out taking into account the study of target audiences and their reaction to this or that information. There is a positive reaction or it is expected - we give information. The reaction is negative - do not give! That is, there is feedback in this model (opinion polls, focus groups, interviews), but all this is needed only in order to plan an effective PR campaign, get support from key groups of the public and ... extort money from it and get support! Look very interesting in this regard, the American film "Kate and Leo" and you will clearly see how it is done. In this case, public relations is used to convince or force the public to agree with the views of the organization or structure, and not vice versa. Such a PR model is usually used by commercial structures, but the state does not shun it either.

As you can see, this model is based on the fact that the source of information, that is, the subject is aware of the need to take into account the views of the environment and its impact on the interests of the organization. Therefore, in this case, PR is transformed from propaganda into more or less socially responsible communicative activity. That is, it is still better than just propaganda, agitation and “informing”, since all this is simply imposed on people without regard for their interests. Exploited by man to knowledge and novelty!


“Hat and glasses means spy!” Poster 1954

The two-way symmetric model of communication today is the most advanced, complex, effective and expensive. The institution or organization in this case is trying to establish partnerships with the public, mutually acceptable for those and for others. And the goal of PR is aimed at achieving mutual understanding between the leadership of the organization and the public, which has an impact on the organization. The organization as a source, and the public as the recipient of information in this case cannot be considered, since an equal dialogue is established between them. We can say that there is a place for deception. Yes, it always is, but people who notice such deception very soon (or not soon, but sooner or later) will no longer trust such an organization, and it will lose not only the credit of their trust, but also the money, and nowhere without them!

Here both sides of the communication process should be perceived as groups that achieve mutual understanding and can effectively interact. Even if they do not love each other. Suppose you have matches, and I have boxes. We can hate each other as much as we like, but we can only light a fire together. It means that the tasks of a professional PR manager are to find such points of contact or even create them artificially. However, according to Grunig, this model is rarely dominant because of the need for continuous search for a compromise. Because of this, the effectiveness of information interaction between the public and PR actors is significantly reduced. In addition, most people are not very intelligent and educated and therefore prefer “quick”, “simple” and “effective”, in their everyday view, solutions.

All these four models are carried out within the framework of selected strategies, and there are only two of them. A rational (objective) strategy of PR practice addresses the mind of the potential audience, and provides arguments that should inform and convince opponents. In them, subjects enclose their arguments not only in verbal form, but also for clarity using drawings or graphs that are able to reinforce and reinforce the impression of what was expressed.


Diagram of the process of informational impact on the audience.

Strategies of emotional (associative) PR practice appeal to feelings, memories (and time erases bad memories, but keeps good ones in memory!), Emotions, to the subconscious; they affect people through the association of ideas. A favorite tactical device, in this case, is a graphic image (figure, symbol), and even more importance is given to the color scheme. For example: a thick-bodied bourgeoisie in a black top hat, and a slender worker in a red budenovka, the “pest” of 30's necessarily wearing a hat and glasses and a brush with a mustache (the ideal image in the movie is the artist M. Gluzsky!) Sometimes in PR activities both of these strategies are used simultaneously, which are applied to different audiences.


“A scoundrel can be seen immediately!” M. Gluzsky in the movie “The Last Inch.”

By way of expression, PR practices are divided into “hard” and “soft”. A “hard type” PR campaign has short-term goals - to influence the public in such a way as to bring it to immediate action through screaming and external effects. A “soft” PR campaign has a goal not only to provide information about a particular project, but also to create a favorable atmosphere around it. Most often, this is achieved by emotional influence, symbolism, and deep motives affecting feelings. Such a PR campaign is designed for medium terms.

In any case, one should always remember that the audience’s response to information is non-linear: it passes through the thresholds of perception and saturation, so the PR should build his work so that his campaign is between them, in the zone of highest efficiency, and not beyond the saturation threshold. In this case, his efforts will be in vain, and the money will be thrown to the wind. There is even a precisely verified number of “picture” shows, which arouses interest and trust. Then - the "sign" is changing!

Well, the election campaign of V.V. Zhirinovsky, carried out at the beginning of the 2000s under the slogan "We are for the poor, we are for the Russians!" Probably, someone even remembers these huge billboards that filled the whole country? Then I immediately asked my PR students: “Will someone vote for him under this slogan?” There were no people who wanted 50! Then I offered to interview everyone on 10 and find out their opinion about this slogan, and whether they will vote for the Liberal Democratic Party. It turned out that there are very few! Moreover, one of the “activists” was an unemployed young man who said: “Zhirik is a cool dude!”

However, the elections showed that he overcame the 5% barrier and remained in the Duma. This means one thing: a study was conducted that showed that there is a target audience (CA) that will “lead” to this slogan and will provide another term. But since it is small, then its “needs and aspirations” can then be ignored! And then there will be a new Central Asian, a new slogan will be created for it, which will appeal to the senses, and ... a new tenure will be provided. Wow, isn't it?
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  1. Russian Uzbek
    Russian Uzbek 26 November 2015 06: 36
    +9
    the author has described the most obvious ways to manipulate and "create opinions"
    in fact, there are much more of them, and many of them we do not even notice - for example: the pros and cons in comments are a tool for manipulating consciousness - i.e. any sensible thought can be "minus" and thereby create an impression among those who are "not in the subject" that this thought is not true and vice versa
    1. kalibr
      26 November 2015 07: 12
      +4
      Well, I really did not write about this, not to mention the fact that "who are the judges?" After all, anyone can hide behind the general's shoulder straps, up to a junior scooper of a sewage convoy, and behind a midshipman, a doctor of sciences, a famous engineer and a laureate of state awards.
      1. Russian Uzbek
        Russian Uzbek 26 November 2015 07: 58
        0
        it’s not a matter of epaulets and ranks, and who is hiding behind them - it was invented to satisfy people, to increase interest - a marketing move, so to speak ...
        but the pros and cons should be canceled since this is a tool for manipulating consciousness
        1. Stanislas
          Stanislas 26 November 2015 09: 00
          +1
          Quote: Russian Uzbek
          the pros and cons should be undone as it is a tool for manipulating consciousness
          And what cannot be used as a "tool for manipulating consciousness"? So you can cancel words, not to mention emoticons, pictures, etc. Cancel for members? There will be a newspaper, but in the newspaper the prerogative of the manipulator still remains, but only with the authors and the editor. It is necessary to improve the interface (control panel), nmv.
          1. Russian Uzbek
            Russian Uzbek 26 November 2015 10: 22
            +1
            But how can you use emoticons to manipulate your mind? share ... emoticons came up to express emotions!
            But how the pros and cons work. I gave you an example.
            any sound idea can be blamed to the point of complete decency and at the same time not be answered essentially
            disagree - justify your disagreement, prove your case! and then a bunch of anonymous shkolota flew up, set up cons ...
            "The opinion of the audience" is not always correct in talk shows!
            1. Stanislas
              Stanislas 26 November 2015 11: 39
              0
              Quote: Russian Uzbek
              how you can use emoticons for manipulation ... how the pros and cons work, I gave you an example
              How do they work good и negative need to explain?
              Quote: Russian Uzbek
              emoticons invented to express emotions
              Or to induce certain emotions at the addressee, then which side to look at ...
              1. Russian Uzbek
                Russian Uzbek 26 November 2015 13: 36
                0
                on such a psychedelic issue can be discussed indefinitely
                1. Stanislas
                  Stanislas 27 November 2015 00: 16
                  0
                  Quote: Russian Uzbek
                  can discuss endlessly
                  What is there to discuss if you proposed degradation of the interface, and I suggest upgrading it. If budget money would have been thrown at it, it would have been very good. The project is needed. I didn’t miss a project (project competition)?
  2. venaya
    venaya 26 November 2015 06: 45
    +2
    As I understand it, all the media are created in order to manipulate the mind, they receive money for this, and from that they live. They have no other source of existence yet! If someone does not agree with this, then I am now able to bring the whole history of the media in support of this thesis!
    1. kalibr
      26 November 2015 07: 14
      +2
      It’s just that PR people, unlike the media, have an advantage for which they don’t like them. The media write about everything and first of all about the bad. PR people write about good ...
      1. venaya
        venaya 26 November 2015 07: 31
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        The media write about everything and first of all about the bad. PR people write about good ...

        But I need neither good nor bad, but only the truth, and the one that interests me at the moment, that is, is of interest to me, and as a rule I can’t find this anywhere. By the way, the film “Last Inch” is significant for me, it opened the way for me to the sky, for which I personally thank this film separately.
        1. kalibr
          26 November 2015 07: 37
          0
          And he revealed to me that there is no need to be afraid when you are alone. Remember, there Ben Ansley says: Never be afraid when you are alone!
  3. inkass_98
    inkass_98 26 November 2015 07: 20
    +4
    Approach any slogan critically, and no face-makers are afraid of you, since the basic principle of their actions is movement ahead, in the forehead. Finer methods are more expensive and more time consuming.
    And as for the gypsies, in his student days he had fun talking with fortune-tellers and beggars. No one has ever robbed me or hypnotized me for the simple reason that the circus was the only goal of communicating with them. And he gave them money (a little, the budget did not suffer in any way) precisely for the performance, like buying a ticket.
  4. prishelec
    prishelec 26 November 2015 08: 19
    +1
    For Russians, this is good of course, but why only for Russians, in Russia what, only among Russians are poor or what? .. poverty among any Russian people is the same in percentage terms! Zhidonovsky in one word. hi
    1. Gardamir
      Gardamir 26 November 2015 08: 44
      +1
      Each sees in his own way. It means to me. that only Russians are always poor, according to Zhirinovsky.
      1. afdjhbn67
        afdjhbn67 27 November 2015 04: 37
        0
        Quote: Gardamir
        Each sees in his own way. It means to me. that only Russians are always poor, according to Zhirinovsky.

        I remember how dissonance it looked in our country in Buryatia ... it was a stupid PR move, obviously the children of the Unified State Examination composed ...
  5. egor670
    egor670 26 November 2015 09: 03
    +2
    On the example of the same Zhirinovsky it’s clear why for the poor and Russians. People striving for power need votes in the elections, and who is the most in Russia? poor and Russian! in fact, all these gentlemen for the rich and the Jews!
  6. mishastich
    mishastich 26 November 2015 10: 35
    0
    About "Padlik Relations" is excellently written by Gleb Bobrov in the Age of the Stillborn. I recommend.

    Sincerely.
  7. Stanislas
    Stanislas 26 November 2015 12: 00
    +1
    The first model - PR in the form of manipulation and propaganda has been known for a very long time. A good example of such a model today is advertising.
    One question: why is advertising still not banned? Daily long-term "brainwashing" not only from TV screens, but also from billboards on the roads, etc. cannot remain without consequences for society and the individual.
    1. kalibr
      26 November 2015 12: 22
      +1
      And how can you ban advertising? Unfair advertising can be prohibited, that is, punished for it, but it is impossible to conscientiously. There is a law on advertising - everything is said there!
      1. Stanislas
        Stanislas 26 November 2015 18: 20
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        And how can you ban advertising?
        This is a matter of technology: they got together, voted for a new law, the president approved, that's it. First you need to understand why you need to ban advertising. Or do you think that everyday "conscientious" manipulation of consciousness does no harm to this very consciousness?
  8. bionik
    bionik 26 November 2015 14: 17
    +2

    Well, the best example of all of the above can be the election campaign of V.V. Zhirinovsky, carried out in the early 2000s under the slogan "We are for the poor, we are for the Russians!"
    This is already 2015.
    1. kalibr
      26 November 2015 14: 52
      +1
      That too, but my example seemed to me more ... interesting. Well, this is my personal opinion. And then on the first we conducted a survey, but not on this.
    2. afdjhbn67
      afdjhbn67 27 November 2015 04: 39
      +1
      Quote: bionik
      This is already 2015.

      From the point of view of psychology - it causes disbelief from the moment of reading and accordingly hits the box office ..
  9. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 26 November 2015 16: 44
    +2
    The problem of propaganda is that a person all the time
    looks in turn: now in the TV, then in the refrigerator.
    And when the difference between the color picture on the TV and
    the white picture in the refrigerator (bare walls) becomes too obvious ...
    problems ripen in power belay
    1. kalibr
      26 November 2015 19: 59
      0
      Yes, in this you are completely right. The difference in the picture is the most significant and the biggest problem with manipulators. But here you can blame "them" for everything ...
  10. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 26 November 2015 16: 55
    0
    Quote: Russian Uzbek

    but the pros and cons should be canceled since this is a tool for manipulating consciousness

    I think it’s not necessary. I’ve always been wondering who they think about what. Some ++ and (- -) remain unchanged, some change. Moreover, dramatically sometimes. Time intervals can be seen. Of course, theoretically, there may be some kind of conspiracy. Or a large number of virtual commentators, which Vyacheslav talked about last time. I don’t suppose manipulations with the help of +++ because the audience reading comments is not defined.
  11. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 26 November 2015 17: 18
    0
    For example, a person voted on advertising, shown by Vyacheslav. Is it possible to say that this person set himself up for eternal poverty? I saw an advertisement --- I immediately have an unfriendly feeling, emotions are as if they imposed this poverty on me forcibly. Inside myself I I eliminated the first part. But I still would not vote for him.
    I’m not writing about the meaning of the article yet, I can say I like it, I’ll think about it again. Best regards.
    1. kalibr
      26 November 2015 20: 01
      0
      Like - do not like this category of personal experience. What do the Chinese say? There are always two bridges in front of you. One must go, the other burn! The question is what?
  12. onix757
    onix757 26 November 2015 21: 04
    0
    Bourgeois propaganda is terrible for its anti-humanity.
  13. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 26 November 2015 21: 22
    0
    I like the word about the article - I like it like an unsolved riddle!

    I don’t like it - about that advertisement. The combination of colors is nonsense. Even if you remove the first line, it doesn’t fit

    As for the choice, I remembered the humor - the inscription on the stone: sorry, bro, without options.
    Jokes, jokes, but many people try not to approach the bridges
    In general, dear Vyacheslav, I’m in a good mood from your article.
  14. ingenera
    ingenera 26 November 2015 21: 28
    +1
    With advertising, everything is clear. The media are most annoying. By the way, they quite strongly influence the life position of the people "covered" by them. And why have the leading programs been broadcasting in such hysterical and anxious voices lately? The viewers (listeners), who have not yet penetrated into the content, already have anxiety in their souls. Moreover, this tone is equally applied both in the message about an explosion carried out somewhere by terrorists, and in the message about another girl thrown by some famous showman. Yes, also about advertising: for some reason, me and my family (and many of our friends) advertising leads to the exact opposite result. And the texts! And after all, someone writes them and receives money and he is not ashamed!
  15. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 26 November 2015 21: 53
    0
    Texts, and videos for advertising are more based on "universal values" - sex, food, alcohol, survival, money. And since it is done aggressively and rudely - you ☆☆☆ ingeneria ☆☆☆ don't like it. I also have - I reject. But I went to the furniture room, where there were red 5-pointed stars, more than once.