Military Review

The short age of the first special service

14
Ivan the Terrible disappeared after the oprichnina


Non-standard solutions of the first Russian tsar abruptly changed the country, but not all of them were successful.

485 years ago, 2 of September (in a new style) 1530, a storm raged over Moscow and its surroundings: the wind pulled up ancient trees with roots, rain that seemed to flood, flooded the pavements and houses that stood in the lowlands, and thunder thundered the Muscovites in horror: “ Holy, holy, holy, Lord of hosts! ”- such a hurricane did not happen long ago. On this day in the village of Kolomna, the summer residence of the Moscow princes and the first Russian tsars, the long-awaited heir, the future grand prince and first Russian Tsar Ivan, who later received the nickname Grozny, was born in the family of Grand Duke Vasily III Ivanovich and his wife Elena Glinskaya.

The short age of the first special service

Victor Vasnetsov
“Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich the Terrible”


His father soon died, and already at the age of three, Ivan became the nominal ruler of Great Russia, a state that increasingly declared itself internationally. However, before the 17 anniversary - the official term of the wedding of the kingdom, that is, for 14 years, the country was first ruled by his mother with her relatives, and after her early death - the boyars who shared power and glory, which ruined the country. As a result, the revolt of 1547 of the year, which resulted in the brutal murder of Yuri Glinsky, a relative of the young sovereign, and the ruin of the estates of all the relatives of the deceased Queen.

Seeing and realizing, long before Pushkin, that the Russian revolt was senseless and merciless, the king, who had matured early, drew the appropriate conclusions. But first, becoming the full and legitimate ruler of the state, he persistently sought and sought the unity of power and people. Ivan Vasilyevich, as chronicles testify, repeatedly gathered Muscovites and representatives of other cities and lands subordinate to him on Cathedral Square of the Kremlin in order to convey his views and ideals to the people, to get support in the lower classes. The historian Nikolai Karamzin describes such scenes in this way: “... Then the Emperor bowed to all sides and continued: People of God ... I pray ... be generous to me! You can not fix the past evil - I can only continue to save you from such harassment and robbery. Forget what is no longer and never will be; leave hate, enmity; unite all Christian love. From now on, I am your judge and protector! ”

The king did not deceive the people with promises. Under his rule, the regular convening of the Zemsky Sobor began, where all classes were widely represented. Under it, the Code of Laws was adopted - a set of laws, reforms of the military service and state administration. The Kazan and Astrakhan Khanates hostile to Russia were conquered in his reign, Western Siberia, the region of the future troops of the Don, Bashkiria, and the land of the Nogai Horde were annexed. Thus, the increase in the territory of the Russian state under Ivan IV was almost 100 percent - from 2,8 million to 5,4 million square meters. The Russian state became larger than the rest of Europe. It caused fear, distrust, panic there. Since then, Russia began to deliberately present itself to Europeans as a barbaric country, and intrigues and conspiracies supported by the Vatican began to lag against its rulers.

The connection of the lower classes with the Tsar Ivan the Terrible was really strong, but in this way he was hampered by the boyars and some former princes. They were not without reason afraid of gaining autocratic power, and therefore often became participants in conspiracies and intrigues. These include poisoning of the beloved wife of Tsar Anastasia or an attempt to drag in to weaken the country as much as possible in Russia in a long and exhausting war with the Crimean Khan, with whom the Tsar had very difficult relations. A series of betrayals of the governor of the border fortresses began: Prince Dmitry Vishnevetsky, the voivode of the forces of southern Russia, crossed over to the Poles, and Prince Andrei Kurbsky, the governor of the sovereign in Derpt (Yuryev, Tartu) fortress, left the Lithuanians, leaving his wife and son. Betrayal among the boyars close to the tzar became frequent.

Then Ivan Vasilyevich made an out-of-the-box decision, to put it bluntly: in early December 1564 left with his wife and children from Moscow to Alexander settlement, and sent a messenger to the bewildered people, who handed letters to the metropolitan and Moscow commoners. It was declared that the sovereign no longer “wanted to tolerate many changeable affairs, he left the state out of great heart pity and went where God would show the way”. He laid the whole blame on the traitors-boyars and princes, but asked for support from the people. And she was immediately received.

When the first torpor of Muscovites passed, the capital literally exploded with meetings: “The sovereign left us,” the people shouted. - We are dying. Who will be our defender? People demanded that the metropolitan, who represented the only legitimate authority, rather return the king to the throne: “Let the king execute his lihodey: in the stomach and in death, his will; but the kingdom will not be left without a head! He is our sovereign, God-given: we do not know anything else ... ”The choice of the people was unequivocal, the necessary support was received, and Ivan the Terrible already in February 1565 returned to Moscow.

His first step in returning to the capital was the introduction of the oprichnina, about which many rumors still circulate. Meanwhile, the remnant of the manor, received by the nobleman from the tsar for service, was called the oprichnina in Russia, when in the event of his death it returned to the treasury, except for the old Russian part of the plot left to feed the family. Not the stupidest decision, however. At first, persons especially devoted to the sovereign, from whom oprichny regiments were created, were written into the oprichnina. A dog's head and a broom attached to the saddle became their distinctive sign - a sign that their carriers are like a dog loyal to the tsar and are ready to gnaw his enemies, sweeping the whole sedition with a broom from Russia. They were engaged not only in internal search, performing some kind of functions of the security service and partly of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, but also participated in the hostilities. Not without their efforts, although with difficulty, the Crimean raids on Moscow in 1571 – 1572 were reflected. Ivan IV himself was then with the troops in Livonia, where the best oprichnny military leaders, who had successfully fought against the Lithuanians and Poles, were transferred.

However, the oprichnina idea did not bring the expected result to Ivan the Terrible. One of the reasons is that careerists, temporary workers, random people, who went to serve in privileged formations for mercenary motives, quickly penetrated here: to advance faster in service, to receive property, rewards, therefore, after distorting the ideas of reasonable royal initiative, they allowed various violations, slander of honest people, robbery, looting, causing the people and the clergy fair criticism.

As a result, the oprichnina was abolished by the king himself. The official reason is the breakthrough of the Crimean cavalry towards Moscow, unsuccessful actions of the leaders of the capital oprichnina left to defend the capital. Its head, Tsarist brother-in-law Mikhail Cherkassky (Saltankul Murza) “for deliberately bringing the tsar under the Tatar strike” was impaled, the nursery Pyotr Zaytsev was hanged on the gate of his house, oprichnye boyars Ivan Chebotov, Ivan Vorontsov, butler Leonty Saltykov, also executed Fedor Saltykov and others. Disappointed with his own project - the creation of a personal guard, Ivan the Terrible became even more closed, became suspicious and irritable. Then he began to get sick and in March 1584, he suddenly died. According to some historians, the tsar was hunted down by a “cocktail” of arsenic and mercury for several years in a row and enemies that were not uprooted from his surroundings.

Thus, an attempt to introduce a direct sovereign in Russia through the creation of special security agencies ended ingloriously. Repeated it, having come to power, the Bolsheviks, who formed the repressive apparatus of the Cheka, led by the “knight of the revolution” Felix Dzerzhinsky. But this is another история.
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  1. c3r
    c3r 19 September 2015 05: 25 New
    +10
    Article minus. For some reason, the author, at the end of the article, idealizes the period of imperial Russia (from Grozny to the USSR) "... This was an inglorious attempt to introduce direct sovereign control in Russia through the creation of special power structures. The Bolsheviks, who formed the repressive apparatus of the Cheka headed by the “knight of the revolution" Felix Dzerzhinsky. But that's another story ... "
    Here is an excerpt from Wikipedia I confess to be too lazy to search, but there have always been special services in tsarist and imperial Russia and the USSR responsible for state security
    The structures that performed the functions of political investigation and ensured the personal safety of the monarch were referred in different periods (in chronological order):
    Oprichnina
    Secret Affairs Order
    Preobrazhensky order
    Secret Office (Secret Expedition)
    Third Division of His Imperial Majesty's Own Chancellery
    Separate gendarmes
    Security Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire
    Police department

    Military Intelligence Bodies:
    Secret Affairs Expedition at the War Department (established in January 1810); since January 1812 - Special Chancellery under the Minister of War.
    5th (intelligence) office work, from September 11, 1910 - Special office work (intelligence and counterintelligence) of the Quartermaster General Department of the General Directorate of the General Staff.
    IN USSR
    GPU and Cheka
    NKVD, MGB, KGB
    In Russian federation
    MB, FSK, FSB, etc.
    1. Alena Frolovna
      Alena Frolovna 19 September 2015 12: 07 New
      +7
      The article is not just a minus, but the fattest, and many. And only for one stupid and unreliable phrase:
      "Ivan the Terrible disappeared"


      Sorry, author, but you will disappear and no one will ever remember you. Although, God forbid, you longevity and health.

      To write about great and anointed to the kingdom Tsar-Father Ivan the Terrible needs to study history, and not write any gag, just to stand out.

      John the Terrible is not "disappeared", and he was poisoned, like his beloved wife Anastasia, as well as his son, whom the tsar did not kill. This fact of poisoning was proved by Soviet scientists when their tombs were opened.

      And the reason was needed for the struggle against the heresy of the Judaizers, with the internal enemies of Russia.

      And it’s not for you, the author, to judge: how short is the century. Everything lasted exactly as long as it was necessary at that turn in the history and life of our state.
  2. bionik
    bionik 19 September 2015 06: 16 New
    +6
    OPRICHNIK. They could be seen from afar: on the one hand hung the head of a dog, a symbol of devotion to the king, and on the other hand a broom - a symbol of the fact that these people cleanse the state of unnecessary and unfaithful people to Ivan the Terrible.
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 19 September 2015 09: 19 New
      +2
      bionik "OPRICHNIK. They could be seen from afar: on the one hand hung a dog’s head, a symbol of loyalty to the tsar, and on the other hand a broom - a symbol of the fact that these people cleanse the state of unnecessary and unfaithful people to Ivan the Terrible."
      People minus.)) And what's wrong? They did not have brooms and dog heads?)))
  3. Oprychnik
    Oprychnik 19 September 2015 06: 53 New
    +17
    Presenting the image of Ivan the Terrible and his policy on the basis of Karamzin's fiction is not comme il faut at the present time. Karamzin's work is an example of writing a custom story by the Romanov dynasty to denigrate the previous Rurik dynasty. Ivan the Terrible - one of the most successful Russian tsars. The author himself admits that under Ivan the Terrible, the territory of Russia grew 2 (!) Times. The population is one and a half. For all that, his activities enjoyed the support of the people. He dealt a powerful blow to the oligarchs of that time, the boyars. But, like Joseph Vissarionovich, he did not finish the job. The surviving boyars after his death tried to expose him in a black light, which was reflected in the History of the Russian State. And on the basis of that “History”, a modern deformed idea of ​​the history of Russia in general, and Ivan Vasilievich in particular, is taking shape.
  4. rustic
    rustic 19 September 2015 08: 58 New
    -6
    I feel the spinal cord, the current president of the Russian Federation will soon make a non-standard decision: "he will leave Moscow for some kind of settlement, and a messenger will come to the bewildered people, who will hand over the letters to the Metropolitan and the common people of Moscow."
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 19 September 2015 09: 47 New
    +4
    Repeated it, having come to power, the Bolsheviks, who formed the repressive apparatus of the Cheka ... The Cheka-KGB were a unique state organization, and their activity was comprehensive both in terms of the level of tasks being solved and in coverage of practically all spheres of life of the state and society. There is no parallel with the oprichnina ..
  6. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 19 September 2015 10: 50 New
    +4
    History constantly rewrites, one chapter breaks out, another is written. I Ivan the Terrible always liked his greatness!
  7. serverny
    serverny 19 September 2015 16: 57 New
    +3
    Author, would you even think WHAT and WHERE you publish ...
    The road to you in ultra-liberal public relations is in contact - and the local people are a little bit savvy in history and know the value of your fables borrowed from the corrupt Karamzin.

    Minus, it is a pity that I can put only one.

    PS The next article from you will be about the gulag and the one hundred million dead in it?
  8. Ilya77
    Ilya77 19 September 2015 19: 35 New
    +3
    Yes, by the way, Stalin noted that Grozny didn’t finish the job, didn’t finish the boyars, as a result, everything turned out in the Time of Troubles, alas, Stalin himself didn’t finish anyone who needed, as a result, everything turned into a dashing 90s and still our economy hasn’t may recover.
  9. Evgeniy30
    Evgeniy30 20 September 2015 20: 29 New
    0
    I recommend reading A.I. Fursova. This is a historian who knows very well what the oprichnina is.

  10. MaxGerb
    MaxGerb 23 September 2015 14: 05 New
    +1
    and where do such "historians" come from ?!
    minusanul would, but the rating does not allow.
    1. MaxGerb
      MaxGerb 3 March 2016 16: 57 New
      -1
      rating allowed - minus.
  11. SlavaP
    SlavaP 14 October 2015 20: 51 New
    +1
    We are not given to judge the Great. However, I want to remind, dear colleagues, that Ivan the Terrible, although he executed the enemies, provided them with a Christian burial in a Christian way. And the church kept them strict records. This data was largely preserved and conscientious historians calculated that about all 5000 people were executed for his entire reign. Lot? In "enlightened" France, the Bartholomew night came at the same time, when only 30000 Protestants were killed in Paris.