Military Review

Mole hunt

Proof of treason - hellish work

The intelligence services of the USSR and the USA, 1985, dubbed the year of spies, when Soviet intelligence as a result of the betrayal of a number of KGB employees suffered significant losses among its agents, but at the same time managed to recruit high-ranking US intelligence officers overseas. Viktor Cherkashin, Colonel of the Stock of the K (foreign counterintelligence) Department of the First Main Directorate of the KGB of the USSR, tells about this, as well as about a number of other high-profile spy scandals.

- Viktor Ivanovich, how do you, an eyewitness of the work of the intelligence services of the USSR and the USA of that time, assess the situation of 1985 of the year?

- What was happening in our country was then perceived by many, primarily the United States, as the beginning of a weakening of the power of the USSR. Although no one, including Ronald Reagan, suggested that in only six years a great power would disintegrate. In general, for PSU KGB of the USSR this year was unsuccessful. The FBI arrested several valuable sources of information in various American intelligence services - the family of naval cryptographers fleet US Walkers, Ronald Pelton of the National Security Agency, exposed CIA employee Edward Lee Howard. The leading employee of PSU Vitaly Yurchenko passed to the side of the American special services. However, the intelligence of the KGB of the USSR pretty quickly got the opportunity not only to understand the reasons for the arrest of our agents, but also to identify those responsible for this, moreover, to reveal the CIA’s intelligence penetration into various KGB units, the Main Intelligence Directorate of the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

“All these data were obtained from Aldrich Ames, head of the Soviet counterintelligence department of the CIA, and a high-ranking FBI official, Robert Hanssen?”

Mole hunt- Yes, it's not a secret for a long time. Thanks to Aldrich Ames, we were able to expose over 20 CIA agents in various government agencies of the Soviet Union. In the same 1985, our counterintelligence officers arrested seven American agents - Valery Martynov, Sergey Motorin, Gennady Smetanin, and later - Dmitry Polyakov and others. People who worked in various state institutions of the USSR, became easy prey for enemy intelligence agencies, not only for selfish motives, but also because of the loss of patriotic convictions and faith in their country.

- What was the motivation for treason between Aldrich Ames and Robert Hanssen, for they were good analysts and saw that the USSR began to lose its position in the world?

- In addition to a purely financial interest, Ames pushed for cooperation that he regarded as a betrayal of America’s national interests by the desire of the US leadership to present a weakened Soviet Union as a source of threat. He perceived this as an attempt to obtain additional funding for the Ministry of Defense and special services, but not as actions dictated by the true vital interests of his state. Believe me, Ames was not a fool. He knew politics and knew where America was going.

“What do you think of Edward Lee Howard?” Many consider him a loser, an alcoholic and a drug addict dismissed because of this from the Eastern European department of the CIA.

- About Lee Howard, I can only judge by the period of my work in the United States. His business is really not quite usual. As an employee of the Central Intelligence Agency, he was preparing for work in the Soviet Union. Moreover, he has already appealed to the USSR Embassy in the United States with a request to grant him a visa to enter our country, where he was supposed to work under diplomatic cover. Arrival did not take place. The FBI recorded the fact of taking narcotic drugs, then the information passed that he had stolen a purse from some lady. In my opinion, perhaps, being in a state of euphoria, he wanted to demonstrate his willingness to work as a spy. This happens even with people with a stable psyche. Nevertheless, Howard's trip to the USSR was canceled.

- Was he prepared to work with Adolf Tolkachev?

- Yes. Tolkachev was listed in the closed bureau of the Radio Engineering Research Institute and had information about the “friend-foe” identification devices designed for Soviet Air Force planes. The information was very important, so to speak top secret. Generally unprecedented itself историяhow Tolkachev tried to make contact with the Americans. At first, he threw a note in the car with the diplomatic number of the American embassy in Moscow that he was a Russian patriot and could contribute to the destruction of the Soviet Communist Party, since it allegedly leads our country to death. This option is not passed. Again, Tolkachev attempted to make contact when he approached a CIA employee’s car at a gas station and offered him cooperation. He just ran away.

- Why did they not go to contact with a potential agent?

- On the territory of the USSR for the work of the CIA was not the best situation at that time. The KGB has just exposed a recruited agent in Colombia named Trianon, an employee of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs Alexander Ogorodnik, who committed suicide during his arrest. At the same time in Moscow during a secret operation, CIA officer Marta Peterson was captured. It is clear that everyone was afraid of provocations. Nevertheless, the resident of the CIA in Moscow, a resolute and very brave man, ventured to make contact with Tolkachev.

- Who thanks to Lee Howard and was arrested in 1985 ... Viktor Ivanovich, did you personally meet Howard?

- Yes, in 1986, when I returned from a business trip to the USA. Howard, in spite of everything that happened to him, was a very intelligent man and a competent operative. When the American special services in 1985 received information about him from Vitaly Yurchenko, the FBI established an external surveillance of him. Howard and his wife, also a very experienced intelligence officer, noticed this, drove out of the house, at the intersection of Howard jumped out of the car, and his wife put a dummy on the first seat. Outside did not suspect anything, and Howard was able to cross the US border with Mexico, go out to Europe and then to the USSR.

- How closely were you acquainted with Oleg Kalugin, who was one of the first to openly talk about the omnipotence of the Second Main Directorate of the KGB of the USSR?

- I knew Oleg Danilovich very well, we studied with him at the Institute of Foreign Languages ​​of the KGB of the USSR in Leningrad. From the point of view of erudition, he was an outstanding man. A very active and successful operative worker, whose fate was influenced by two circumstances: his relationship with the leadership of the PGU KGB of the USSR, primarily with Vladimir Aleksandrovich Kryuchkov, and the era of the so-called democratization of the Soviet system, when Kalugin on the basis of personal dislike for the leadership of the committee went into politics and began to expose the work of the whole structure of special services, issuing professional secrets.

- As far as Kalugin is right, saying that the work of counterintelligence was easy and amounted to arresting and detaining both intelligence officers of different countries and citizens of the USSR? Or is still the search for a mole - is not easy?

- Before moving to intelligence, I worked for seven years at the Second Main Directorate of the KGB of the USSR, in a department engaged in counteracting British intelligence in our country. I am well aware of the methods used to expose the enemy agents. And I know very well how difficult it is to uncover a person working for foreign intelligence, especially among his fellow soldiers. For several decades, counterintelligence of the KGB found on the basis of miscalculations in the organization of espionage activities only one agent - the GRU colonel Oleg Penkovsky. The wife of the consular officer of the British Embassy met with Penkovsky in some shops and other crowded places during the daytime. For intelligence work this is primitive. In general, scenes where an employee intersects with an agent and passes him a briefcase with money, and he quietly puts an envelope with secret data into someone else’s pocket - from feature films. Personal contact, as a rule, does not happen - the materials are put in a cache, the place of which is chosen so that no outsider can fix the bookmark. And in the same careful way it is removed. I'm not talking about electronic communication methods, in which the intelligence officer does not need to meet with his agent. Exposing is a difficult, painstaking and long business. As a rule, the agent is exposed only by another agent.

- What happened after receiving data that such a citizen of the USSR is an agent of the CIA of the USA?

- The information provided to us, say, by Ames, did not carry any details, he simply reported that the person is a CIA agent. To bring this citizen to criminal liability for treason, it was required to obtain supporting data. And it already belongs to the category of "hellish work."

“How did it happen that GRU General Dmitry Polyakov was able to work for the CIA for more than 15 for years, even after he retired, when he began teaching in the intelligence school?”

- With Polyakov the question is complicated. The general, the resident of the USSR intelligence services in India ... The first data about him appeared in the 70s, when Edward Epstein published the Legend: The Secret World of Lee Harvey Oswald in the United States, which mentioned the names of CIA agents in the USSR intelligence services - Tophead ( Polyakov) and Fedor (an employee of the New York residency of the PGU of the USSR KGB Alexei Kulak). James Angleton, who headed the CIA's counterintelligence department at the time, considered those who, in good faith, wanted to cooperate with the special services, were “bases”. For him, Fedor and Tophead were provocateurs, so he gave information about them to Epstein. Even Deputy Chief of the First Division of the Second Main Directorate of the KGB of the SSR, Major Yuri Nosenko, who escaped from Switzerland in 1964 in the USA, Angleton was kept in solitary confinement, subjecting him to strict and intensive interrogations. For several years, Angleton did not believe that Nosenko was not a “setup” for the KGB.

- Do you agree with the opinion of your colleague, Viktor Ivanovich Andrianov, that in 70 and 80, the Directorate K and all the residency of the PGU of the KGB of the USSR simply physically could not keep the Soviet colony in New York around the clock?

- Yes, such total control was impossible and simply meaningless. Take, for example, the USSR Embassy in Washington. Construction of a residential complex for Soviet diplomatic workers was completed only in 1979 year. Prior to that, about a hundred official embassy staff with their families were resettled in different parts of this big city. Establish surveillance of each - an incredible thing.

The Soviet colony was controlled by the Fifth Division of the Foreign Counterintelligence Directorate. Non-standard behavior of employees, if one of them, for example, came to work drunk, cursed with his wife or traveled to the city for unknown purposes, the security officer watched.

- To what extent was the son of a Soviet diplomat and defector Arkady Shevchenko, Gennady, right, stating that if his father had arrived in Moscow in 1978 to receive a comment from Andrei Gromyko for alcohol abuse, then he would have the resident of the PGU of the KGB of the USSR in New York Yuri Drozdov there was no evidence of treason?

- Drozdov did not have documentary evidence for that period because the evidence of recruitment by the US special services of UN Under-Secretary-General Arkady Shevchenko could only be obtained from the FBI. The rest of the information was operational.

Shevchenko remained in plain view throughout his stay in the United States. His hobbies and passions of a certain kind were known to our employees. Workers of Soviet intelligence in New York knew about the interest in Shevchenko from the US special services. Of course, nobody knew about the fact of his recruitment and meetings with representatives of the American special services in safe houses when he passed on information to them.

- Please explain, Viktor Ivanovich, how could the meetings of Shevchenko with his curators from the FBI take place?

- Meetings in safe houses were arranged so that they were known as little as possible to outsiders. But information that Arkady Shevchenko had something unfavorable and that perhaps the intelligence services of the United States were actively working around him, Soviet intelligence officers had, and Yury Ivanovich Drozdov, a resident of the PGU of the USSR KGB, had it.

In order to understand everything that was happening around Shevchenko, a special worker of the KGB of the USSR came to the USA from Moscow. Apparently, his arrival was not very well organized and was able to guard not only Arkady Shevchenko himself, but also the FBI employees who gave the command to leave.

Only in 1985, the PGU of the KGB of the USSR had the opportunity to receive reliable documentary information on how Arkady Shevchenko voluntarily began to cooperate with the US special services. As I recall, Aldrich Ames worked with the CIA from Shevchenko.

- How do you comment on the words of Gennady Shevchenko that because of Ames, twelve Soviet citizens were shot, and because of his father, not one person was physically injured - neither in the USA nor in the USSR?

- The consequences of the betrayal of their country by individuals may be different. Different depending on the severity of these consequences can be punished for treason. But the essence of the deed does not change: the activity to the detriment of the interests of his country is a betrayal.
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  1. bort4145
    bort4145 20 March 2015 14: 29
    Our service is both dangerous and difficult.
    And at first glance it was as if not visible ...
    1. CONTROL
      CONTROL 20 March 2015 14: 51
      ... and at the second glance ... and at the third ...
    2. s1н7т
      s1н7т 20 March 2015 16: 24
      This is about the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Something is not remembered about the Chekists
      1. Aikusun
        Aikusun 26 March 2015 16: 55
        Do not think about the minutes down on ...
  2. gav6757
    gav6757 20 March 2015 14: 33
    Now, it would not be bad to carry out such a purge in the FSB. I think that during the fun 90s, a lot of "new" shit appeared there.
    There is no General Sudoplatov today, there is no inevitability of punishment for traitors to the motherland.
    Something needs to be changed!
    Under Stalin, there were Komsomol calls, and today it is necessary to come up with something!
    1. Viktor Kudinov
      Viktor Kudinov 20 March 2015 14: 51
      Starting from perestroika, the Western secret services received excellent conditions for introducing their agents in the territory of the former USSR. Color revolutions in the former republics, our Bolotnaya, etc., are direct results of the action of this agent. negative
      1. NordUral
        NordUral 20 March 2015 15: 52
        Long before the perestroika, unfortunately.
        1. the polar
          the polar 20 March 2015 16: 27
          Here are just Andropov, Yakovlev, Gorbachev, Falin, and even from the heels of the generals who have now settled in their estates in Germany, the "fighters of the invisible front" of the counterintelligence could not expose. Or at least, taking the oath, punish them for betrayal after "perestroika"
    2. ma_shlomha
      ma_shlomha 20 March 2015 14: 55
      Sudoplatov comes with a new call (New) to his boss and says - this is the plan: "Now, it would not be bad to carry out such a purge in the FSB. I think that during the fun 90s, a lot of" new "shit appeared there.
      I agree, comrade New Sudoplatov. Thank you for coming up with something. We will give your research and plans the right move. Bye. Stop by for tea whenever you want. Just call in advance ...
      And then...
      "Partners" know their job well.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. lukke
      lukke 20 March 2015 15: 00
      Now, it would not be bad to carry out such a purge in the FSB. I think that during the fun 90s, a lot of "new" shit appeared there.
      There is no General Sudoplatov today, there is no inevitability of punishment for traitors to the motherland.
      Something needs to be changed!
      Under Stalin, there were Komsomol calls, and today it is necessary to come up with something!

      1. The FSB is engaged in counterintelligence, not intelligence (SVR). Are you so knowledgeable about their activities that you think they need to be "cleaned"?
      2. So called "Komsomol appeals" were also after Stalin until the collapse of the Union and more ... but, sorry, I never met in my life. And the most remarkable thing is that in the mid-90s these products were the first to retrain on commercial rails, wearing shoulder straps. So let the professionals do their thing. And the Office of Own Security and the Prosecutor's Office are their own.
    5. NordUral
      NordUral 20 March 2015 15: 52
      It is necessary to come up with Stalin's post-war socialism, taking into account the experience. And when rats are in power, then nothing will come up.
    6. Prisoner
      Prisoner 20 March 2015 16: 00
      So what? The above traitors from these Komsomol recruits have grown.
    7. The comment was deleted.
  3. Decathlon
    Decathlon 20 March 2015 14: 39
    "seven American agents were arrested"
    At least these were "encrypted"! bully And, here is the "fifth column" - here it is, as in the palm of your hand, do not hide at all and are even proud of their chosen "profession" and NOTHING !!! How long ?! angry
  4. Sasha 19871987
    Sasha 19871987 20 March 2015 14: 44
    serious people, serious structure ... this is not Ukrainian intelligence. On the facade of which there is an American flag ((((
  5. valokordin
    valokordin 20 March 2015 14: 54
    I knew a dozen KGB and FSB workers, and approximately 10% of such workers were not supposed to work there in moral and business terms. The rest are wonderful people, real patriots. As for cheating, this is at the genetic level. The guys saw that the leadership of the USSR betrayed the interests of the country, some were recruited. But some workers no longer had the merits of Felix Edmundovich, and they began to act as prostitutes. In general, if Lavrenty Pavlovich and Sudoplatov were alive, then the traitors would be eliminated. And now, to all traitors to the country, a chance for life cannot be given. All traitors must be destroyed, wherever they are. And then Potroshenko destroys our people, and we snot chewing.
    1. bort4145
      bort4145 20 March 2015 16: 15
      Lavrenty Palych dealt with the destruction of worthy officers of the USSR better than with the destruction of enemy hostages.

      And regarding
      As for cheating, this is at the genetic level. The guys saw that the leadership of the USSR betrayed the interests of the country, some were recruited.
      Nonsense "at the genetic level" laughing
      The choice of a traitor is always made consciously, but not everyone can admit to himself that this is his choice and blame the circumstances and "I am like everyone else."
      1. bort4145
        bort4145 20 March 2015 18: 17
        Oh so many zamusuyuschie laughing
        And no one argued bully

        Especially for them I repeat:
        1. thanks mad dog - Beria and his ilk - terror passed in the USSR in which a large number of people capable of thinking were driven into camps and shot. Officers who still served in the tsarist army and joined the Red Army were shot on the basis of trumped-up charges. Scientists promoting new ideas were not disputed in the departments and destroyed physically.

        2. The traitor always makes his choice consciously, no matter how he tried to calm his conscience, referring to circumstances.
  6. Wolka
    Wolka 20 March 2015 15: 06
    my mother also taught: never try to attract attention to yourself, always do your own thing, work honestly and painstakingly, money is not the goal, but a means to work, don’t trick yourself in front of yourself, he will see and notice if you are interested it means that you are already doing something wrong, it makes sense to look back and adjust the situation, especially since you are not alone, do no harm, respect the work of those around you ...
  7. zloi pensioner
    zloi pensioner 20 March 2015 15: 07
    The punishing ice ax in the country should be soldier
  8. sazhka4
    sazhka4 20 March 2015 15: 09
    Dangerous work .. You can climb so far that taking poison, two shots in the back of the head (suicide) and jumping from the balcony, the mildest "punishment". Moles are dangerous by this, they are in power .. The rest is "noodles" ..
  9. jovanni
    jovanni 20 March 2015 15: 11
    Yes. If mole hunting is carried out constantly with varying success, then in the rat hunt we are sorely losing. Rats work not just in power structures, but in the government itself. They are killing the brain and heart of the country. And then the rats destroyed the Soviet Union, then almost destroyed Russia. But here they didn’t succeed. So now the rats are eating us gradually ...
    1. taram taramych
      taram taramych 20 March 2015 19: 03
      "acting to the detriment of the interests of one's country is treason."
      Accordingly, generalizing so to speak, "moles" and "rats" cause damage, and therefore, it is necessary and must to destroy pests by all possible methods.
  10. individual
    individual 20 March 2015 15: 49
    When the economy is successful, the country develops, the successful Army and intelligence are up to standard.
    Russia in the 85-90s - everything is in decline and no one believes anyone or anything.
  11. NordUral
    NordUral 20 March 2015 15: 49
    And we all wonder how this Union fell apart. With such leaders as Gorbachev and K, and such a security service, it couldn’t be otherwise, unfortunately. And it all began with Khrushchev and gentleman Brezhnev.
    1. andrew42
      andrew42 20 March 2015 17: 17
      Not understood. The security service was SUCH, which was not equal in the world. But this is just a tool that turns from steel into cardboard if agents of influence are introduced into the highest political elite. Putting aside the issue of ideology (and the inertia of the "communist" doctrine also let down precisely because of the unwillingness to adapt it to the new time), we can clearly show, using Kryuchkov's example, the impotence of the best special services in the sabotage of the head of state and his friends, "perestroika" about progressive changes purposefully sent the state into oblivion. And I disagree about Brezhnev's "lordship", except about the love of breastplate souvenirs. This is not the right steppe at all: it is enough to compare those "bars" with rations and dachas, and the current "oligarch-silovik" hybrids, classic financial oligarchs and state top managers (flowing from one hypostasis to another).
  12. RuslanNN
    RuslanNN 20 March 2015 16: 01
    It is a pity that the KGB did not calculate and arrest the main spy and traitor Mikhail Gorbachev
    1. s1н7т
      s1н7т 20 March 2015 16: 31
      As far as I remember, the humpback just KGB and fostered in the person of Andropov. By the way, by the way, more and more questions arise.
      1. andrew42
        andrew42 20 March 2015 17: 07
        I agree that with Andropov, not everything is clear. The same case for Shchelokov. You can, of course, be mistaken in suspicions, but in any case, under his rule, a whole group of agents of influence and moles - Gorbachev, Yakovlev, Shevardnadze - gathered in the Politburo of the Central Committee. And this is just what has surfaced explicitly. But each of these persons had their own assistants and their own circle of confidential communication. Again, K.U. Chernenko, under the legend of the "decrepitude of the leaders." And although Chernenko was old, he was an incorruptible patriot, a real soldier of "Russian communism." Flint! Again, it was during the period of Chernenko-Brezhnev that the main enemy of the Soviet state, ZIONISM, was out loud! This has not happened either before or after. I was then in the 4th grade of the school, and I remember very well how in 1982 the rumor was spreading that Andropov would rise after Brezhnev. But Chernenko and the "old guard" Andropov pushed aside. And what is suspicious, for a very short time.
  13. Prisoner
    Prisoner 20 March 2015 16: 04
    Traitors were and will be, double agents too. The specifics of work, her mother!
  14. s1н7т
    s1н7т 20 March 2015 16: 28
    Quote: valokordin
    approximately so 10% of such workers should not have worked there on moral and business qualities

    Yeah. These 10% in the 90s just grew up in the bosses. I know those.
    1. saag
      saag 20 March 2015 17: 34
      Quote: c1n7
      Yeah. These 10% in the 90s just grew up in the bosses. I know those.

      Yes, everyone knows :-)
  15. Volgarr
    Volgarr 20 March 2015 17: 57
    Activities to the detriment of the interests of your country is treason! Therefore, the overwhelming majority of "oppositionists" must be called as it should be - traitors, scoundrels, venal skins! Makarevich, Akhedzhakova, Kasparov and many others!