1. The nuclear-powered icebreaker is a nuclear-powered nuclear-powered ship built specifically for use in ice-covered waters. Nuclear-powered icebreakers are much more powerful than diesel ones. In the USSR, they were designed to provide navigation in the cold waters of the Arctic.
2. Over the period 1959 – 1991. In the Soviet Union, the 8 nuclear-powered icebreaker and the 1 nuclear-powered lighter carrier, a container ship, were built.
In Russia, for the period from 1991 of the year to the present, two more nuclear-powered icebreakers were built: the Yamal (1993) and the 50 of the Victory Years (2007). Three more nuclear-powered icebreakers with a displacement of more than 33 thousand tons are under construction, the ice-carrying capacity is almost three meters. The first one will be ready for 2017 year.
3. All in all, Atomflot employs more than 1 100 people on nuclear-powered icebreakers in Russia, as well as ships located on the basis of the nuclear fleet.
"Soviet Union" (Arctic-class nuclear-powered icebreaker)
4. Arctic-class icebreakers are the basis of the Russian atomic icebreaking fleet: 6 of 10 nuclear-powered icebreakers belong to this class. Ships have a double hull, can break the ice, moving both forward and backward. These ships are designed to work in cold Arctic waters, which complicates the operation of a nuclear installation in warm seas. This is partly why crossing the tropics to work off the coast of Antarctica is not one of their tasks.
Displacement of the icebreaker - 21 120 tons, draft - 11,0 m, the maximum speed of the clean water - 20,8 nodes.
5. The design feature of the icebreaker "Soviet Union" is that at any time it can be equipped in a combat cruiser. Initially the ship was used for arctic tourism. Making a transpolar cruise, it was possible to install automatic meteorological ice stations as well as an American meteorological buoy from its side.
6. Department of GTG (main turbine generators). A nuclear reactor heats the water, which turns into steam, which spins the turbines, which excite the generators, which generate electricity, which is supplied to the electric motors that turn the propellers.
7. CPU (Central Management Office).
8. The control of the icebreaker is concentrated in two main command posts: the wheelhouse and the central control station of the power plant (CPU). The general management of the icebreaker is carried out from the log house, and from the CPA, the operation of the power plant, mechanisms and systems is controlled and their work is monitored.
9. The reliability of nuclear-powered Arctic class ships has been tested and proven over time - for more than a 30-year-old history Atomic ships of this class there was not a single accident associated with a nuclear power plant.
10. Cabins company for catering staff. The dining room for the ranks is located below deck. The diet consists of a full four meals.
11. The “Soviet Union” was put into operation in the 1989 year, with a fixed service life of 25 years. In 2008, the Baltiysky Zavod supplied equipment for the icebreaker, which allows extending the life of the vessel. At present, the icebreaker is planned to be restored, but only after a specific customer has been determined or until the transit along the Northern Sea Route has been increased, and new sections of work will not appear.
Atomic icebreaker "Arctic"
12. Launched in the 1975 year and was considered the largest of all existing at that time: its width was 30 meters, length - 148 meters, and the height of the board - more than 17 meters. All conditions were created on the ship, allowing the flight crew and the helicopter to be based. The Arctic was able to break through ice, which was five meters thick, and move at speeds in 18 nodes. The unusual coloring of the vessel (bright red), which personified the new navigation era, was also considered as an obvious difference.
13. The nuclear-powered icebreaker "Arktika" became famous for being the first ship to reach the North Pole. Currently decommissioned and awaiting a decision on its disposal.
14. The small-sitting nuclear icebreaker of the Taimyr project. A distinctive feature of this icebreaker project is a reduced draft, allowing servicing vessels following the Northern Sea Route to enter the mouths of Siberian rivers.
15. Captain's bridge. Remote controllers for three rowing electric motors, also located on the console are monitoring instruments and a towing device, a tug monitoring camera control panel, lag indicators, echo sounders, a gyro repeater, VHF radio, a wiper control panel and other 6 xenon projector XNUMX joystick control.
16. Machine telegraphs.
17. The main use of "Vaigach" - support of ships with metal from Norilsk and ships with timber and ore from Igarka to Dickson.
18. The main power plant of the icebreaker consists of two turbogenerators, which will provide the maximum continuous power of about 50 000 l on the shafts. with., which will force the ice to a thickness of two meters. With ice thickness of 1,77 meters, the speed of the icebreaker is the 2 node.
19. The room average propeller shaft.
20. The direction of movement of the icebreaker is controlled by an electro-hydraulic steering machine.
21. Former cinema. Now on the icebreaker in each cabin there is a wired television for broadcasting the ship video channel and satellite television. A cinema hall is used for general court meetings and cultural events.
22. The office of the block cabin of the second foreman. The duration of the stay of atomic-powered ships at sea depends on the number of planned works, on average, it is 2-3 a month. The crew of the icebreaker "Vaigach" consists of 100 people.
Atomic icebreaker "Taimyr"
24. The icebreaker is identical to the Vaigach. It was built at the end of the 1980s in Finland at the Wärtsilä shipyard (“Wärtsilä Marine Technique”) in Helsinki, commissioned by the Soviet Union. However, the equipment (power plant, etc.) on the ship was installed Soviet, steel of Soviet manufacture was used. Installation of nuclear equipment was carried out in Leningrad, where the icebreaker hull was towed in 1988 year.
25. "Taimyr" in the dock of the shipyard.
26. The "Taimyr" breaks the ice classically: a powerful hull smashes into an obstacle made of frozen water, destroying it with its own weight. Behind the icebreaker a channel is formed through which ordinary ships can move.
27. To improve the icebreaking capacity, "Taimyr" is equipped with a pneumatic wash system, which prevents the hull of the hull with broken ice and snow. If the channel gasket is inhibited due to thick ice, the trim and roll systems, which consist of tanks and pumps, come into play. Thanks to these systems, the icebreaker can roll on one side, then on the other, raise its nose or stern. From such movements of the hull, the ice field surrounding the icebreaker is crushed, allowing you to move on.
28. For painting exterior structures, decks and bulkheads, imported acrylic-based two-component enamels of increased resistance to weathering, resistant to abrasion and impact loads, are used. Paint is put on three layers: one layer of soil and two layers of enamel.
29. The speed of such an icebreaker is 18,5 nodes (33,3 km / h).
30. Repair screw-steering complex.
31. Installing the blade.
32. Bolts of fastening of the blade to the hub of the propeller, each of the four blades is fastened with nine bolts.
33. Almost all vessels of the icebreaking fleet of Russia are equipped with rowing screws manufactured at the Zvezdochka plant.
Atomic icebreaker "Lenin"
34. Launched on the 5 December 1957, this icebreaker was the world's first ship to be equipped with a nuclear power plant. Its main differences were the high level of autonomy and power. During the first six years of use, the nuclear-powered icebreaker overcame more than 82 000 nautical miles by navigating over 400 ships. Later "Lenin" will be the first of all ships north of Severnaya Zemlya.
35. The icebreaker "Lenin" worked for 31 for a year and in 1990, it was decommissioned and put on eternal parking in Murmansk. Now on the icebreaker operates a museum, work is underway to expand the exposure.
36. A compartment in which there were two atomic installations. Two dosimetrists went inside who measured the level of radiation and controlled the operation of the reactor.
There is an opinion that it was thanks to “Lenin” that the expression “peaceful atom” got stuck. The icebreaker was built at the height of the Cold War, but it had absolutely peaceful goals - the development of the Northern Sea Route and the conduct of civilian ships.
38. Main staircase.
39. One of the captains of the AL "Lenin", Pavel Akimovich Ponomarev, was previously the captain of the "Ermak" (1928 — 1932) - the world's first icebreaker of the Arctic class.
As a bonus, a couple of photos of Murmansk ...
40. Murmansk is the largest city in the world located beyond the Arctic Circle. It is located on the rocky east coast of the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea.
41. The basis of the city’s economy is the Murmansk Sea Port, one of the largest non-freezing ports in Russia. The port of Murmansk is the home port of the barge "Sedov", the largest sailing ship in the world.
42. Panorama of Murmansk.