Military Review

Atomic icebreakers of Russia

Nuclear-powered icebreakers can stay on the Northern Sea Route for a long time without the need for refueling. Currently part of the current fleet includes the Russian, Soviet Union, Yamal, 50 years of Victory, Taimyr and Vaigach nuclear-powered submarines, as well as the Sevmorput nuclear-powered container lighter carrier. Rosatomflot, located in Murmansk, is engaged in their operation and maintenance.

1. The nuclear-powered icebreaker is a nuclear-powered nuclear-powered ship built specifically for use in ice-covered waters. Nuclear-powered icebreakers are much more powerful than diesel ones. In the USSR, they were designed to provide navigation in the cold waters of the Arctic.

Atomic icebreakers of Russia

2. Over the period 1959 – 1991. In the Soviet Union, the 8 nuclear-powered icebreaker and the 1 nuclear-powered lighter carrier, a container ship, were built.
In Russia, for the period from 1991 of the year to the present, two more nuclear-powered icebreakers were built: the Yamal (1993) and the 50 of the Victory Years (2007). Three more nuclear-powered icebreakers with a displacement of more than 33 thousand tons are under construction, the ice-carrying capacity is almost three meters. The first one will be ready for 2017 year.

3. All in all, Atomflot employs more than 1 100 people on nuclear-powered icebreakers in Russia, as well as ships located on the basis of the nuclear fleet.

"Soviet Union" (Arctic-class nuclear-powered icebreaker)

4. Arctic-class icebreakers are the basis of the Russian atomic icebreaking fleet: 6 of 10 nuclear-powered icebreakers belong to this class. Ships have a double hull, can break the ice, moving both forward and backward. These ships are designed to work in cold Arctic waters, which complicates the operation of a nuclear installation in warm seas. This is partly why crossing the tropics to work off the coast of Antarctica is not one of their tasks.

Displacement of the icebreaker - 21 120 tons, draft - 11,0 m, the maximum speed of the clean water - 20,8 nodes.

5. The design feature of the icebreaker "Soviet Union" is that at any time it can be equipped in a combat cruiser. Initially the ship was used for arctic tourism. Making a transpolar cruise, it was possible to install automatic meteorological ice stations as well as an American meteorological buoy from its side.

6. Department of GTG (main turbine generators). A nuclear reactor heats the water, which turns into steam, which spins the turbines, which excite the generators, which generate electricity, which is supplied to the electric motors that turn the propellers.

7. CPU (Central Management Office).

8. The control of the icebreaker is concentrated in two main command posts: the wheelhouse and the central control station of the power plant (CPU). The general management of the icebreaker is carried out from the log house, and from the CPA, the operation of the power plant, mechanisms and systems is controlled and their work is monitored.

9. The reliability of nuclear-powered Arctic class ships has been tested and proven over time - for more than a 30-year-old history Atomic ships of this class there was not a single accident associated with a nuclear power plant.

10. Cabins company for catering staff. The dining room for the ranks is located below deck. The diet consists of a full four meals.

11. The “Soviet Union” was put into operation in the 1989 year, with a fixed service life of 25 years. In 2008, the Baltiysky Zavod supplied equipment for the icebreaker, which allows extending the life of the vessel. At present, the icebreaker is planned to be restored, but only after a specific customer has been determined or until the transit along the Northern Sea Route has been increased, and new sections of work will not appear.

Atomic icebreaker "Arctic"

12. Launched in the 1975 year and was considered the largest of all existing at that time: its width was 30 meters, length - 148 meters, and the height of the board - more than 17 meters. All conditions were created on the ship, allowing the flight crew and the helicopter to be based. The Arctic was able to break through ice, which was five meters thick, and move at speeds in 18 nodes. The unusual coloring of the vessel (bright red), which personified the new navigation era, was also considered as an obvious difference.

13. The nuclear-powered icebreaker "Arktika" became famous for being the first ship to reach the North Pole. Currently decommissioned and awaiting a decision on its disposal.


14. The small-sitting nuclear icebreaker of the Taimyr project. A distinctive feature of this icebreaker project is a reduced draft, allowing servicing vessels following the Northern Sea Route to enter the mouths of Siberian rivers.

15. Captain's bridge. Remote controllers for three rowing electric motors, also located on the console are monitoring instruments and a towing device, a tug monitoring camera control panel, lag indicators, echo sounders, a gyro repeater, VHF radio, a wiper control panel and other 6 xenon projector XNUMX joystick control.

16. Machine telegraphs.

17. The main use of "Vaigach" - support of ships with metal from Norilsk and ships with timber and ore from Igarka to Dickson.

18. The main power plant of the icebreaker consists of two turbogenerators, which will provide the maximum continuous power of about 50 000 l on the shafts. with., which will force the ice to a thickness of two meters. With ice thickness of 1,77 meters, the speed of the icebreaker is the 2 node.

19. The room average propeller shaft.

20. The direction of movement of the icebreaker is controlled by an electro-hydraulic steering machine.

21. Former cinema. Now on the icebreaker in each cabin there is a wired television for broadcasting the ship video channel and satellite television. A cinema hall is used for general court meetings and cultural events.

22. The office of the block cabin of the second foreman. The duration of the stay of atomic-powered ships at sea depends on the number of planned works, on average, it is 2-3 a month. The crew of the icebreaker "Vaigach" consists of 100 people.

Atomic icebreaker "Taimyr"


24. The icebreaker is identical to the Vaigach. It was built at the end of the 1980s in Finland at the Wärtsilä shipyard (“Wärtsilä Marine Technique”) in Helsinki, commissioned by the Soviet Union. However, the equipment (power plant, etc.) on the ship was installed Soviet, steel of Soviet manufacture was used. Installation of nuclear equipment was carried out in Leningrad, where the icebreaker hull was towed in 1988 year.

25. "Taimyr" in the dock of the shipyard.

26. The "Taimyr" breaks the ice classically: a powerful hull smashes into an obstacle made of frozen water, destroying it with its own weight. Behind the icebreaker a channel is formed through which ordinary ships can move.

27. To improve the icebreaking capacity, "Taimyr" is equipped with a pneumatic wash system, which prevents the hull of the hull with broken ice and snow. If the channel gasket is inhibited due to thick ice, the trim and roll systems, which consist of tanks and pumps, come into play. Thanks to these systems, the icebreaker can roll on one side, then on the other, raise its nose or stern. From such movements of the hull, the ice field surrounding the icebreaker is crushed, allowing you to move on.

28. For painting exterior structures, decks and bulkheads, imported acrylic-based two-component enamels of increased resistance to weathering, resistant to abrasion and impact loads, are used. Paint is put on three layers: one layer of soil and two layers of enamel.

29. The speed of such an icebreaker is 18,5 nodes (33,3 km / h).

30. Repair screw-steering complex.

31. Installing the blade.

32. Bolts of fastening of the blade to the hub of the propeller, each of the four blades is fastened with nine bolts.

33. Almost all vessels of the icebreaking fleet of Russia are equipped with rowing screws manufactured at the Zvezdochka plant.

Atomic icebreaker "Lenin"

34. Launched on the 5 December 1957, this icebreaker was the world's first ship to be equipped with a nuclear power plant. Its main differences were the high level of autonomy and power. During the first six years of use, the nuclear-powered icebreaker overcame more than 82 000 nautical miles by navigating over 400 ships. Later "Lenin" will be the first of all ships north of Severnaya Zemlya.

35. The icebreaker "Lenin" worked for 31 for a year and in 1990, it was decommissioned and put on eternal parking in Murmansk. Now on the icebreaker operates a museum, work is underway to expand the exposure.

36. A compartment in which there were two atomic installations. Two dosimetrists went inside who measured the level of radiation and controlled the operation of the reactor.

There is an opinion that it was thanks to “Lenin” that the expression “peaceful atom” got stuck. The icebreaker was built at the height of the Cold War, but it had absolutely peaceful goals - the development of the Northern Sea Route and the conduct of civilian ships.

37. Wheelhouse

38. Main staircase.

39. One of the captains of the AL "Lenin", Pavel Akimovich Ponomarev, was previously the captain of the "Ermak" (1928 — 1932) - the world's first icebreaker of the Arctic class.

As a bonus, a couple of photos of Murmansk ...

40. Murmansk is the largest city in the world located beyond the Arctic Circle. It is located on the rocky east coast of the Kola Bay of the Barents Sea.

41. The basis of the city’s economy is the Murmansk Sea Port, one of the largest non-freezing ports in Russia. The port of Murmansk is the home port of the barge "Sedov", the largest sailing ship in the world.

42. Panorama of Murmansk.

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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 9 December 2014 07: 46
    Very beautiful photos!
    And icebreakers are always in demand, and in the future, in connection with the further development of the Arctic, they will be especially necessary.
    1. Samaritan
      Samaritan 9 December 2014 08: 35
      I agree, such articles should be shown at school how films were played in the USSR!
      Thanks to the author! Just forgot to add how much more is being built)
      1. Samaritan
        Samaritan 9 December 2014 09: 58
        LLC "Baltic Shipyard" is already building the leading universal nuclear icebreaker LK-60. It was laid down on November 5, 2013 and received the name "Arctic" - inherited from the nuclear-powered ship of the same name, which had already been decommissioned. The new icebreaker is equipped with the RITM-200 nuclear power plant (developed by Afrikantov OKBM) and will become the largest and most powerful in the world. Its length - 173,3 m, width - 34 m, draft along the constructive waterline - 10,5 m, minimum working draft - 8,55 m. The displacement will be 33,54 thousand tons.
        The dual-draft design of the nuclear powered ships will allow their use both in arctic waters and in the mouths of polar rivers. soldier
        1. crazyrom
          crazyrom 9 December 2014 22: 39
          icing capacity - almost three meters

          So the 3,5 meter will break with a bang! We are different and do not know how to hehe
      2. jayich
        jayich 9 December 2014 10: 09
        Not much about icebreakers under construction.
        Baltic Shipbuilding Plant LLC has signed a contract with the branch of the Central Scientific Research Institute of Marine Electrical Engineering and Technology (TsNII SET) FSUE Krylov State Scientific Center for the supply of integrated electric propulsion systems for serial nuclear icebreakers of project 22220. This is reported by Press Service of Baltic Shipbuilding Plant LLC.
        The contract value amounted to more than 3 billion rubles. The first system under the contract should be delivered to the plant in June 2016, the second - in July 2017.

        The electric propulsion system includes a set of equipment and devices designed to implement the electric propulsion of the vessel. In particular, the system consists of two voltage generators with a capacity of 36 MW each, three propeller motors with a capacity of 20 MW each, frequency converters for regulating the rotation of the propeller shaft, matching transformers, switchgears with a voltage of 10 kV.

        Baltic Shipbuilding Plant LLC is a part of the United Shipbuilding Corporation OJSC and carries out the largest civil shipbuilding contracts in the recent history of the country for the construction of the main and two serial nuclear LK-60.

        The main nuclear-powered icebreaker LK-60 of project 22220 Arktika was laid down at the Baltiysky Zavod on November 5, 2013. It will be equipped with a new type of nuclear power plant, RITM-200, and will become the largest and most powerful icebreaker in the world. Its length will be 173,3 m, width - 34 m, draft on the structural waterline - 10,5 m, minimum working draft - 8,55 m. Displacement will be 33,54 thousand tons.

        According to the terms of the contract, the construction of the lead icebreaker should be completed in December 2017. The deadlines for the delivery of serial nuclear-powered ships of the project 22220 are December 2019 and December 2020, respectively.

        The dual-draft design of the nuclear powered ships will allow their use both in arctic waters and in the mouths of polar rivers. Icebreakers will have to escort vessels transporting hydrocarbon raw materials from the fields of the Yamal and Gydan Peninsulas, the Kara Sea shelf to the markets of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
        The first fuel elements (fuel elements) with nuclear fuel for the new-generation LK-60 Arktika Russian parent universal nuclear icebreaker under construction, project 22220, were manufactured at Mashinostroitelny Zavod OJSC (Moscow Region, part of the Rosatom TVEL fuel company).

        LLC "Baltic Shipyard" and the state corporation "Rosatom" May 29, 2014 signed an agreement for the construction of two serial nuclear-powered icebreakers of project 22220. The contract value was 84,4 billion rubles. According to the terms of the contract, the nuclear-powered ships should be commissioned in December 2019 and December 2020, respectively.

        According to the press service of the shipbuilding enterprise, the portfolio of orders of LLC "Baltic Shipyard" today reaches 150 billion rubles.

        "This state order is very important for us," said Aleksey Kadilov, General Director of Baltic Shipyard-Shipbuilding. "Thanks to him, the plant is firmly on its feet, a major modernization awaits it, which will make our enterprise a modern, highly efficient shipyard."
        Thank you for the article good
        1. jayich
          jayich 9 December 2014 10: 12
          And those are already ready. documentation for LK-110Ya
          And here is a video about LK-60
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. lexat7
          lexat7 9 December 2014 11: 35
          Quote: jayich

          According to the press service of the shipbuilding enterprise, the portfolio of orders of LLC "Baltic Shipyard" today reaches 150 billion rubles.

          This is good, the main thing is to bring the shipyard in order, to modernize, otherwise it recently seemed like everything was done to Baltzavod, but no, the guys were able to survive. good Prepare, so to speak, production for other "projects". The "Eagles" left these slipways. hi
        4. The comment was deleted.
      3. The comment was deleted.
    2. max702
      max702 9 December 2014 20: 39
      Favorite type of ship .. Powerful, large and useful ..
  2. _umka_
    _umka_ 9 December 2014 07: 48
    Very informative, thanks.
  3. vrach
    vrach 9 December 2014 08: 34
    Thanks. Powerful ships. The country has a lot to be proud of. And the question arises why we sometimes fall for phrases like "Upper Volta with rockets". Poor Burkina Faso doesn't even have a motorcycle factory.
  4. lotar
    lotar 9 December 2014 09: 06
    Unfortunately, in our country, very little work is being done by state and public bodies on education in this and other areas. We are increasingly adopting the experience of our foreign "partners", and without any reason they copy everything that is needed and not needed. to return our country to a leading role in education and medicine, as well as in many other areas, and icebreakers could be shown as one of the proofs of our country's advantages over other countries.
  5. A1L9E4K9S
    A1L9E4K9S 9 December 2014 09: 13
    Northern heroes, you can’t say better, handsome men, and I feel sorry for the Arctic, I could break the ice up to five meters, in the light of plans for the full development of the Arctic, for Russia, the construction of icebreakers is becoming a priority.
  6. andron352
    andron352 9 December 2014 09: 22
    Familiar views. On "50 Years of Victory" I dangled around the bay for two weeks.
  7. pahom54
    pahom54 9 December 2014 09: 28
    The most important thing now is to keep the palm in the icebreaker fleet among others who want to profit from such a tidbit as the Arctic.
    To do this, new icebreakers need to be built approximately as follows:
    "The design feature of the Sovetsky Soyuz icebreaker is that it can be retrofitted into a battle cruiser at any time" ...

    Immediately felt that in the Soviet Union was built!
  8. sergei.84
    sergei.84 9 December 2014 09: 36
    Well, there is no need to invent anything. Put weapons on the icebreakers, and you do not need to push destroyers and cruisers into the ice. I had a chance to see the ARKTIKA after returning from the Pole. The LENIN seemed like a shibzid compared to it. Then the SIBERIA came. An old man "KRASIN" with an order on the front of the superstructure stood modestly side by side. It was 38 years ago, it seems like yesterday.
  9. pomegranate
    pomegranate 9 December 2014 09: 44
    Handsome men are just floating cities, just why can’t we paint our ships normally normally ????
  10. Petrovi42202
    Petrovi42202 9 December 2014 10: 30
    The article is great. I would also add icebreakers that are being built. And what is most interesting - why is only Russia developing a nuclear icebreaker fleet? In principle, mattress makers could also build nuclear icebreakers. Well, no, they'd better stuff them into aircraft carriers. In their opinion, this is a "peaceful atom".
  11. DOMINO
    DOMINO 9 December 2014 10: 38
    Excellent sightseeing tour! Thanks to the author. Passed a term in 2002-04 for the protection of the Atomflot RTP, felt nostalgic crying ... Then, on the base were ALL of the above ships (except for the building completed a little later 50 years of Victory), and, it happened, at the same time - that was a sight. Like a rookery of giant walruses wink . The picture of gigantism was completed by literally TAKR Kuznetsov. POWER! * least often I saw an atomic lighter carrier Sevmorput- a hefty scow
  12. Akinari
    Akinari 9 December 2014 11: 09
    Good article. But since we started describing icebreakers, let's be a little more honest. In the beautiful city of Murmansk, not far from Lenin, there is the notorious Lepse refueling vessel, which stores nuclear waste from the Arctic, Siberia and the same Lenin. Moreover, the vessel is not just standing, but damaged and slowly rusts. No need to explain the consequences to anyone.
    1. pv1005
      pv1005 9 December 2014 20: 06
      And who told you this? Only honest too.
  13. Voodoo
    Voodoo 9 December 2014 12: 59
    Great article and photos. Respect))
  14. xren
    xren 9 December 2014 14: 08
    In Russia, from 1991 to the present, two more atomic icebreakers have been built: Yamal (1993) and 50 Years of Victory (2007).

    More precisely completed.
    The name "50 Years of Victory" eloquently hints. (
  15. kravch67k
    kravch67k 9 December 2014 18: 00
    I read and rejoice, remember and cry. What Great RUSSIA has done for so many years SAMA - ZERO, USSR-petrodollars, currency needle ........ Now -class-oil-bang-Russia-AH. And we continue to be proud of what has been done before us, and the icebreakers (Tell me what Russia came up with the Northern Sea Route) WHAT DID YOU DO? They called Tunguska the Shell, T-72 called the future of tank construction, the best helicopter-to-50 (52) - how many are in service ??? WE HAVE TWO HEPOTETIC MENSTRUAL (where to put them later)
    (experience-5 years of the Marine Corps) ... We argue on Kalashnikov - WHAT? In our territory, the war has always been at the expense of the militia --- 100 years ago - only Mosinka, today only Kalash. And the guys from PR (look at the STAR site) sing songs of the year this is 1939-IF THE WARRIOR TOMORROW-- So, IF TOMORROW WAR- will be as always, BABS BREED, and the rifle costs money. Who does not agree, write and talk.
  16. Grishka cat
    Grishka cat 9 December 2014 22: 48
    I remember that when I was a cadet in 1983, we were on Leonid Brezhnev / former Arctic / in practice in Murmansk. We were docked at the shipyard. Such machinations seemed to be. We climbed the entire icebreaker, where it was possible to go. , except for the central compartment. And in case of war, a / l was transferred to the category of auxiliary cruisers. So we were told. So even in the bow there was a place for artillery mounts. Under the deck there was a room for the supply and storage of shells. After that I worked on the Siberia. This was no longer there. Or simply did not get into the same room. So our icebreakers were preparing not only for a peaceful life.
  17. T-73
    T-73 10 December 2014 12: 12
    Vaigach was repaired - they lived in the Soviet Union, the Union was moored to the Northern Sea Route from the bay. The union is not small, but it stood like a toy next to a lighter. this is power. then the sailors from the lighter said that about a billion is needed to return it to service. and there was no hope. 3 goals have passed and we are returning it to the system. not everything is bad, break through
  18. Region-25.rus
    Region-25.rus 15 December 2014 15: 19
    good drinks good Many thanks to the author !!!! I’ve done so much more than at BATM to work on anything else ((((Photos already .... stirred up in my soul))))
  19. Gennady Petrochenko
    Gennady Petrochenko 29 March 2017 14: 28