About the threat of wars for water and food. Root causes and problems
The drought in East Africa confirms the disappointing forecasts of American climatologists that the devastating droughts in this region will be repeated more and more often. Given the high population size, the problem of water and food in the Horn of Africa, this may cause new brutal massacres and mass migrations.
Data on the onset of drought, which were established on the basis of long-term monitoring, were published as early as March of 2010 in the Climate Dynamics magazine. 13 May 2011, the United Nations has published data that about 9 million people in East Africa because of the drought that ruined the crop and killed the cattle, have already faced food shortages, which could lead to a "dramatic situation."
7 Jun The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reported that drought threatened 8 million people in countries like Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. Another negative message came from the Dadaab refugee camps in eastern Kenya — up to 400, there are already thousands of people there, authorities and humanitarian organizations are not coping with the flow of refugees from Somalia. Kenya, Somalia and Ethiopia were called the “Triangle of Death”, in Kenya the last rain was 8 months ago, only 400 thousand people fled from Somalia. People from the countryside run to the cities, hoping to find food, local authorities and international organizations organize temporary camps. The beginning of the food supply The UN Food Program, but it is difficult where the road infrastructure is not developed, in some regions of Somalia, Islamist militants do not allow anyone into their territories.
28 June, the UN reported on the “mobilization of international efforts” to combat hunger, the organization acknowledged that this drought in East Africa is “the worst in the last 60 years”. The situation in Somalia is aggravated by the fact that there is no single state, which means that there is no single system that with the help of the UN could provide at least minimal assistance to people, therefore they flee to neighboring countries in the hope of assistance. Thus, more than a third of the country is under the control of militants of the Al-Shabab organization, their goal is an Islamic state, and for this, jihad against the “infidels” has been declared. In April, 2011, the leaders of this movement called on all Muslims of Somalia to fight against other state entities in Somalia - Somaliland, Puntland, Galmudug and Azania. Thus, during the armed confrontation between the militants of Al-Shabab and government forces in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia, approximately 400 thousand people were on the verge of survival. That is, in Somalia, the full bouquet of the "joys of life" - the ongoing drought, famine and civil war.
Islamists previously did not allow outsiders from the UN to enter their territory, and non-governmental organizations paid for filing for the pass, now, fearing public discontent, UN missions have opened up - since July 18, food and medicine have been allowed into Mogadishu.
This problem brings to mind the fact that the problem of food and water security does not only cover distressful Africa, but drought has also hit China. Thus, according to experts, by 2050, it is required to increase food production by 70%. So on the pages of the newspaper Le Monde, the Minister of Agriculture of France Bruno le Mayr said: “Today we are mobilizing our efforts to solve the problem of food security in Africa. But tomorrow, other continents may face hunger. We all call for responsibility. It's time to act. It is necessary to show more solidarity in the fight against hunger, getting rid of their own blindness and selfishness. "
Currently, leaders in the restructuring of the main agricultural methods are Sweden, Denmark, Holland. In these countries, a completely autonomous irrigation system has been created everywhere, which makes it possible not to depend on a possible drought. But to create such a system in Africa, large investments are required, it is clear that they will not. Africa is still a source of raw materials, it is unprofitable for the Western world to develop agriculture there, apart from individual industries supplying Europe and the USA with tobacco, fruits, etc.
The main causes of the problem
- Rapid population growth in countries that belong to the "Third, Fourth Worlds"; they do not have developed production capable of feeding a large population. Therefore, any serious disaster - drought, war, etc. - leads to famine and mass migration.
- The problem of water. Thus, in the Nile region, in the medium term, wars for water are quite possible. Due to intensive anthropogenic activities, many countries are faced with a fall in the water level in rivers, a drying up of lakes, swamps, a fall in the level of groundwater. These facts are noted even in a country rich in water resources, such as Russia.
- Destruction of agricultural land; their main cause is human activity.
- Suspended the process of a new "Green Revolution", the introduction of new technologies (such as hydroponics), which would be able to solve part of the food problem.
That is, the main problem is that private interests, the pursuit of profit are higher than ordinary common sense, mankind itself destroys the environment, with the degradation of which condemns itself as well.
Women and girls in the midst of a sandstorm go for water in Wadzhir. A large area of East Africa was affected by a severe drought, and the UN reports that in two regions of southern Somalia, the worst famine in the last 20 years has been formed. (Reuters / Jakob Dall / Danish Red Cross).
Somali refugees who have recently crossed the border from Somalia in southern Ethiopia are waiting for the distribution of food in the Kobe camp. Ethiopian authorities and non-governmental organizations have housed about 25 thousands of refugees since its inception.
A charity worker photographs with his iPad the rotting corpse of a cow in Wajir. Since drought has hit the Horn of Africa and famine has been declared in parts of Somalia, international humanitarian organizations have moved between camps on planes and jeeps. Analysts say that this humanitarian diplomatic circus is needed every time people in Africa suffer from hunger, because governments, both African and foreign, usually respond slowly to the effects of such disasters. Add to this a simple explanation of the causes of hunger, and Africa is doomed to an ongoing circle of warnings about possible starvation and requests for help. (Reuters / Barry Malone).
Aerial view of the Dadaab refugee camp in Kenya, where refugees from Somalia continue to arrive. Commissioner of the European Humanitarian Union Kristalina Georgieva vowed to do everything to save 12 million people affected by drought, achieving an increase in the budget allocated to provide assistance to 27,8 million euros. (Tony Karumba / AFP / Getty Images).
Empty cans at the field hospital of the International Rescue Committee in Dadaab. (AP Photo / Schalk van Zuydam).
Somalis from the southern part of the country are in line for food in Mogadishu. (AP Photo / Farah Abdi Warsameh).
Somali refugee with a nutrition bar in his hands at the entrance to the territory of the Ifo camp. (Oli Scarff / Getty Images).
A humanitarian worker is on a break between food distributions at Dagahalei camp. (Phil Moore / AFP / Getty Images)
- Alexander Samsonov
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