Military Review

"Liquidator" Roscosmos will orbital cleaning

65
The Russian space agency is going to invest 10.8 billion rubles in the development of a spacecraft for cleaning the geostationary orbit from debris: upper stages and non-operating satellites, RIA reports "News" with reference to the newspaper "News".

"Liquidator" Roscosmos will orbital cleaning


The device, which received the working name "Liquidator", will be engaged in "cleaning" at an altitude of 36 thousands of kilometers above the equator, where space broadcasting and communication satellites operate.

The project of the Federal space program on 2016-2025 contains information about the parameters of the "Liquidator": it will weigh 4 tons, and for one cycle up to 6 months can consistently remove 10 of upper stages and spacecraft. The term of its active operation will be about 10 years. During this time, the unit will be able to conduct at least 20 cleaning cycles.

“The geostationary orbit is already crowded. The task of creating such a device is super complex. Contractor not defined. I believe that the projects of several manufacturers with experience in creating and operating spacecraft in geostationary orbit will be considered. These are RSC Energia, Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, Lavochkin Scientific Production Association, Reshetnev ISC. It can be assumed that those companies that have wider experience of convergence and docking in orbit will have some advantage, since these technologies will be in demand here, ”notes Alexander Danilyuk, first deputy general director of TsNIImash.

According to him, two options for the utilization of space debris are being considered: delivery to a higher orbit or flooding into a “spacecraft graveyard” located not far from Christmas Island in the Pacific Ocean. According to Danilyuk, the first method is simpler and more profitable.
Photos used:
http://ria.ru/
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  1. mig31
    mig31 22 August 2014 11: 37
    +75
    At the same time, it’s possible both the US spy satellites and others that interfere with living peacefully on Planet Earth ...
    1. APS
      APS 22 August 2014 11: 40
      +27
      And the name is good - "Liquidator" ...
      1. Nikolav
        Nikolav 22 August 2014 11: 48
        +16
        57 years have passed since the first satellite appeared, and near-Earth space is all, sorry for the expression, it’s ... it seems that man really came from a monkey.
        1. Muadipus
          Muadipus 22 August 2014 14: 02
          +8
          but I'm curious. How does it happen on a calculator among economists that processing is expensive, and throwing it out and creating a new one is cheap.?

          I will explain. In life and in the media, one has to repeatedly encounter such news that the old destroyer is decommissioned, and the HZ what to do with it, or a museum or an island. How so? The destroyer is a lot of metal !!! Why is it more profitable to flood it, and for industry to dig up ore, process, re-melt and roll beams, than just to re-melt and roll?

          If they can bury satellites in a strictly defined area of ​​the earth, then why not let them go down into the steppes so that later they can collect (what remains) and recycle? As I understand it, the satellite is not made of papier-mâché, there are many precious metals.

          I don’t really understand. Why, well, it’s not exactly what is flourishing but the shadow market for converting radio components into precious metals is living well, and it’s profitable - once the market lives.

          And here it’s cleaner and no longer profitable.

          And in terms of the mass of the planet, there is nothing to squander planetary tons of rare earth metals into space.

          And anyway, then what kind of Leshy was I forced to collect scrap metal and waste paper in school if recycling is not profitable?

          Maybe it's time to quietly stop robbing the planet and use what we have already plundered from our descendants.

          We are nature, not inherited from our ancestors, but we rented it from our children. (from an Indian song)
          1. saag
            saag 22 August 2014 14: 09
            0
            Quote: Muadipus
            If they can bury satellites in a strictly defined area of ​​the earth, then why not let them go down into the steppes so that later they can collect (what remains) and recycle? As I understand it, the satellite is not made of papier-mâché, there are many precious metals.

            What will fly to the ground from the booster block for reuse is not good. firstly not enough, secondly after thermal and shock loads this is already material unsuitable for space
      2. Rebus
        Rebus 22 August 2014 11: 59
        +18
        Quote: APS
        And the name is good - "Liquidator" ...

        Judging by the name, the dual-use device ...
        Anti-satellite weapons, however ...
      3. evgenii67
        evgenii67 22 August 2014 12: 14
        +5
        My question is, not the project of the Russian missile defense system, where you can cut both satellites and ICBMs from orbit
      4. armageddon
        armageddon 22 August 2014 12: 19
        +5
        Hmm ... In which case ... "Liquidator" - Will work for the Defense Ministry ... !!!
        1. mark2
          mark2 22 August 2014 18: 21
          0
          Exactly exactly! The Americans at one time only frightened the USSR with SDI. But now Russia has a "Liquidator". How does an enemy satellite differ from garbage for an automatic vehicle? only by the coordinate in the program. The coordinates can also be changed. smile
      5. Penzuck
        Penzuck 22 August 2014 12: 37
        +1
        Eh dreams ... Deliver automatic garbage collectors (our campaign knows where the American "spy" is, and where the blank is) with an ion engine, then launch a giant 3D printer into high orbit. A lens ship (break debris into atoms) and cook up a modular interplanetary spacecraft right in space. Put factories into space ...
      6. Kahlan amnell
        Kahlan amnell 22 August 2014 12: 47
        +1
        And the name is good - "Liquidator" ...

        Meaningful such a name ...wink
      7. mark2
        mark2 22 August 2014 18: 17
        0
        Or maybe the name and function of real destruction to figure out?) Then the real first combat spacecraft will be in orbit. The era of "Star Wars" is coming !! laughing
    2. ShturmKGB
      ShturmKGB 22 August 2014 11: 45
      +6
      and let the military be the customer of "Liquidator" ...
      1. Crazyzyear
        Crazyzyear 22 August 2014 11: 51
        +8
        The mattress makers have already launched their liquidator into orbit, it's time for us to be honored. The next development should be an "evacuator" of American satellites. hi
        1. Name
          Name 22 August 2014 12: 01
          +3
          Quote: CrazyBear
          Mattress workers have already launched their liquidator into orbits

          So after all, with a capital letter, however ... Liquidator (although it is possible for CHO and easier ... drain ... flush, well, etc.) repeat
        2. VadimL
          VadimL 22 August 2014 12: 21
          +2
          A tow truck is a good idea. Grab a mattress satellite and the "impound". And give it back only after paying the fine. laughing
      2. LINKor55
        LINKor55 22 August 2014 12: 21
        0
        no, no, only the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Sports or the Ministry of Education ... you can even the Ministry of Health ... Operation "y". so no one would guess
      3. Federal
        Federal 22 August 2014 13: 08
        0
        Of course, if the military completely takes control of space, then there will be nothing left for mattresses except this slogan ...
    3. Mountain shooter
      Mountain shooter 22 August 2014 11: 48
      +4
      And who wrote about "GPS" navigation there? This is where they all "sprinkle".
      1. MBA78
        MBA78 22 August 2014 11: 54
        +2
        the main thing is that the tool kit has a good sledgehammer
    4. rasputin17
      rasputin17 22 August 2014 11: 53
      +5
      Quote: mig31
      At the same time, it’s possible both the US spy satellites and others that interfere with living peacefully on Planet Earth ...


      It turns out interesting! They crap and turned the near space into the garbage by the whole world, and now Russia has to remove all this junk! And where are these gouges from greenpeace and other eco-funds and parties? What role will they play in this cleaning? Or can they only yank from phishington to yap yes to the drilling platforms their bespont banners and glue labels! ??
      1. muginov2015
        muginov2015 22 August 2014 12: 00
        0
        Well, who will pay?
        1. Rus2012
          Rus2012 22 August 2014 12: 56
          0
          Quote: muginov2015
          Well, who will pay?

          Most likely the one whose satellite or accelerator is being utilized. Those. the project will be commercial. If we assume - there is no owner of the object - then with UN money.
          IMHO - it is better to drown in the ocean, then over time you will have to clean the "burial orbit" ...
      2. Grandfather Victor
        Grandfather Victor 22 August 2014 12: 45
        0
        Do not worry. First of all, Amer’s communications and intelligence satellites will be removed!
    5. DMB-88
      DMB-88 22 August 2014 12: 00
      +4
      Quote: mig31
      At the same time, it’s possible both the US spy satellites and others that interfere with living peacefully on Planet Earth ...


      Actually, satellites were developed in the USSR to fight the enemy’s space groups, is this the weapon We are launching ... It would be an argument that would overpower thousands of other arguments!
    6. Giant thought
      Giant thought 22 August 2014 12: 03
      +2
      The question is very serious and difficult to fulfill, here our designers will have to try very hard.
    7. wladimir
      wladimir 22 August 2014 12: 08
      +2
      I wanted to write the same thing, now I won’t approve the proposal, maybe at the same time they will clean the White House? And then he turned black great
    8. mamont5
      mamont5 22 August 2014 12: 33
      +2
      Quote: mig31
      At the same time, it’s possible both the US spy satellites and others that interfere with living peacefully on Planet Earth ...


      That's it, I also thought about it right away. But not now, but at hour H.
    9. Enot-poloskun
      Enot-poloskun 22 August 2014 20: 17
      0
      Another "hello to Obama"!

      As in a joke:

      "Two satellites collided - Soviet and American.

      The Americans lied that their satellite was meteorological.

      Our people lied that our satellite was uncontrollable. "
  2. Buxx
    Buxx 22 August 2014 11: 37
    +9
    aha - eliminate the constellation of GPS satellites in orbit
  3. Vend
    Vend 22 August 2014 11: 37
    +6
    Do not litter where you live. Good idea.
  4. Roman1970
    Roman1970 22 August 2014 11: 38
    +5
    The device, which received the working name "Liquidator", will be engaged in "cleaning" at an altitude of 36 thousands of kilometers above the equator, where space broadcasting and communication satellites operate.
    At the same time and eliminate American satellites! laughing
    1. lexxxus
      lexxxus 22 August 2014 11: 49
      +3
      No wonder he was named "Liquidator" and not "Scavenger".
  5. MSA
    MSA 22 August 2014 11: 38
    +3
    The business is necessary.
  6. The comment was deleted.
    1. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 22 August 2014 11: 42
      +10
      Quote: rotmistr60
      Today - money down the drain.
      Judging by the declared purpose - yes. But judging by the name, the device is clearly multifunctional! The demand for fighter satellites is long overdue.
      1. rotmistr60
        rotmistr60 22 August 2014 11: 47
        +4
        The demand for fighter satellites is long overdue.

        Here I agree with you.
      2. Vladimirets
        Vladimirets 22 August 2014 11: 48
        +4
        Quote: Ingvar 72
        But judging by the name, the device is clearly multifunctional! The demand for fighter satellites is long overdue.

        If he can eliminate the dangling booster block, then what will stop him from eliminating the military satellite.
    2. sever.56
      sever.56 22 August 2014 11: 47
      +4
      Sorry, but I do not agree with you. It is not necessary to live today, but to look forward, into the future. Most likely, satellites are considered as garbage - spies that we do not need at all.
    3. rasputin17
      rasputin17 22 August 2014 11: 59
      +3
      I'm afraid you are wrong! 11 lards just do not send into space for garbage collection! This is equivalent to sending a janitor to collect garbage from bins on Maybach! Since Soviet times, such devices have always had a multidisciplinary and universal functional purpose! wink
  7. Vladimirets
    Vladimirets 22 August 2014 11: 39
    +5
    Crew - 5 Tajiks with brooms.
    1. MBA78
      MBA78 22 August 2014 11: 55
      +2
      and 5 more Uzbeks with slingshots ...
      1. Vladimirets
        Vladimirets 22 August 2014 12: 06
        +1
        Quote: MBA78
        and 5 more Uzbeks with slingshots ...

        Then it will be immediately clear that he is for military purposes. smile
  8. PeaceByForce
    PeaceByForce 22 August 2014 11: 41
    +3
    Flush everything in the Washington fountains!
  9. saag
    saag 22 August 2014 11: 44
    +2
    an interesting idea, as I understand it, clings to the accelerating block, gives a braking impulse and then burns in the atmosphere, then there should be several of them in one run, 6 months in time. this is apparently with plasma engines such as SPD-100 (to facilitate weight) this is all of course my assumptions in particular constructive :-)
  10. Patriot 1
    Patriot 1 22 August 2014 11: 46
    +4
    A very necessary thing. This is only the official purpose of the device. In fact, I think, they are developing it for other purposes. It’s possible to clean not only garbage))
  11. nahalenok911
    nahalenok911 22 August 2014 11: 48
    +3
    for cleaning geostationary orbit of debris: upper stages and inoperative satellites

    as well as unnecessary companions of our sworn friends.
  12. mambito
    mambito 22 August 2014 11: 50
    +1
    I liked the news, especially the technology necessary for Russia. Near-Earth clearing technology is good. I thought about this topic by watching an anime (Wanderers) (Planetes, Planet ES)
  13. Magic archer
    Magic archer 22 August 2014 11: 50
    +2
    As I understand it, the Liquidator is our Russian response to the Amer transformers wink
  14. RusDV
    RusDV 22 August 2014 11: 51
    +2
    "Liquidator" Roscosmos will orbital cleaning

    Correctly! Zadolbal flying trash with a painted mattress am
  15. Starover_Z
    Starover_Z 22 August 2014 11: 58
    +2
    Well, finally we got to the shelf in the closet with the development of the 80s military themes!
    No wonder they mentioned NGO named after Lavochkinthey seem to have had a space fighter project.
    Well, Energia and Buran.
    It seems the smut has been provided for mattresses, now their companions will be silent!
  16. engineer74
    engineer74 22 August 2014 12: 02
    +1
    Like a 203-mm howitzer, so "Pion", as a peaceful C / A - so "Liquidator" ...
    We have a kind of humor! wink
  17. Ruslan
    Ruslan 22 August 2014 12: 03
    0
    the contractor is not defined. But you can’t make everyone work? it turns out others will be idle? create a common group and let everyone plow, pour their experience and knowledge into a common cause.
  18. Homo sapiens
    Homo sapiens 22 August 2014 12: 04
    +1
    And still it is necessary to plant apple trees on Mars ....
    1. Loginoff
      Loginoff 22 August 2014 15: 03
      +1
      And in the USA, Poplars :)
  19. AnpeL
    AnpeL 22 August 2014 12: 05
    +1
    Quote: mig31
    At the same time, it’s possible both the US spy satellites and others that interfere with living peacefully on Planet Earth ...

    I also thought about this in the first place)), tk. this is the real garbage in the near-earth space. And so they flew towards the asteroid belt or the giant planet and live easier and "peaceful" satellites breathe more freely).
  20. pensioner
    pensioner 22 August 2014 12: 06
    +2
    Laughter laughter, but the situation with garbage in near-earth space is almost catastrophic. One respected scientist once said that pessimists assume that in 10 years it will become impossible to conduct any activity in orbit. optimists say that not in 10, in 25 ... ".
  21. andrei332809
    andrei332809 22 August 2014 12: 10
    +2
    broken satellites

    you can on the sly and a couple of C grade working for our "partners". Well, you never know, confused. and in general, it's time to revive ISs
  22. muks
    muks 22 August 2014 12: 10
    +2
    I hope that not only the four mentioned enterprises will take part in the development of the Liquidator. At least I would like the Efremov Research Institute of EFA, other designers and manufacturers of laser ... systems to take the MOST ACTIVE PARTICIPATION.
  23. Sergius1977
    Sergius1977 22 August 2014 12: 18
    +1
    Better yet, this liquidator should not dump garbage into the satellite cemetery, but into Washington, Brussels and Kiev.
  24. Dragon-y
    Dragon-y 22 August 2014 12: 20
    +2
    "Fighter of satellites" - that was the name of the development. He "knocked out" other people's satellites like an anti-aircraft missile. And then the enemy satellite remained dangling in the same orbit, only in a dead state.
  25. el.krokodil
    el.krokodil 22 August 2014 12: 21
    +2
    Quote: mig31
    At the same time, it’s possible both the US spy satellites and others that interfere with living peacefully on Planet Earth ...

    maybe "LIQUIDATOR" is intended for spy debris? laughing after all, all the same, soon we won’t find out laughing
  26. shitovmg
    shitovmg 22 August 2014 12: 22
    0
    Quote: Rebus
    Quote: APS
    And the name is good - "Liquidator" ...

    Judging by the name, the dual-use device ...
    Anti-satellite weapons, however ...

    No! Well, it is not possible to read this site !!! Some spies and talkers. As soon as we come up with something good, as soon as "writers and readers" with giblets hand over to "partners" ... laughing
  27. Bryanskiy_Volk
    Bryanskiy_Volk 22 August 2014 12: 23
    -2
    What nonsense! An attack on a foreign satellite is equivalent to an attack on any ground transport, such as a sea vessel. Since when did Roscosmos start piracy? what
    1. Tatar-in
      Tatar-in 22 August 2014 12: 58
      +1
      as I understand it, this is not about piracy, but about the possibility of this project, with a real battle,
      1. Bryanskiy_Volk
        Bryanskiy_Volk 22 August 2014 13: 13
        0
        In the case of a global chipper since the 80s, it is possible to clear the entire near-Earth constellation of all satellites by detonating containers with nails in the corresponding orbits (according to popular science publications)
        1. Tatar-in
          Tatar-in 22 August 2014 13: 18
          0
          effective, but stupid, their own will also suffer
          1. Bryanskiy_Volk
            Bryanskiy_Volk 22 August 2014 13: 33
            0
            will suffer, but this was a response to the Amer’s project to bring missiles from nuclear weapons to satellites so that they would constantly hang over the USSR. It would be better to remain without space intelligence and communications than without Chelyabinsk, for example.
            And at one time the carrying capacity of "Buran" was excessive (about 20 tons). In principle, it is capable of removing from orbit any satellite with delivery to Earth. The question is whether it is expedient: the withdrawn devices, for the most part, are initially disposable.
  28. muginov2015
    muginov2015 22 August 2014 12: 33
    +1
    Well, everyone was led like small children. Did everyone believe in the seriousness of this project? Well then, let's argue with the facts.
    1. What is the problem?
    More than half a million artifacts have accumulated in near-Earth space, from large satellites to fragments the size of a wrench, and the size of the danger does not matter due to space velocities.
    The range of targets is huge, so finding before destroying is even more difficult.
    2. The solution to this problem.
    We need a space garbage collector. Remarkably! Let's try to throw the terms of reference of this ashes.
    - without going into ways to eliminate space debris, he must first be able to regularly change the orbit trajectory (remember about 10 years of operation?), this is how much fuel he needs? I think 2-3 railway tanks. Hence the other problem is how to get it out into orbit?
    Secondly, automatic or manned? 10 years on the machine? I doubt very much our achievements in this area. Manned? Well then, the cost of 1 kg of garbage will cost orders of magnitude more than the launch of new satellites into orbit. Well, etc.
    What am I getting at? Trying to do something breakthrough in space, the current leaders of Roscosmos grab hold of any utopian straws, promoting this and acting on the principle of either donkey or paddy. And during this time, and the dough can be cut down robust. Something like that.
    1. saag
      saag 22 August 2014 14: 16
      +1
      Quote: muginov2015
      The scatter of goals is huge, so finding before destroying is even harder

      radio and optical location aka "Window", all large garbage is registered

      Quote: muginov2015
      this is how much fuel does he need? I think 2-3 railway tanks.

      there’s a lot, even for the booster block to the moon it’s not necessary so much, secondly there are plasma engines that need much less fuel, they compensate with a higher specific impulse, well, it will take more time, but are we not going to be late?

      Quote: muginov2015
      Secondly, automatic or manned?

      Remotely controlled, like everything that flies
  29. Alexey Lesogor
    Alexey Lesogor 22 August 2014 12: 37
    0
    And the collected scrap metal can not be delivered to the ground for further processing? Why just drown?
  30. Sochi
    Sochi 22 August 2014 12: 43
    +1
    The idea is good ... Removes all enemy "garbage" from the geo-orbit, and they say - a software failure.
  31. Temer
    Temer 22 August 2014 12: 47
    +1
    Delivery of spent satellites to a higher orbit is not an option. This is just more littering of the near-earth space. We need to look for other ways to dispose of garbage. Why not turn to science fiction writers? You can always get fresh ideas from them, and their eyes are not "blurred".
  32. Tatar-in
    Tatar-in 22 August 2014 12: 54
    +1
    Quote: muginov2015
    Well, everyone was led like small children. Did everyone believe in the seriousness of this project? Well then, let's argue with the facts.
    1. What is the problem?
    More than half a million artifacts have accumulated in near-Earth space, from large satellites to fragments the size of a wrench, and the size of the danger does not matter due to space velocities.
    The range of targets is huge, so finding before destroying is even more difficult.
    2. The solution to this problem.
    We need a space garbage collector. Remarkably! Let's try to throw the terms of reference of this ashes.
    - without going into ways to eliminate space debris, he must first be able to regularly change the orbit trajectory (remember about 10 years of operation?), this is how much fuel he needs? I think 2-3 railway tanks. Hence the other problem is how to get it out into orbit?
    Secondly, automatic or manned? 10 years on the machine? I doubt very much our achievements in this area. Manned? Well then, the cost of 1 kg of garbage will cost orders of magnitude more than the launch of new satellites into orbit. Well, etc.
    What am I getting at? Trying to do something breakthrough in space, the current leaders of Roscosmos grab hold of any utopian straws, promoting this and acting on the principle of either donkey or paddy. And during this time, and the dough can be cut down robust. Something like that.


    I’m certainly not an expert in astronautics, but for the first argument I can say the following, I don’t argue that the danger is all the debris, but first of all the large ones, why, because because of large debris clouds of debris grow over one two years due to destruction onnyh. Accordingly, the primary goal is to remove the large ones, and the rest are already tasks of the second stage. and with regards to the second argument, the device does not need to rush about at different angles of the orbit, it is said that the cycle is 6 months, during this time the most successful trajectory is determined, and fuel is consumed for course corrections. In addition, there are technologies for solar sail and other things ...
  33. Tatar-in
    Tatar-in 22 August 2014 12: 56
    0
    the most important thing is that again there would be no more talk, and new projects in the space program are needed, otherwise we will lag behind even more
  34. saag
    saag 22 August 2014 13: 05
    +1
    Regarding the name, at the present time, the pathos and desire of an official to be noticed at the very top, in the days of the Union, would have called it "Cosmos-No ..." and that's it, guess what is behind the name
  35. yumis1
    yumis1 22 August 2014 13: 06
    0
    Quote: LINKor55
    no, no, only the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Sports or the Ministry of Education ... you can even the Ministry of Health ... Operation "y". so no one would guess

    "The USSR Ministry of Agriculture declares: in the event of further provocations, vertical take-off mowers and strategic Niva combines will be put into operation."
    I remembered something ...
  36. VNP1958PVN
    VNP1958PVN 22 August 2014 13: 09
    0
    Oh, there is no way to count this American garbage, it’s necessary to emphasize the task of the aggregate! repeat
  37. UREC
    UREC 22 August 2014 13: 15
    0
    The mattresses had a "tow truck" - a shuttle with a manipulator arm.
  38. rotor
    rotor 22 August 2014 14: 03
    0
    Two options for the disposal of space debris are considered: delivery to a higher orbit or flooding in the “spaceship cemetery”, located near the Christmas Island in the Pacific Ocean.


    When implementing the second option, the Cleaner can send a faulty satellite to the space station, where he will be picked up by the Catcher and towed to the station for subsequent repair.
  39. grandfather_Kostya
    grandfather_Kostya 22 August 2014 14: 13
    +1
    The best LIQUIDATOR is a 20 meter mirror. I drove it to the idle satellite, fixed it in the focus of the mirror and wait until it melts and collects itself into a drop. Then the melt can be simply sucked into the container and slowly crawl to the next "ghoul". The resulting material is very good. there is little space and it is more profitable to leave it in orbit until the time when it may be needed for future space factories - there is no need to lift it from Earth.
  40. GHOST29RUS
    GHOST29RUS 22 August 2014 14: 35
    0
    Finally, we clean the orbit of the American satellites smile
  41. Ajent cho
    Ajent cho 22 August 2014 15: 53
    +1
    Quote: Rebus
    Quote: APS
    And the name is good - "Liquidator" ...

    Judging by the name, the dual-use device ...
    Anti-satellite weapons, however ...

    Exactly the same thought arose. Practice the technology, not otherwise.
    1. kind
      kind 22 August 2014 16: 53
      0
      To begin the elimination of space debris should begin with the Pentagon satellites. Moreover, so that they fall on Galicia, and all claims are Poroshenko! soldier
  42. Massik
    Massik 22 August 2014 16: 26
    0
    Only money is being allocated, and there are already so many hopes. We sincerely hope that indeed these 10 billion rubles will be spent on space, and not as usual - the money has been received, one fifth of the work has been done and nothing has happened. While this is done everywhere, but a miracle might happen somewhere ...
  43. tnk1969
    tnk1969 22 August 2014 17: 09
    0
    I propose to review the burial place from the Pacific Ocean and the District of Columbia and the island of Manhattan. Everything already stinked there for a long time and there are so many different wastes ...
  44. mrDimkaP
    mrDimkaP 22 August 2014 21: 49
    0
    It would be better if they called the collector. Or a collector.