Military ranks

Military ranksThe presence of military ranks in the military is one of the features of military service. They provide clarity in the relationship and subordination of military personnel. Without a clear gradation of commanding, commanding, and rank-and-file personnel, it would be difficult to delineate responsibilities between the respective categories of people in military uniform. And so everything is simple and clear. Here is a private soldier - a fighter with empty shoulder straps on his shoulders, but a general wearing large embroidered stars. But it was not always so.

Military rank is essentially a qualifying tariff category. A peculiar step in a large staircase, which can be overcome only by applying effort. For example, to become a colonel, a soldier must have an appropriate length of service, education, knowledge and personal experience of service, allowing him to command a regiment. Of course, in modern conditions it sounds a bit lyrical, but, in fact, everything is so. To obtain a military rank, you must have the necessary position and match it, that is, you must know and be able to fulfill your duties in various conditions.

Initially, the concept of military rank did not exist - soldiers were called (hence the term “rank”) solely by the position they held, whose name was derived from the number of people (“soldiers”) under the command of a particular commander. At the same time, in the 9th – 12th centuries, many command positions were initially elective (at least in the city militia) and combined command and purely administrative municipal functions. Already by the XIII century, the situation began to emerge when individual warriors and military leaders were forced to perform certain tasks in addition to their service as part of the squad, for example, temnyk and tysyatskikh increasingly used as leaders of the temporary military administration (for example, during the siege of Kiev Batu) . Thus, for the first time, the military rank separated from the post and became an independent concept. For the majority of Russian teams, both grand-ducal and specific, as a result, the following hierarchy of military ranks was formed: young (the collective name of the youngest by the position, but not by age, of the soldiers of the squad); druzhinnik; the ten's manager (analogue of the modern commander of the department); the centurion (analog of the company commander, captain); thousand, thousand, (analogue of the commander of the regiment) and temnik (analogue of the general, from the old Russian numeral darkness - 10000). Later, on the basis of this hierarchy, a system of streltsky titles arose with certain changes.

Interestingly, the title of centurion unchanged remained until the first decades of the XX century.

At the beginning of the fifteenth century, such distinctive military and tribal structures such as the Strelets army and the Cossack troops appeared. During the reign of Mikhail Fedorovich, the Streltsy hundreds were reduced to Streltsy orders, five hundred in each, the head commanded the order, besides, hundreds began to be divided into fifty, so new ranks appeared in the Streltsy army. Later, the Streltsy orders are converted into shelves, while their full-time number increases to ten hundred. For the first time, the military rank of "colonel" appears, and an increase in the number of subunits leads to the appearance of the rank of half-cap or half-colonel.

In 1647, the first Russian military charter also defined the first legislatively enshrined system of military ranks. For the first time in it, servicemen were divided into categories — privates and constables ("lower", "middle", and "high constables"). This separation, with some variations, although under other names, has been preserved to the present.

In 1680, Tsar Fedor Alekseevich issued a Decree on military ranks, which provided for the unification of military ranks - henceforth, the riflemen, under fear of dishonor and punishment, were ordered to be named after the ranks of the foreign system. By the same decree, a new rank was consolidated from the category of junior non-commissioned officers (non-commissioned officer) - sub-ensign.

The system of military ranks underwent significant changes at the very end of the 17th century, when, in the course of the reforms of Peter the Great, a new military charter was introduced, authored by the Austrian general in the Russian service, A.Auide. In the period after the adoption of this charter, military ranks in the army smoothly evolved, naval titles were re-created, which were repeatedly revised until the adoption of the first naval charter.

The evolution of naval ranks as a whole followed the development of the fleet - for example, the construction of large ships caused the appearance of the rank of captain-commander, it took an increase in the status of qualified sailors and some junior specialists who received the status equal to the army corporal (officially appeared a little later). With the growing number of ships of various types, especially the many small sailing and rowing ships, it was necessary to divide the previously single rank of captain by rank, and for the numerous trained personnel to introduce the rank of lieutenant commander as a candidate for a captain's vacancy.

In the 1722 year, with the introduction of the Table of Ranks, which established a one-to-one correspondence between military ranks, some military and state posts, class ranks of civil service and court ranks, military ranks assigned by Peter the Great from the 1716 of the year and maritime charter from the 1720 were assigned in the Russian Empire . Later on, up to 1917, military ranks were used, as stipulated by the current edition of the Table of Ranks, which was revised several times over the course of almost two centuries.

In the Life Guards since the introduction of the Table of Ranks, all ranks were considered to be two steps higher than in the army, that is, the rank and file guard was equal to the army fourier, etc. In 1813, the first regiments of the so-called were formed. the young guards, in which the seniority was established only “in one rank against the army,” that is, the junior non-commissioned officer was equal to the army lieutenant.

In addition, the rank of a cadet was related to military ranks (unlike the modern Russian army), its status at certain periods varied depending on the educational institution and the membership of the cadet corps by the type of troops. Thus, at certain periods of time, the cadets of the 1 and 2 cadet corps, the Marine Cadet Corps, the Artillery, the Engineering and the Pioneer Corps were considered one step higher. In this case, the cadets wore uniforms with non-commissioned officers and were equal to the junior non-commissioned officers before 1826.

After the events of February 1917 in Russia, the Table of Ranks, with one withdrawal, remained valid - for obvious reasons, the court ranks and titles were abolished, their award ceased, but their remaining carriers retained their status, benefits and privileges.

A similar situation persisted in most of the territories under the control of the White armies.
In October 1918, the rank of lieutenant colonel was abolished in the white units in the south of Russia; all lieutenant colonels were re-certified as colonels. In 1919, the rank of ensign was canceled, the ensigns were subject to re-certification to cornets and second lieutenants, but the newly recruited volunteer ensigns remained in that rank for some time. In the 1920 year in VSYUR, the rank of lieutenant colonel was restored.

On the other hand, after the October Revolution 1917, by decree of the CEC, all military ranks were canceled. However, when the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army began to emerge due to real need, first unofficially, in the official correspondence and periodical press, the names “paint” appeared - red commander, “commander” - army commander, “brigade commander” - brigade commander, “starting” division chief, etc. By the middle of the Civil War, these names of military leaders become quite official, and since January 1920, the names of the officials are fixed by order of the Red Army, and get the name "categories of Red Army."

Generally understandable reductions were widely applied to other officials - military leader, senior military doctor, military doctor, military commissar (military commissar, this name was also used for heads of military commissariats and political workers), military engineer, brigade engineer, head of the brigade's engineering service, civilian commissariat, military engineer, chief engineer of the brigade, chief engineer, brigade engineer, chief engineer, brigade engineer, chief engineer, brigade engineer, chief engineer, brigade engineer, chief engineer, brigade engineer, chief engineer, brigade engineer, chief engineer, brigade engineer, chief engineer of the bureau, (military pilot), uchlet (student to fly), member of the PBC - a member of the revolutionary military council.

This system will continue until May 1924, when the concept of "service category" will be introduced. She was assigned to each soldier in accordance with his position. Since that time, the insignia was worn not in accordance with the position, but in accordance with the assigned service category. In fact, these were slightly disguised military ranks. In addition, the gradation was introduced by groups of commanding and commanding personnel.

Only in 1935, in the Red Army personal military ranks are established for all military personnel. Now they have received even private and junior command personnel. The ranks, however, sounded like job titles: a Red Army man, a separate commander, a foreman. The junior commander is now a lieutenant, and the battalion commander is a major.

At the beginning of 1940, the rank of general appeared in the Red Army. The author of their introduction was the then People's Commissar of Defense KE Voroshilov. Kombrig became known as a major general, division commander and corps commander-lieutenant general.

26 July 1940, the rank of lieutenant colonel is introduced, and 2 November 1940, the names of the ranks of junior commanders are radically changed. The corporal, junior and senior sergeants appear.

During World War II, the process of unification of titles continued. In January 1943, new insignia is introduced - epaulets. The title of "Red Army" is replaced by the title of "private". The title of "captain" is moved to the category of junior officers. Officially introduced the word "officer". Now it is not abusive.

Since February 1946, the name "Red Army" has been changed to the name "Soviet Army". Up to today, the system of military ranks adopted during the Great Patriotic War has not changed much.

Although I must say that in the fall of 1972, a new category of “ensigns and midshipmen” was added to the ranks system. She took an intermediate position between the sergeant and the officer corps. According to the idea of ​​the authors of this idea, the ensigns were to replace the so-called “super-servicemen” (sergeants who remained serving in the army after the end of their term of service and enjoy a number of benefits compared to sergeants of conscript service). The ensigns were intended to fill the positions of senior officers of companies, platoon commanders in companies of material support, chiefs of warehouses, heads of canteens and other positions that required high qualifications, but which were not appropriately replaced by officers (rocket launchers, radar commanders, radio operators aircraft). According to the plan of those who carry out military reform in the current Russian army, it was done in vain. Today in the Armed Forces of Russia this category has been abolished, but it has remained in other power structures. How long is it?

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