Military Review

Russia in the First World War: ruin or economic growth?

Russia in the First World War: ruin or economic growth?

Statistics disprove popular myths

The revolution occurred at the height of the First World War, and many researchers see a close causal relationship between the war and the overthrow of the monarchy. The economic "devastation caused by the war" is often noted as an important prerequisite for February-1917. Well, let's deal with this thesis.

It must be said that a major war and, all the more, a longstanding military struggle of the superpowers is a catastrophe for all its participants. Hunger was rampant in Germany and Austria-Hungary, the victors — Britain and France — came out of the war with huge debts and difficult economic problems. Only by 1924, the French economy returned to the pre-war level, and in England industrial production was restored in 1929.

The peacetime economy is not built according to the laws that go to war. That is why military tension always leads to distortions in many sectors of the economy. The need for the rapid movement of millions of people leads to transport disruptions, the emphasis on military orders contributes to the appearance of distortions in the development of industry and, accordingly, uneven pay. But war itself is one continuous imbalance, so that economic turmoil here is the norm, not the exception. And in general, the concept of "devastation" is relative, and by this term one can fit almost anything. So, speaking of the devastation, it is necessary to operate with concrete figures in order to be able to assess the real scale of economic difficulties.

The economic situation in Russia has been thoroughly studied by a prominent economist Lev Kafengauz. His work "The Evolution of Industrial Production in Russia" is especially valuable because Kafengauz was the Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade in the Provisional Government. That is, Kafengauz is a Februaryist, an opponent of tsarism, and he is unlikely to embellish pre-revolutionary reality. In addition, he wrote his book in the Stalin years, which also does not contribute to enthusiastic reviews about Tsarist Russia, but rather the opposite.

Kafengauz cites a significant array of statistical data, on the basis of which one can form a fairly accurate picture of the Russian economy on the eve of the February Revolution. Note that the figures of Kafengauz mainly relate to the regions of the empire within the borders of the USSR, however, if we consider that Russia lost Poland and some other western provinces in 1915, then imperial Russia at that time was approximately within the boundaries of the future USSR. Peaceful 1913 year is often called the period of maximum recovery of our country, so we will carry out comparisons with 1913 year. Compare and see what "devastation" occurred in the country during the war.

So let's start with energy.

Gross coal and anthracite mining in thousands of tons.

Donetsk region: 1916 year - 28682,2 vs. 25288,1 in 1913 year.
District near Moscow: 1916 year - 694,5 vs. 300,4 in 1913 year.
Ural: 1916 year - 1509,3 vs 1203,3 in 1913 year.
Western Siberia: 1916 year - 1325,7 vs. 878 in 1913 year.
Eastern Siberia: 1916 year - 1969,6 vs. 1175,6 in 1914 year.
Other areas: 1916 year - 265,1 vs. 207,7 in 1913 year.
Total: 1916 year - 34446,4 vs. 29053,1 in 1913 year.

Gross oil production in thousands of tons.

Baku: 1916 year - 7828,2 vs. 7672,6 in 1913 year.
Terrible: 1916 year - 1682,9 vs. 1206,6 in 1913 year.
Emba: 1916 year - 253,9 vs. 117,6 in 1913 year.
Other areas: 1916 year - 114,7 vs. 238,1 in 1913 year.
Total: 1916 year - 9879,7 vs. 9234,9 in 1913 year.

As we see, in three main oil-bearing regions - Baku, Grozny, Emba - there is an increase in production, in secondary areas - a decline, and in the whole country there is an increase in oil production.

From other sources of energy, a small increase is recorded on peat, and in addition, Kafengauz writes that according to indirect data, an increase in the amount of firewood can be judged. Is it possible to say that there was a devastation in the production of energy raw materials in the country? Absolutely not: on the contrary, the situation was better than in a very successful 1913 year.

Go ahead. Iron smelting dropped from 9 214 637 tons in 1913 to 6 635 183 tons in 1916, but the dynamics were positive: 4 246 939 tons in 1913, against 4 273 460 tons in 1916. At about the pre-war level, the production of "high-grade" metal remained, the production of wire increased, the production of high grades of shell and armored steel developed.

For the sake of justice, it must be admitted that this was achieved to a large extent by reducing the production of iron, which was used to manufacture "peaceful" goods. But this is a perfectly normal measure, typical of any war, when branches of the military industry have priority. The situation in the copper-smelting industry has become a serious problem, here the drop in smelting turned out to be significant, however, imports managed to completely compensate for losses, and copper consumption in the 1916 year was even higher than in the 1913 year: 82 378 vs. 39 898 tons.

In the textile sphere, the situation was fairly stable. The production in the cotton industry was slightly reduced, a little in the wool industry, however some growth was achieved in the linen and hemp-jute industries, as well as in the production of mixed fibers, ready-made linen, knitted and fancy goods. In general, if we take the 1913 indicators of the year as 100%, then in 1916, the textile production will be 89,4%. Yes, there is a recession, but how much can it be called devastation? In the leather industry during the war, a rise was observed, new factories appeared, and the production of rubber products increased. The output of pharmaceuticals, surgical instruments and other medical supplies has increased. Moreover, success was achieved in the production of goods previously imported from abroad.

There was a real economic boom in the metalworking and engineering industries. Figures indicate a powerful breakthrough in the industrialization of the country. During the war, the factories were reequipped with new machines, major technical successes were achieved, new production appeared.

The gross output of the metalworking plants is expressed by Kafengauz in thousands of pre-war rubles, and this is what happens: 1916 year - 1 424 892 versus 646 064, from 1913 to 1916. gross output increased by 220,1%. As for the copper-rolling and copper-foundry production, an amazing result was achieved here: almost doubled in growth. It is characteristic that the Tsarist economy achieved the greatest achievements in the most modern areas at that time. Increased production of electric motors, transformers and other electric machines. The same applies to telephone, telegraph and radio equipment.

It was possible to expand the mass production of metalworking machines, the chemical industry quickly rose, several factories producing gaseous and liquid fluorine were built, the production of sulfuric and nitric acids and phenols increased, the processing of naphthalene into naphthol and naphthylamine developed, and not only by increasing the capacity of old plants, but and thanks to the emergence of a number of new enterprises.

In general, in heavy industry growth was observed. Here are the data that prove this irrefutably. Cost of production in thousands of pre-war rubles: 1913 year - 2 237 095 vs. 2 887 043.

To a large extent, these successes are secured by military orders, and you will not be fed up with guns and shells, the skeptic will argue, and he will be right. Therefore, let's see how things were in the food industry.

Products in thousands of pre-war rubles.

Sugar and refinery industries: 1913 year - 297 584 vs 1916 year - 377 731.
Oil industry: 1913 year - 95 187 vs. 83 551 in 1916 year.
Starch and powder industry: 1913 year - 19 115 vs. 13 823.
Other food industries - 156 715 vs. 130 566.

These numbers need clarification. During the war, Russia acted dry, so there was a sharp reduction in the production of alcoholic beverages, and this is the food industry. So, beer, wine and vodka - all these are super-profitable industries, therefore, the reduction of production in these areas immediately affected the overall financial indicators of the food industry. But if we make an amendment to the dry law, then in the sectors producing food, the recession either did not happen at all, or it was minimal. As Kafengauz notes, the production of basic vegetable oils during the war remained at a high level.

By the way, in 1913, some food products were exported on a very large scale. For example, this applies to oil. During the war, exports dropped sharply, and given this fact, no less food products were left for domestic consumption in Russia than in the 1913 year. Salt production increased: 2 601 862 tons in 1916 year against 1 977 765 tons.

But the most striking is the state of the confectionery industry. Candy production in 1916 almost did not decrease compared to 1913 in the year and in thousands of pre-war rubles it was expressed as follows: 6225,2 versus 6474,9. Cocoa and chocolate production in 1916 was even higher than in 1913: 18006,0 versus 17950,9. Confectionery products were produced in 1916 year in the amount of 2,7654 million pre-war rubles, and this is significantly more than in 1913 year (1,1895 million rubles).

So much for the “devastation”, so much for the “starving” Russia!

We will talk in detail about hunger and bread shortages in Petrograd as part of our cycle of texts on pre-revolutionary stories. And in the next article we will analyze Milyukov’s famous speech, "Stupidity or treason?"
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  1. Klibanophoros
    Klibanophoros 24 May 2014 10: 12
    Yeah, there would be data, I would have dashed the same article about the USSR-1991. Spikes spiked, piglets sucked.
    Another thing is important here: the monarchy was doomed, because it has outlived its own. In the rotten tops of the Russian Empire, few doubted this. Among the great princes, few doubted this. The problem of the Tsarevich’s weakness was far-fetched, the legitimate heirs a dime a dozen, but no one wanted to become king. The House of Romanov in this regard has completely degenerated.
    Yes, and the consciousness of society was crushed by failures at the front, theft, which bureaucrats did not want to refuse even during the most difficult war and no correction of the situation with the supply has changed.
    Is it worth the soldiers to blame for desertion, if the main deserter wore the crown, taking advantage of a formal occasion, renounced, striking a piece of paper with a pencil. And this is during the war ...
  2. shurup
    shurup 24 May 2014 10: 26
    Economic growth was significant, but just since 1916 interruptions, delays, etc. began.
    I am wondering how "bloody" Tsarism allowed strikes and strikes in wartime? But the author, it seems, is going to talk about what happened after 1916, with which WWI did not end.
  3. Standard Oil
    Standard Oil 24 May 2014 10: 46
    I do not understand, doctors are standing over the corpse of the Russian Empire and trying to find out what the patient died of. Communist doctors say everything was bad, the patient has acute corruption, neglected political backwardness, congenital political shortsightedness of the leadership, etc., etc. plus to everything, the patient got hooked on the First World War from a combination of factors and died. Everything is logical. Now they have gathered again, post-perestroika doctors, they say everything was fine with the patient, corruption is normal, political backwardness is at zero, political leadership looks like a falcon into the future. an athlete, a Komsomol member and just a beauty ", live and live and on drugs called World War I got hooked only because of her friends England and France ... But wait, if everything is so good, why did the patient die?
    1. rereture
      rereture 24 May 2014 12: 54
      As the fifth column is now saying. The Bolsheviks had a great destructive influence both on the civilian and in the army. In addition, there were still traitors among Nikolai’s entourage.
      In short, not everything was as good as the post-Soviet historians say and not everything is as bad as the Soviet historians say.
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 25 May 2014 20: 43
        rereture "In short, not everything was as good as post-Soviet historians say, and not everything is as bad as Soviet historians say."
        In general, everything was bad.))))
    2. Azzzwer
      Azzzwer 25 May 2014 11: 06
      Quote: Standard Oil
      But wait, if everything is so good, then why did the patient die?
      Isn’t it clear? From the fact that everything was good! laughing
  4. Selevc
    Selevc 24 May 2014 11: 31
    1 years have passed between Russo-Japanese and World War I ... In general, a decent period of time ... Tsarist Russia, having lost Russo-Japanese, was never able to learn lessons from defeat ... But it is precisely the difficulties with supply and the actions of the 9th column were one of the main causes of defeat ...
    The fact that there will be a Big Zavarukha in Europe was no secret to anyone and all European countries were preparing for the Great War ... The whole question is how did they prepare? A very interesting and little-studied topic is "The development of the military-industrial complex of Tsarist Russia at the beginning of the 20th century in the period between the wars" (1905-1914) ... How did it happen that at the beginning of World War I, having the largest land army on the continent did not could it really arm it?, could not mobilize the industry with the beginning of the war?, could not provide the front with everything necessary - from shells and rifles to dry rations and medicines? Why is there such a criminal inconsistency in offensive operations? What is this - the work of German moles in the Russian General Staff or a complete degradation of the country's top command staff?

    Why did all sorts of destructive elements gain strength in the rear of the country during World War I — did all kinds of revolutionary subversive bloom? Where did the special services of Tsarist Russia look and why did they react so softly to very dangerous phenomena?
    1. strannik1985
      strannik1985 25 May 2014 11: 28
      With the introduction of the gold standard in Russia, there was a paradoxical situation when for building a plant, for example, Russian workers from local materials needed foreign loans, by 1906 Russia occupied the first place in terms of debt-amount, EMNIP, equal to half of all the gold of the world, every 5-6 years the total amount of payments was equal to the sum of indemnity paid by France to Germany following the results of the Franco-Prussian war, without any military operations.

      Lessons were learned from the war, but money was needed to introduce new products, but they were sorely lacking, priority was given to the fleet, the army reform was planned to be completed only in 1917.
      The same thing with providing the army — for the construction of factories, money, machine tools, technology need to be bought in the West — who will sell them if there is no Depression?

      IMHO with a revolutionary situation is not so simple. Without February, there can be no talk of October. Who spent February? The nobles and the bourgeoisie, in RI, society was class, for a full-fledged sweeping, the sanction of H2 itself is needed, the special services themselves are few that they can, not the caliber.
  5. parus2nik
    parus2nik 24 May 2014 12: 59
    Excellent .. a lot of steel, a lot of oil, you read it ... Author, please tell me how many aircraft engines were produced in Russia at aircraft engine plants for the period 1914-1917 .. How many aircraft, Russian brands were produced .. how many cars were at automobile plants .. This is with regards to smelted steel and extracted oil .. And again, if RI developed in great strides and everything was just fine, such as the king and the people are united .. That’s why part of the people-oligarchs wanted a revolution, namely the part that is smaller in it interested, and nevertheless wanted .. And apparently wanted for a reason ... So in whose interests they acted ..?
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion 24 May 2014 13: 36
      Aircraft, then? 3000-3500, I don’t remember the exact number, but less than France at the same time at the forefront in 1918. X)
      1. parus2nik
        parus2nik 24 May 2014 15: 37
        Of these, 85 Ilya Muromets and M-5 and M-9, M-9 for the period 1915-1923 -300 pieces ..
        In general, at the time of the beginning of World War I, Russia had an air fleet of 263 aircraft of various models. By October 1917, Russia had 700 aircraft, significantly inferior to other warring countries in this indicator.
  6. EvilLion
    EvilLion 24 May 2014 13: 35
    And the army lacked not only modern equipment, but even rifles with cartridges. The indicator of the release of sweets is yes, I wonder who ate them, peasants who have been starving for 50 years, or workers who plowed for 12-16 hours a day? Or, after all, the aristocracy then lived as if the last times had arrived.
    1. rereture
      rereture 24 May 2014 13: 51
      You at least eat the rifles, and the lack of cartridges was tested only at the beginning of the war, by 1916, the cartridge factories reached their maximum capacity producing 60 million rounds of ammunition per month with the Lugansk PZ, 59 million rounds per month with the St. Petersburg PZ, 35 million rounds of Tula private PZ . There was also help from the allies, but the poor supply of the army all this nullified.
      1. parus2nik
        parus2nik 24 May 2014 20: 32
        There was at least an assault rifle, and the lack of ammunition was tested only at the beginning of the war..Those. in 1914, there wasn’t enough cartridges .. yes I’ll add there weren’t enough shells and howitzers ..
        There was also help from the allies, but the poor supply of the army all this nullified.You have military orders in England where rifles were ordered .. I won’t say the numbers I don’t remember .. Russian factories could not cope with the orders .. You write about poor supply .. Is that how? On the way to the front, weapons and ammunition were stolen ..? Or was there not enough capacity to produce both?
        1. rereture
          rereture 25 May 2014 01: 05
          It was delivered either to the wrong place, or not in the quantities that were needed.
          1. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 25 May 2014 20: 31
            rereture "Was delivered either to the wrong place, or not in the quantities that were needed." Where, what happened.))) Especially if it was not.)))
            Especially for you. The article seems to be called "Cartridge hunger in 1 world.
            The ammunition of the revolution.
            "The maximum productivity of Russian cartridge factories was achieved in October-November 1916, mainly due to an increase in work shifts and equipment loading - 150 million cartridges per month. This is three times more than the average monthly indicators of the beginning of the war, but the demand has increased even more significantly: if before July 1914 - first it was estimated at 50 million per month and 600 million per year, then from January 1, 1916 - 200 million per month and 2 billion per year.
            Significantly increased the value of a relatively young Lugansk plant. The performance of the Petrograd plant was limited by the organization of the production of foreign-style cartridges on it - Japanese for the Arisaka rifles obtained from Japan and Austrian for the captured Manlikher rifles and Schwarzlose machine guns. The build-up of the output again affected the quality. In particular, numerous misfire rifle cartridges manufacturing 1915 year, due to the "low anvils" sleeves. And in 1916, I had to master the release of armor-piercing and incendiary bullets to the Russian patron.
            In 1915, the construction of the state-owned cartridge plant in Simbirsk was finally begun, but it could not be put into operation before the 1918, and even after the evacuation of a piece of equipment from the Petrograd plant.
            Foreign orders of cartridges "Russian sample" issued in the US and Canada. Significant orders in the United States were received by Remington and United States Cartridge Company. As in a number of other cases, it was necessary to send experienced engineers as receivers in order to streamline the execution of Russian orders at the proper level. Cartridges were also purchased from “Maxim Amunishz.” By June 1917, Russia received 573 539 000 American three-line cartridges.
            Purchased abroad and rifle powder. Already 6 August 1914 was sent to Japan and the United States by powder-powder engineers to place large orders and set up the production of powder for three-line cartridges. A cash purchase was made in the United States of a finished batch of this explosive that matched Russian ammunition. The bulk of about 793 000 pounds of gunpowder for rifle cartridges made during the war was purchased abroad - mainly from Americans.
            From the beginning of the war until January 1, 1917, the Russian army received 2 cartridges from domestic factories and 850 from foreign ones. If the “rifle hunger” was noticeably weakened at the beginning of 000, then in general the issue of the lack of rifles and cartridges was removed only by 000. But for "military successes" it was already too late, but for the revolution just right. "

            Author Semyon Fedoseev
        2. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 25 May 2014 20: 17
          parus2nik "Rifles were at least an asshole, and the lack of ammunition was tested only at the beginning of the war ... that is, in 1914 ... there were not enough cartridges ... but I would add that there were not enough shells and howitzers ..."
          All right. Not only in 1914, but also in 1915. General Golovin testifies.
          “The shortage in rifles slowed down the manning of the infantry.“ Due to the lack of rifles, ”writes General Danilov,“ military units, having a huge shortage, at the same time could not absorb the people who arrived from the rear, where, thus, people were accumulating uselessly By the end of November (1914), for example, the reserve troops had a trained contingent of 800 for the most part, while the active army suffered from a horrific shortage. cases that people arriving for staffing had to remain in military units with carts due to the impossibility of putting them in the ranks due to the lack of rifles ”{000}.
          In 1915, this phenomenon takes on the character of a catastrophe. How great this catastrophe was can be judged from the attached [243] to this chapter copy of the report of the British military agent to his government. This testimony of one of the representatives of our allies is very revealing. The compiler of the mentioned report concludes that in the entire Russian army, stretching from Revel to Chernivtsi, at the beginning of October 1915 there were only 650 active guns {000}.
          It is difficult to convey in words all the drama of the situation in which the Russian army found itself in the 1915 campaign. Only a part of the soldiers at the front were armed, and the rest were waiting for the death of their comrade, in order to, in turn, take up a rifle. Higher staffs were refined in inventions, sometimes very unsuccessful, just to somehow get out of the catastrophe. For example, when I was Quartermaster General of the 9th Army, I remember a telegram received in August 1915 from the headquarters of the Southwestern Front about arming part of the infantry companies with axes mounted on long handles; it was assumed that these companies could be used as cover for artillery. The fantastic nature of this order, given from the rear, was so obvious that my commander, General Lechitsky, a deep connoisseur of the soldier, forbade this order to proceed further, believing that it would only undermine the authority of his superiors. I cite this almost anecdotal attempt to introduce "halberdists" only to characterize the atmosphere of almost despair in which the Russian army found itself during the 1915 campaign. "
        3. alleksSalut4507
          alleksSalut4507 25 May 2014 20: 32
          orders were. Allies received the money. The order was never delivered.
      2. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 25 May 2014 20: 21
        rereture] "Rifles were at least eat your ass"
        Yeah, they ate ... of the three years of the war, a year and a half.))) The Polvoyne fought as they should. We bought rifles in Japan and wherever it is necessary.
      3. alleksSalut4507
        alleksSalut4507 25 May 2014 20: 29
        and where was the artillery?
    2. mazhnikof.Niko
      mazhnikof.Niko 25 May 2014 14: 02
      Quote: EvilLion
      Or did the aristocracy then live as if the last times had arrived

      So, the last times, (as it turned out, a little later) have arrived.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  7. Cristall
    Cristall 24 May 2014 14: 01
    Quote: EvilLion
    Aircraft, then? 3000-3500

    yeah .. and then the pharmacists of the newpores ... under a license with French engines (for example, Moscow factories Dyuks and Odessa Anatra), while the locals did much better, but according to one contemporary - the tsarist government was more diligent in fighting invention than bribery .
    The bribe takers were in the Republic of Ingushetia at all times, but even in difficult times they were patriots (for example, Prince Menshikov), but after Russian-Japanese it was no longer necessary to be patriots of the country ... money became a global tool ...
  8. regul10108
    regul10108 24 May 2014 15: 46
    All these figures (although somewhat rigged) are good, but from the good life of the revolution, uprisings and riots do not happen! All these figures need to be clarified at the place of production, if possible, delivery of products to consumers (army, to the city, to industrial production, etc.). Naked figures still do not prove anything, and it is not entirely clear where these figures are taken from.
    1. rereture
      rereture 24 May 2014 16: 46
      The Soviet Union was a master at changing Istria. So there will be absolutely no exact data. Do not forget how the propaganda of the Bolsheviks was presented, they did not hesitate to use children to distribute newspapers, to put up posters in general for revolutionary activity. Moreover, all this happened in the country, which was actually weakened by defeat in the Russo-Japanese war, which was waging another, not popular war. All that was left was to submit it correctly, and here is a revolution for you.
      1. parus2nik
        parus2nik 24 May 2014 20: 47
        [b] [b] Do not forget how the Bolshevik propaganda was presented, they did not hesitate to use children to distribute newspapers, [/ b] That is. weren’t the other Bolshevik newspapers selling kioskers? And the government information simply didn’t reach the people, for the boy newspaper men were in the way? [b] gluing posters in general for revolutionary activity. [/ b] An amazing country, it turns out from your words, the Bolsheviks conducted openly anti-state activities, and the police looked through their fingers .. [b] Moreover, this all happened in the country, which was weakened in fact by defeat in Russo-Japanese war, waging another not popular war. [/ b] Again from your words, after the Russo-Japanese war, the gendarme branch did not actually work, did not stop the revolutionary activity? [b] It remained right to submit all this, and here is a revolution for you. [/ b] .. That is. from your words, clandestine: RSDLP, SR, anarchists and other revolutionary parties openly published newspapers, pasted up posters, printed leaflets and the authorities were silent .. Did these quietly zombie the submitted RI? By the way, let it be known to you, the First World War caused a patriotic upsurge among the people ... If there were massive revolutionary propaganda, this would not have happened ...
    2. mazhnikof.Niko
      mazhnikof.Niko 25 May 2014 14: 25
      Quote: regul10108
      Naked figures still do not prove anything, and it is not entirely clear where these figures are taken from.

      Yes, no matter where - it is important, WHAT are the numbers. In "pre-war rubles", mind you, not in grams, kilograms - tons. In rubles! The author, will be able to convince the reading public that the raw materials for CHOCOLATE sweets, in the conditions of the World War, remained at the pre-war PRICE? Go not rye from deep Russia! It is necessary to carry from overseas. Undoubtedly, prices will rise, but no - they will soar! But is it correct, in this case, to compare the GDP of 1913 with 1916? This is just ONE EXAMPLE - I will not say anything about the rest.
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 25 May 2014 20: 40
        mazhnikof.Niko "Yes, it doesn't matter where - it is important, WHAT are the numbers."
        Correctly! If from the ceiling, it doesn’t matter.))) Or maybe it’s still important where the numbers come from. I can also award anything.
        It's like in the election, it is important who will count the votes.)))
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 25 May 2014 20: 41
      regul10108 "All these numbers (though somewhat rigged) are good, but because of the good life, revolutions, uprisings and riots do not happen!"
      Article minus, and you plus !!!
  9. Slovek
    Slovek 24 May 2014 17: 45
    My opinion.
    Society and the elite simply disintegrated both in 17 and 90. The slogan "For Faith, Tsar and Fatherland" did not work, because when the mandatory presence of soldiers in churches was canceled, no more than 10% of soldiers continued to go to church. Few supported the tsar, there were almost no ideological monarchists left, it was not for nothing that Nicholas II himself wrote in his diaries that there was treason and treason around. The environment wanted to change something in the authorities, but there was no agreement on what exactly should be done. The soldiers did not want to fight, the orders of the commanders were discussed by subordinates. And for what it was to fight, it is not known. The rich rested abroad, and the soldier means die for the incomprehensible Entente. I watched about Savva Morozov, an industrialist, but he gave money for the publication of Iskra, sponsored the labor movement. The revolutionaries were heroes in the minds of people, because they fought against the tsarist government for the "bright future of mankind."
    90 no one already believes in the general victory of communism, the elite went for a ride abroad, saw how the "decaying" West lives, bought video cameras and jeans. We bought goods in special service stores. And ordinary people stood in lines in stores, coupons for almost all products, except for bread, salt and seaweed. From household goods, almost everything is through pull, through friends. As Gorbachev loosened his grip on the Communist Party a little, spread demagoguery and gave a sip of freedom, all type of communist society collapsed. Republics fled, ideological communists, suddenly became not ideological, tore party cards, repented that they were in the Communist Party. The last true communists at the top organized the Emergency Committee in August 91, tried to remove Gorbachev from power and take everything into his own hands, even brought troops into Moscow, but they failed, the people left, arranged a "Maidan", everyone wanted freedom and "capitalist bright tomorrow. " Despite the referendum on the preservation of the USSR, everything fell apart anyway, because every local prince wanted to snatch his piece of power, and of money, respectively.
  10. korol yasheriz
    korol yasheriz 25 May 2014 09: 19
    The economic “devastation caused by the war” is often noted as an important premise of February 1917

    Everything is correct. How did one famous cunning guy say there? "War is the path of life and death for the state, the path of existence and death"
    The years were not the best for Russia in terms of wars. The collapse in such conditions was only a matter of time.
    Well, what about the fact that "revolution is not from a good life" - well, it is nowhere to be found, this good life. Everywhere and always there is something to set fire to and start the process. And in the case of Russia at that time, one might say that interested people shot a lying person.
  11. Azzzwer
    Azzzwer 25 May 2014 11: 16
    Lord How already got these eulogies about the Great Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20 century! And everything there was good and magnificent! Aki heaven on earth! !!! Yes, maybe for 1% of the population of the country everything was so! But the author forgets about ordinary people! About who this magnificence for 1% mined, working in factories and mines on 16 hours a day with one day off, in the complete absence of medical care, in the absence of education for their children, for those who are in the field from morning to evening dawn how damned! This is how the author somehow forgets to remember! It would be, yes, in the trenches of the WWI that would have fully tasted the charms of life in Tsarist Russia
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 25 May 2014 20: 36
      [quote = Azzzwer] "Lord, how have we got these eulogies about the Great Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20th century!"
      Hunger in Russia is not when bread is not born.))) And then, when quinoa does not grow.)))
  12. strannik1985
    strannik1985 25 May 2014 11: 50
    Not telling the whole truth does not mean lying?))
    By 1917, 75% of peasant farms were poor, high mortality from infectious diseases, syphilis, high child mortality, low level of education (people who received primary education after 25 gradually lost their skills), the Russian population was declining and physically degraded, the vast majority of the population of the empire doesn’t belong to the economy?
  13. andy.v.lee
    andy.v.lee 26 May 2014 06: 13
    Britain was "horrified" after seeing the economic rise of the Soviet Union. No matter how the Second World War was unleashed by them.
  14. Alex
    Alex 11 July 2014 18: 06
    In short, the average temperature in the hospital is within normal limits, but for some reason a particular patient died.