Military Review

Battle of civilizations

20
Battle on the Ice is one of the most famous battles in stories Russia and one of the two battles that forever inscribed the name of Alexander Yaroslavovich in the heroes of the Russian civilization. Alexander's activity caused a lot of controversy: some defend him, others criticize him for an alliance with the Horde. The battle on Lake Peipsi (April 5 1242 of the year) is also already unequivocally evaluated.

About him preserved quite a bit of historical evidence, and even those there are strong contradictions. Novgorod sources report the death of 400-500 knights and 50 captured, Livonian Rhyming Chronicle talks about 20 dead knights and 6 prisoners - this turns one of the key battles of our history into a parochial battle. True, it is clear that Western sources would not like to report a major defeat of their forces against the "eastern heretics." In addition, apparently, the Novgorod sources could have knighted some squires. They, too, were from noble families, service proving their future knighthood. Each knight was actually a whole detachment ("spear") of squires, bodyguards, servants.

But the main thing - not a loss, but the fact that it was a battle of civilizations, Western and Russian, Catholicism and Orthodoxy. Preparing for the campaign on the Pskov lands, on the military council of knights, the master of the Livonian Order Dietrich von Grüningen (1210 - 1259) said: adversary. For Russians have a tendency to help both estas, Lithuanians, and Livs. "

Battle of civilizations


Reference: Livonian Order- it is a military-religious and political organization of German knights-crusaders in Livonia, in the territories of modern Latvia and Estonia (the period of existence of 1237 — 1561). It was organized in 1237 from the remnants of the Order of the Sword (they were defeated by the Baltic tribes) and became a branch of the more powerful Teutonic Order. The distinguishing sign of its members was a white mantle with a red cross and a sword on it.

During this period, the so-called "attack on the East" continued, the Vatican and the forces submitting to it destroyed the Slavic civilization in Central Europe (the battle went on for several centuries), Christianized Scandinavia, humbled, subjugating the Vikings (recalcitrant). After this, the Balt tribes began an onslaught: the Prussians, Zheimats, Zemgals, Livs and others. Part of the territories of the Baltic tribes was captured, they spread the Catholic faith (the recalcitrant were simply destroyed), others fought fiercely.

At the same time, they decided to strike the blow on the Russian lands - taking advantage of their weakening due to feudal fragmentation and the consequences of the invasion of the so-called. "Mongolo-Tatars". The main shock forces were: Sweden, the Livonian Order, the Teutonic Order and the German Freestyle Knights.

In 1240, the Germans approached Pskov, and the Swedish troops landed at the mouth of the Neva River. Alexander showed a state of mind, a swift throw with a small retinue and a detachment of volunteers on the night of July 15. 1240 of the year caught the Swedes by surprise and defeated them. It was the famous Battle of the Neva.

In September, the Knights of the Livonian Order 1240, with the help of traitors, first captured the fortress of Izborsk, then Pskov. They were headed by the Bishop of Dorpat Herman von Appeldern and the Vice-Master of the Livonian Order Andreas von Feelven. After that, the neighborhood was looted, a fortress was built in Koporye, appeared in 30 versts from Novgorod itself. Novgorod sent for help to the Grand Duke of Vladimir Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, he sent his son Andrew to them. Novgorod sent a second embassy to ask for Alexander, the grand duke granted their request - in 1241, Alexander appeared and cleared the land of Novgorod from the enemy.

In the 1242, Alexander repulsed Koporye and Pskov, began a campaign in the “Chudskie Lands” (Estonia). 5 April and there was a famous battle on Lake Peipsi. There is little evidence of battle, battle tactics. But the main thing is that Alexander defeated the German knights. According to historian Yuri Begunov, who did a lot of work on the reconstruction of the events: "The troops were lined up in three echelons; on the northern side of the Crow's stone, the cavalry army of Prince Andrew took refuge. As usual, the Germans built their battle formations with a wedge or pig." the head of the wedge was moved by a heavily armed knightly cavalry in armor; there were Danish knights from Tallinn under the command of the princes Knut and Abel. " The German heavy cavalry “got stuck” in the defensive orders of the Russian army, after which they were attacked by Andrei’s squad. The Germans, the Danes, Chud (foot soldiers from the Baltic tribes subordinate to the Livonian Order) were surrounded and defeated. In general, this picture coincides with the previous views of researchers.

In 1245, the army of the Lithuanian prince Mindovg attacked the lands of Novgorod, Alexander immediately came out, the Lithuanians, having learned about it, ran, but the Russian troops overtook them. A battle took place at the Lake of Life, the Lithuanians were completely defeated, and, according to the chronicler, Alexander was so frightened of them that they began to "observe his name." The Germans lost all the lands seized from Novgorod and Pskov.

Alexander entered the Russian history as a wise politician and invincible commander, who devoted all the years of his reign to the service of "Light Russia". That is why it is one of the most beloved rulers of our history. He stopped the onslaught of the West on Northern Russia, thwarted the plans for its occupation and echoing. Apparently, therefore, unloved liberal circles of modern Russia.

Sources of:
Runners Y. Alexander Nevsky. M., 2009.
Gumilev L.N. From Russia to Russia: essays on ethnic history. 2008.
The history of Russian literature X - XVII centuries. M., 1979.
Pashuto V. Alexander Nevsky. M., 1974.
http://livonia.narod.ru/research/ice_battle/rifma_introduce.htm
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  1. chuchupaka
    chuchupaka April 26 2011 10: 03
    -1
    And who brought the Tatars to the north-west of Russia.
    Who helped cut out entire territories opposed to the Tatar yoke?
    Who "knocked" the Tatars on their fellow tribesmen? What ended with punitive expeditions of the princely Tatar punitive detachments?
  2. Alexander
    Alexander April 26 2011 13: 10
    0
    Catherine II in 1795, in her "Reflections on the project of the history of Russia in the 1230th century", written with her own hand and preserved in the draft original "(which was personally assured by the Minister of Church Affairs and Public Education of the Russian Empire, Prince Alexander Golitsyn), personally confirmed the birth of Alexander Nevsky in 1232 7. This is what he is, in fact, the "great commander" and "great saint" who was "feared in the Golden Horde", who "prevented the invasion" of the knights, "to Russia" at the age of 8-XNUMX!

    Alexander, the so-called Nevsky, born somewhere in 1230, in 1238 was taken by Batu Khan to amanats (that is, hostage), otherwise his father Yaroslav Vsevolodovich would not have received a grand-princely table.
    Having stayed in the Horde at Batu from 1238 to 1249, and possibly 1252, when he was sent to the Grand Duke’s table in Vladimir, Alexander did not take part in any of the serious battles.
  3. turnip
    turnip April 26 2011 13: 52
    0
    Catherine II the historian ?! what It would be interesting to read the history of Russia in the presentation of some Brzezinski (God forgive him and his name sounds like a curse), there would be Papuans-cannibals looking better than Russians.
  4. dmitriy
    dmitriy April 26 2011 14: 08
    0
    Oh, historians flooded! Here you have another name for spraying saliva - Svyatoslav! If anyone does not know, he wiped out the Khazar Kaganate. Please comment ...
  5. Rico1977
    Rico1977 April 26 2011 14: 57
    +4
    Yes .... A lot of imbitsil has appeared on our history to shit .... We read Western Goebels propaganda and let's trample on our history, without knowing it. I used to sign up with Alexander, but now I don’t want to get dirty about this pile .... Nevsky saved the Russian spirit - Patriarch Kirill correctly said - the Tatars needed money, and the Germans followed our souls. Look at the Baltic states - there were Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes - and now the Germans are Catholics. And we would be like that. Without faith, without culture, not a country, not a people.
  6. я
    я April 26 2011 15: 19
    0
    I read what is written in the annals about the battle on Lake Peipsi - very little. Not a word about the ambush at the Crow Stone. Where did the ambush come from? And about the killed it is written "Germans", not "knights".
    In fact, very, very little is known about the identity of Alexander Nevsky. Almost all the usual information is the result of historical reconstruction.
    And it is ridiculous and sinful to refer to the "historian" Catherine II. From the same cohort of "learned historians" and the Patriarch of Kuril. He repeated a rather old, but someone else's opinion - that's all.
    In general, the Russian Orthodox Church has a method of clinging to someone else's glory, declaring saints glorified commanders many years after their death.
  7. dmitriy
    dmitriy April 26 2011 16: 24
    0
    Я
    But what about the annals somewhere in our possession made publicly available? in which library? or maybe in nete which chronicler unsubscribed?
  8. slan
    slan April 26 2011 22: 13
    0
    2dmitry
    And you, perhaps, have other information about the mention of events on Lake Peipsi in Russian chronicles? So share it, it will be very curious to find out on which list and how many pages are dedicated to this, what facts are described there .. I respect your confidence, but in my opinion, the annals are by no means classified in state guards and those who study history not from cartoons and history books have all the possibilities for obtaining reliable information about all surviving historical documents, the primary sources of that era. Please share if you have other information. I would be very grateful for the answer containing specific facts.
  9. datur
    datur April 27 2011 00: 22
    0
    AlexanderKATKA AT LEAST AND WAS GREAT. MADE FOR RUSSIA MORE THAN SOME OTHER WORKERS, BUT HISTORIANS FROM HER AS FROM YOU BALERIN
  10. Мишель
    Мишель April 27 2011 08: 13
    0
    I fully admit that there are more speculations around Alexander Nevsky than the truth. But is this the main thing? There is a hero whom you need to follow, especially youth. And then they got used to blame Russian history for 20 years. Enough already?!
  11. Alexander
    Alexander April 27 2011 11: 21
    0
    We read not biased:
    http: //www.offtop.ru/journfree/v1_120965__.php?of1340=klo4at9g316gtksibthjeg5n93
    http: //knigosite.ru/81684-strana-moksel-ili-otkrytie-velikorossii-belinskij-vladimir.
    html
    Everything that is written there is refuted only by facts, given the truth that there are no originals of the annals. They were destroyed by order of Catherine II. The so-called annalistic vaults remained, i.e. censuses with the necessary correction.
  12. Az
    Az April 27 2011 11: 35
    +1
    The "battle of civilizations" continues now.

    True masters of the West replace the values ​​of other peoples with their own.
    So, the main values ​​of Russia have long been such concepts as Truth, Justice,
    Creative Labor, Love, Conscience, Conciliarity-Community. From these pillars
    on which Russian civilization rests, the whole system of values ​​was built.

    The puppeteers of the Western world were able, gradually,
    gradually replace Russian concepts with your own - Competitiveness,
    Individualism, Selfishness, Sex, Fear, Benefit, Pleasure,
    turning a people capable of defeating any opponent into an open battle, into corrupted animals.
  13. dmitriy
    dmitriy April 27 2011 13: 18
    0
    slan
    perhaps, but is that really the point? Your comment is the usual splashing snot from rabies. Read my comment again. I asked specific questions, there is not a word in it that I, perhaps, know more than others. I asked the question because it interests me. And judging by your reaction, you are one of those who deeply hate the Russian people and hide behind the so-called "historical authenticity", that is. another delirium of interested individuals.
  14. datur
    datur April 27 2011 15: 23
    +1
    THE TRUTH WHERE NEARBY. OUR HISTORY, Unfortunately, FIXED AND WRITTEN BY ALL SOMETHERS FOR THE PLEASE OF SUCH SAME GAVNYUKOV.A ALEXANDER NEVSKY REALLY WAS A GREAT ANCIENT ANCIENT! AND DID MUCH FOR HIM. THEREFORE HOW HOW AND OUR OTHER GREATNES ATTEMPT TO DISCRETE.
  15. slan
    slan April 27 2011 22: 22
    0
    dmity
    I re-read your specific questions. However, once again it didn’t seem to me that you wanted to get a concrete answer, but if it’s really so, then I’m sure that not only in the Gorky library, but in any central library of the million-plus city, you’ll be able to You will find books detailing and analyzing ALL the annals of ancient Russia, including with the originals of the text. And you can choose a translation from a variety of options for every taste. Not 100% sure I personally did not try to do this, therefore, I clarified whether you have any reliable facts that indicate the opposite. There was no subtext in my questions, and even more so, I did not spray my saliva. Of course, I did not expect, I confess, to hear the answer in essence, the questions were rather rhetorical in order to help to think. And I'm not Russophobe, quite the opposite. And if there is not enough historical evidence of an ice slaughter, then this means only a lack of preserved historical evidence.

    psdmitriy
    I looked for an answer .. Sorry for the tactlessness, but maybe you’ll think too. I noticed that you write comments during the day and by no means at lunchtime. It may sound like bragging, but my patriotism is that I carry out my professional duties with dignity and at the same time, working with foreign engineers, and we have plenty of them for the banal reason of the catastrophic lack of worthy domestic engineers, I am not ashamed of my skills and knowledge and, I hope, working with us, they are forced to correct their idea of ​​the Russian people for the better. Another patriotism for me is not to throw garbage on the street and not be rude on the road, in lines, etc. However, it is positive that you are not sitting in classmates, not everything is lost, therefore. That's why I wrote to you.
  16. dmitriy
    dmitriy April 28 2011 13: 08
    0
    slan,
    I had no doubt that you were an intellectual, cultural and educated, but I do not consider this an outstanding merit.
    I write when I have free time, and I don’t have that much, I also work with engineers, but ours. Among them are Ukrainians, Russians, Armenians, Jews - all quite worthy engineers and adequate people. By the way, a lot of young and promising.
    You are more likely an anti-patriot, just ask Wikipedia what "patriot" means. Or be so kind as not to rush in such terms. You are an educated person and should understand that you cannot distort and alter the meanings of terms.
    PS thanks for the "classmates", flattered!
  17. andrew321
    andrew321 April 29 2011 11: 21
    0
    the article is weak ... well, what a hero with Alexander ... let the researchers pay attention to the behavior of the prince during the Horde yoke ... it will be very interesting ... the active assistance to the Tatars from Novgorod cannot be overlooked ... why the battles are poorly displayed orders and Swedes in the western chronicles ... for them these "battles" are nothing more than minor border skirmishes ... much more influential was the struggle of Alexander's contemporary Danila Galitsky with the German movement to the east ...
  18. Escander
    Escander April 29 2011 19: 29
    0
    Well, of course! Which Alexander Nevsky hero? We have another hero - andrew321-Nevsky ...
    So in the new story and write.
    And “the prince’s behavior during the Horde yoke” - does this mean? Ardynsk yoke, you are our historian, it was a tribute to collect and not build a civilization, do not confuse them with the Romans. The Ardynians, along with the Russians, fought against the Westerners as allies. But the Russian Federation, then, excuse me, it wasn’t, so the Mongol-Tatars advocated the individual interests of individual princes, like mercenaries (who will give more). Learn the story.
    1. andrew321
      andrew321 4 May 2011 14: 42
      +1
      Alexander Nevsky is not a hero, but a myth created by pseudo-historians ... Nevsky sold his people to the Tatars and constantly "threw" neighboring princes for his own benefit ... we have studied and glorified two small skirmishes between Novgorodians and Western invaders and say practically nothing about the "valiant "Alexander's campaigns together with the Tatars to the neighboring Slavic lands)))
  19. Ash
    Ash 22 June 2011 17: 57
    0
    Alexander hit the Teutons on the hill, although at that time they did not reach the level of the Wehrmacht in 1941 - the Slavs and the Baltic states threshed them periodically fellow
    And "Mongol-Tatars" are Siberian Scythians am - Indo-European tribes related to the Russians, it was not without reason that Alexander was the named son of Batu and brother of Sartak ...