Military Review

Sober Russia

26
Sober Russia





It is customary to mention the commitment of our people to alcohol as if it were something taken for granted. Even the names of the films are relevant - "features of the national" hunting or fishing. Features - this is pouring on the ears of alcohol. By the way, a similar feature of the Russians often bulges in the movies. Goodies tilt glasses famously, not getting drunk. Negative rampage or limp in the hops. And in the comedies and performances of humorists on the wine-vodka theme a good half of the jokes are built (the second half is “below the belt”). Evidence of "Russian drunkenness" taken from the depths of ages, from the chronicles. When to sv. Preachers of different religions came to Vladimir the Baptist, and the Muslim noted his ban on wine, the sovereign pointed out that such faith would not be suitable for us, because "the joy of Russia is the drink of eti."

Immediately note: история with the choice of faith - just a legend. Similar “vagrant plots” are known in the traditions of different nations, they are called upon to retroactively explain why a particular religion is adopted. In fact, there was no choice. Faith is not a commodity, it is not chosen - this one is better, but more expensive, this one is cheaper, but worse. She is always alone, they come to her not with her mind, not with logic, but with her soul. Yes, and with the prohibition does not fit. Mohammed forbade fermented juice of grapes to his followers. And in the Muslim Volga Bulgaria, which was contacted by St. Vladimir, they used honey-based drinks and did not refuse them.

In Russia, they also made honey, beer, and brought wine from Greece. They were used for the holidays - hence the phrase about the "joy of Russia." This custom went from pagan times, intoxication was considered sacred. There was also a tradition of princely feasts with a team. But it was not booze. It was also a special ritual that enshrined the military fraternity. It was not by chance that the bowl was called “brotherhood”, it was passed around in a circle, each sipped a little.
However, you can compare the attitude to drunkenness in different countries. In the Scandinavian sagas, it is not difficult to see that it was considered prestigious, the heroes boast of the amount of alcohol consumed. The description of peers with the hopy seas can also be found in the Germanic, English, French epic. In Russia, a drunken subject was not reflected either in art, or in songs, or in heroic epics. Valor is not considered.

On the contrary, the system of Orthodox values ​​promoted abstinence. The Monk Theodosius of Pechersk, who regularly visited the Sovereign of Kiev, Svyatoslav Yaroslavich, instructed him to cut down the feasts. Vladimir Monomakh, one of the most popular rulers of Russia, remained very restrained in food and drink. In the famous precept for children, he wrote: “Fear every kind of lie, drunkenness and love, equally disastrous for the body and soul”. This line was continued by the grandson of Monomakh, St. Andrei Bogolyubsky. He generally stopped the tradition of feasts with boyars and warriors.

Of course, not everyone followed a similar ideal. But you can select a pattern. Manifestations of drunkenness that fell on the pages of the chronicles were usually associated with negative characters or disasters. Svyatopolk Damned solders the army before the battle of Lyubech. Killers of sv. Andrei Bogolyubsky warmed up courage before the atrocity, climb into the wine cellar. In 1377, the Russian army relaxes in a campaign against the Tatars, “after the Drunk people are drunk” - and they were cut out. In 1382, Moscow gets drunk, foolishly opens the gates to Khan Tokhtamysh and dies in the massacre. In 1433, Vasily II generously treats the Moscow militia before a tragic battle with Yury Zvenigorodsky. In 1445, he feasts before the Tatars defeated him ...
In general, there is a negative attitude towards alcohol abuse. Abroad, the opposite trend was observed. In every possible way exalted in medieval songs of vagantes, in masterpieces of the Renaissance - works of Boccaccio, Chaucer, Rabelais. Descriptions of revelings were kept in the court chronicles. This boasted, paraded! Although the Western feasts of that era would have seemed to us not quite a pleasant sight. In the dim halls, suffocation smokes torches and greasy lights. Cavaliers and ladies tore the meat with their hands, nibbled and sucked mosly, fat flowed on fingers and sleeves. Dogs were crawling on the floor, freaks and dwarfs were busy, drowned out the general champing of fuss and rude clownery. If someone got drunk, fell asleep right at the table or under the table, in pools of vomit. The jesters mocked him, his physiognomy was soiled for the rest of the public - such things were common even in the royal courts.

Glaring drunken outrages were regularly celebrated in Rome, Paris, and London. And in Turkey, the wife of Suleiman the Magnificent, the notorious Roksolana, conceived to drag her son Selim to the throne. Ally took the European diplomats and spies. Roksolana achieved his goal, but her son acquired relevant habits from his Western friends and received the nickname Selim II Drunkard. None of the Russian rulers, even in enemy libelous names like this, did not stick!

But it was impossible. For the Grand Duke Basil the Dark, the blows he received became a serious lesson. He began to fight drunkenness, and his son Ivan III banned alcohol in general. The Venetian diplomat Josaphat Barbaro wrote about this, praised this practice. To brew beer, to use strong honey, wine or vodka was allowed only on holidays. If a wedding was being prepared, baptisms, commemorations, the head of the family applied to the office of the governor or governor, paid a certain fee, and he was allowed to make beer or honey. In other cases, the use of alcohol was forbidden. A person who appeared drunk in a public place was soberly battered. And the clandestine manufacture and sale of alcohol attracted the confiscation of property and imprisonment.

At the beginning of the 16th century, during the reign of Vasily III, foreign troops appeared in Russia. In Zamoskvorechye German settlement was built. But Western soldiers and officers could not do without drinking, could not imagine sober existence, and made an exception for them, allowed to drive the wine for personal use. As a result, among the Muscovites, the German settlement received the eloquent name “Fill-in”.
In addition, beer and wine were allowed to keep in the monasteries. Their charters were modeled on the Greek, and in Greece, a diluted wine was the most common drink. But the use was allowed in small quantities, strictly according to the statute. Although there have been violations, and of sv. Joseph Volotsky demanded completely abandon the intoxicating in monastic abodes - away from temptations.

The same line was persistently pursued by Ivan the Terrible. Mihalon Lytvyn in his treatise “On the Morals of the Tatars, Lithuanians and Muscovites,” wrote that his own country, Lithuania, was currently ruined by drunkenness. "Muscovites and Tatars are inferior to Lithuanians in strength, but surpass them by activity, temperance, courage, and other qualities that state affirms." As an example, the author put the Terrible: “He protects freedom not with soft cloth, not with brilliant gold, but with iron ... the temperance of the Tatars is opposed by the temperance of his people, sobriety - sobriety, art -.”
The results are fully manifested. For example, the Narva, which was considered impregnable, was easily taken by the Russians when the inhabitants were overwhelmed and started a fire in the city. Even the traitor Kurbsky, who ran to the Poles, was unpleasantly impressed by the incessant feasts. Particular disgust caused participation in the drinking bouts of noble women. He described how local grandees and nobles know only one thing, “they will sit at the table, goblets and chat with their drunken women.” “Drunk they are very brave: they take both Moscow and Constantinople, and even if the Turks had crawled into the sky, they are ready to take it off from there. And when they lie down on the bed between thick feather beds, they will hardly sleep by noon, get up a bit alive with a headache. ”

Russian peers did not have anything similar with this revelry. “Domostroy”, a very comprehensive and comprehensive manual on the organization of the household, popular in the 16th century, recommended that women do without alcohol at all, be content with kvass or non-alcoholic braga (good, in Russia there was a rich assortment of such drinks). Weddings, christenings, commemorations, Christmas, Easter, Maslenitsa and other holidays did not look like vulgar obzhiralovkami, each holiday to cope with certain customs. By the way, at weddings alcohol was intended only for guests, the bride and groom were supposed to be completely sober - to conceive healthy offspring. And even more so were not drunk court feasts. These were official ceremonies, court etiquette strictly painted the order of toasts, serving dishes. Sometimes foreign diplomats were really trying to get drunk as an insole, but this was done intentionally so that they would unleash their tongues and blurt out secrets.

Of course, there were violations of the “dry law”, they fought with them. The German Staden, who served as the oprichnik, told me that if he was detained, he was held until the morning so that he sobered up and then instructed him with flogging. Alcohol smuggling was discovered in Novgorod and Pskov, it was imported from abroad. The sovereign entered under the law - for the guilty prison and confiscation of property. However, for the majority of accomplices I confined myself to confiscation.
Especially large scandal erupted with foreigners. At the time when Estonia was annexed, Livonian prisoners were taken into service. German settlement in Zamoskvorechye has grown. But the Livonians abused the privilege of driving wine, surreptitiously selling it to Russians. Gambling and prostitution prohibited in Russia flourished in underground taverns. French captain Marzheret told: Livonians on this extremely rich, net profit exceeded 100%. Yesterday's prisoners "behaved so arrogantly, their manners were so arrogant, and their clothes so luxurious that they could all be taken for princes and princesses."

But in 1579, these crimes were revealed, and Grozny was angry. There was a heavy war, and the strangers, warmed up in the capital, would solder, corrupt the people, and be fat on it! In the super-profitable business, directly or indirectly, the entire German settlement took part - everyone knew where they were driving and selling alcohol. Margaret and a number of contemporaries confirmed: the settlement was punished fairly, and very moderately. Ivan the Terrible did not imprison the guilty in prison, but ordered the confiscation of all the property, and the inhabitants of the German Settlement were evicted from Moscow. They were allowed to build a new suburb on Yauza, a distance from the city - it was inconvenient to invite buyers in there.

The ban on alcohol lasted in Russia for about a century and a half and was canceled by Boris Godunov. He was a "Westerner", took over the foreign order. He fastened peasants, inflated taxes. But he came up with an idea for the people and an outlet - he opened the “Tsar's taverns”. This allowed us to pull off the steam of discontent, but also squeeze out additional profits, the wine received the status of a state-owned monopoly. In addition, detectives were fighting in the taverns; if someone inadvertently chatted about drunk, they dragged him to a dungeon.

All these factors formed the prerequisites for the Time of Troubles. By the way, of sv. Reverend Irinarkh the Recluse, who warned of impending disasters, indicated that they were sent according to the sins of the people, and among the sins he singled out the increased drunkenness. In the conditions of insurrection and war, Tsar Vasily Shuisky tried again to toughen the fight against such a vice. Pole Maskevich described that a special “prison of wars” was organized in Moscow. This included people who had the imprudence to walk around the city under a strong degree. If they were detained for the first time, they would give up sleep. The second time flogged batog. But if he came across for the third time, he was whipped and sent to prison.

Subsequently, the punishments were mitigated, they freed the prisoners from the prison and the whip. In the years of the Troubles, the country was ravaged; it turned out to be difficult to refuse a solid source of income. Kabaks are preserved. But the monopoly of the treasury on the wine trade remained. For underground distillation and the sale of the culprit, they beat him with a whip, confiscated property and exiled them to Siberia. They were able to drive vodka in our country, but they chose not to build distilleries. A contract for the supply of alcohol to the treasury transferred to one of the major merchants, and they bought in Lithuania or in Ukraine.

But if alcohol in Russia is now sold, this does not mean that drunkenness is encouraged. No, the use of wine tried to minimize. Both the king and the Church and the landowners fought against unhealthy hobbies. Boyar Morozov wrote to his patrimony as a manager, demanded that the peasants “did not smoke wine for sale and did not keep tobacco and did not smoke and sell, did not play with grain and cards, didn’t drink at the taverns and drank.” Patriarch Nikon strictly eradicated this sin in church structures. Keep vodka in monasteries completely banned. If there were signals about drunkenness of one or another priest, if the servants of the patriarch noticed a drunken priest on the street, and even more so in the temple, he would be deprived of dignity or sent to serve in some taiga wilderness.

Kabakov in Russia, according to the testimony of foreigners, was "not too much." Chancellor Ordin-Nashchokin conceived was an experiment with the free trade of wine in Pskov, promised a significant increase in profits. But Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich brought the matter for consideration by the Pskov themselves. Only peasants were in favor of a free sale. Clergy, merchants, artisans, nobles rated the idea very negatively. Say, drunkenness will lead to hooliganism, crimes and losses in trade, fisheries, and households. After such reviews, the sovereign innovation is not approved.
And the existing taverns Alexey Mikhailovich brought out of the cities, "in the field." Just like that, passing by, not in an institution you will not glance. At night, the city gates are closed, you will not go to the tavern. If a person has gone over too much, he can lie somewhere in the nature under a bush, without insulting the eyes of his fellow citizens. Those drunk who were wandering through the streets were still waiting for the “prison of wars”, they were kept in it until sobering up.

However, the center of drunkenness remained German settlement or Kukui. There is no reason to portray her as an “oasis of civilization” in a “barbaric country”. They lived in it rich, because the population were merchants and officers. But Kukui was a fairly small village (3 thousand inhabitants). The streets, unlike Moscow, were not paved. Eyewitnesses recalled that "the dirt reached the belly of the horses." And European manners did not look shiny. In Kuku, as in all Russian cities and towns, there was an elected self-government, and the government had to develop special instructions for it. The Sloboda authorities were ordered to stop duels, “fights and no mortal killing and no fights”, not to allow the underground vodka trade, not to take “runaway and walking people”, not to invite prostitutes and “thieves”.

But trade in alcohol here did not stop. It was attended by foreign officers, involved the subordinate Russian soldiers. The raids did not give results or only temporarily forced to suspend the business. In general, Kukui was considered a very dubious place among Muscovites, not for decent people. “Left” vodka could be bought here at any hour of the day or night. Underground ponies flourished, German, Polish, Scandinavian women of easy behavior came together. Russian girls also “Europeanized”. A contemporary wrote: "Women are often the first to fall into a rampage from unlimited doses of alcohol, and you can see them, half-naked and shameless, in almost any street."

And just here Lefort, Timmerman, Gordon and other mentors began to drag prince Peter Alekseevich. At first he was not listed as an heir, he was not prepared for reign. And then his father, Alexei Mikhailovich, died, the children got power from the first wife, Maria Miloslavskaya - Fyodor, Sofya. The second wife of the late king, Natalia Naryshkina, and her children, was pushed aside from the throne. They settled in a country palace, nobody was seriously engaged in bringing up Peter. Foreigners did not miss the chance to join up with an intelligent and inquisitive boy. Taught many useful things, but at the same time inspired by the fascination with foreign customs. The future king finished Kukui Academy excellently.

Is it any wonder that in the reign of Peter the attitude to alcohol has changed. “Bakhusov fun” began to be perceived as a decent and solid pastime. At the feast with abundant libations it was ordered to attract women. The distilleries began to be built, the network of taverns, austerias and other pubs expanded dramatically. Only it is worth considering that this tradition was by no means Russian, but “kukui”. Western, brought to our country along with shaving beards, dressing in kurguzie German kaftanchiki and wigs.

However, even after Peter in Russia they drank much more moderately than in the West. The manufacture and sale of alcohol remained the official monopoly. And for the population, public opinion served as a powerful deterrent. The life of a peasant took place before the eyes of the village community, the "world." The life of a merchant is in a merchant community. The drunkard everywhere admitted as a renegade, outcast, could not count on any respect and trust. Young people were brought up on these views and examples - was it worth it to imitate people whose fate turned out to be so unenviable? And the nobles needed to take care of themselves, because their every step was vigilantly monitored by "light." Sweep up the pernicious passion - “evil tongues are worse than a pistol” will turn on, you can earn a total alienation, contempt.

The future German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck lived in Russia for four years. But for the first time in his life, he saw a drunken woman, lying under a fence, later in “cultural” England. This shocked Bismarck so much that he described this incident in his diary. No, I'm not going to idealize our country. Gradually multiplied dens, the number of alcoholics grew. But it was considered already outside normal life, "at the bottom." Caused disgust, repelled. And this was by no means a tradition. On the contrary, the rapid slide of our country into drunkenness began only from the end of the 19th century and in the 20th century. - as the destruction of national and religious traditions, the collapse of the former society and the old value systems. The second collapse took place at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries. - with the destruction of Soviet traditions and Soviet society, which is also not surprising. After all, the Soviet traditions still held the remnants of Russian, and the moral code of the builder of communism in many respects tried to copy the old Orthodox installations.
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  1. cobalt
    cobalt 22 February 2014 09: 07
    +9
    The Genoese began to import grape alcohol to Russia in the 14th century. The foreign curiosity was recognized as extremely strong and possible for use as a medicine, and preferably with water dilution. A century and a half since the beginning of the import of alcohol into Russia, drunkenness has not been a mass phenomenon. Rye spirit was driven out for the first time in the middle of the 15th century due to the depletion of forest honey. National drinks were mead and intoxicating kvass - beer. The state monopoly on strong alcoholic beverages was introduced under Ivan 3 and strict bans were introduced on their use. Here is what foreigners who were in Russia wrote in the 16th century: Gerbenstein 1517-1527 "Russians, except for a few days a year, are forbidden to drink beer and honey", Michalon Litvin 1550 "There are no taverns anywhere in Muscovy." The taverns were introduced under Ivan the Terrible, and the first was built in Balchug for the guardsmen.
    1. Ataman
      Ataman 22 February 2014 18: 36
      +2
      From the books of Anatoly Wasserman:
      Remember how the peoples of the north of Siberia and their closest relatives, the American Eskimos and Indians, became extinct from the "fire water". There are too few carbohydrate-rich foods in the North. Therefore, the inhabitants there did not meet in time with alcohol - the product of their fermentation. This means that natural selection had no reason to increase the concentration of enzymes intended for the decomposition of alcohol. And when people who are accustomed to getting drunk with other intoxicating substances (such as fly agaric or tobacco), first came across a way to increase the concentration of alcohol in the body hundreds of times compared to the natural norm (alcohol occurs during energy exchange inside each cell - but in scanty amounts), their enzymatic systems were unable to cope with such doses. And while no one can predict what proportion of these peoples will die out before there are only those in whose organisms the activity of anti-alcoholic enzymes is comparable with European standards.
      By the way, we, the inhabitants of central Russia, are experiencing the same misfortune ourselves, although to a lesser extent. As you know, our average alcohol consumption is noticeably lower than in Western Europe - and the proportion of alcoholics is much higher. It is not only a matter of differences in traditions (for example, they drink and have a meal here, and in the West they eat and drink more often). It is much more important that in the West the technology of distillation of alcohol, which came from Arab alchemists, was mastered a couple of centuries earlier. And before that, a significant part of Western Europe drank grape wines, and we only had beer where alcohol was half or three times smaller (drinks based on fermented honey, of course, are strong, but relatively expensive and rare). Moreover, in the north of Europe - where they also drank beer, and imported wine was available only to the rich - alcoholism is much more common than in the south. The rule is simple: the longer the people were under the pressure of high concentrations of alcohol, the less the proportion of people predisposed to alcoholism in it, not yet destroyed by ruthless natural selection.
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 22 February 2014 18: 53
      +4
      When there is work and a family, there can be no massive drunkenness by definition. We are a northern country, and it is not for the Genoese to teach us what to make moonshine from. Anyone who grows from that and is driven. Some are "cut off" for drunkenness, others for cannabis and opium. Tradition cannot be defeated. But drunkenness is not a Russian tradition, but a demotivation of Russianness.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  2. igordok
    igordok 22 February 2014 09: 34
    +1
    The fact of the matter is that strong drinks are rarely used on holidays (I do not mean "blue"), and weak drinks such as beer for the Czech Republic, Germany, etc. and wine for Italy, France, etc. are used more often, often every day. As a result, a lot is better, but rarely, than a little (a relative concept) every day.
    1. Ximik-degozator
      Ximik-degozator 23 February 2014 16: 01
      0
      No really! Better a little and regularly (not every day, of course!) Than rarely but "from the heart", since the body copes with small doses more or less successfully, but drinking too much causes such a blow from which it does not "move away" until the next , albeit rare, but weighty libation.
  3. Belogor
    Belogor 22 February 2014 10: 31
    +12
    Drunkenness in Russia, one of the implanted myths about Russia. This is being discussed not only abroad, but also domestically, by various Shenderovichs and the like.
    In general, people drink as much abroad as they do, and some drink more, but they are silent about this.
    One example of double standards
    1. Hleb
      Hleb 22 February 2014 12: 36
      +3
      I don’t care about foreigners, I don’t want to compare who, where and for what reasons drinks more, but the fact that drinking with us is a problem is a fact! and only a fool or a liar can not see this. Moreover, alcohol consumption starts from school . yes, and in Soviet times, they gathered at dances, holidays ... even being schoolchildren and tried port wine, they stole a mash from their parents ... but what today does not compare. There is a problem and we don’t need sweet speeches to the public. we need the truth — in order to do something, to think, to start not demanding from the state (we won’t wait, alcohol is a strategic product), but in the family, with our children, to make the nation healthy.
      beat, beat very hard, as my mother beat me. and not for what I drank, but for who and how I behaved in this state. a lesson for life. Now you can’t make champagne to drink
      this is not the essence of the article, but about problems with alcohol in the country
  4. shurup
    shurup 22 February 2014 10: 51
    +5
    I look forward to a sequel called "Russia without drugs"
    1. Anatoly. RUS
      Anatoly. RUS 22 February 2014 11: 22
      +1
      Quote: shurup
      I look forward to a sequel called "Russia without drugs"

      Better continuation with the title ADVERTISEMENT, as we advertise the gamerope "correct life" by imposing their "ideals".
    2. The comment was deleted.
  5. rkkasa xnumx
    rkkasa xnumx 22 February 2014 11: 40
    +5
    By the way, note that now vodka of dubious quality is much more affordable (you can buy more bottles for one average salary) than it was in the USSR.
  6. parus2nik
    parus2nik 22 February 2014 11: 45
    +3
    In 1377, the Russian army relaxes while marching on the Tatars, “people are drunk for drunk people” ... “people are drunk for drunk people” - a metaphor .. It was a little different ... the armor was carried on carts ... They walked on light. Security was not put up. , as there was no intelligence .. The enemy missed .. And the 1378 battle on Vozha, the Moscow army concluded from the defeat of Nizhny Novgorod ..
    1. Uhe
      Uhe 22 February 2014 13: 33
      +3
      Not the only case, unfortunately. Those ear hookers who took Astrakhan were killed only when they rejoiced to death for joy. But the people did not drink, as now. It was under Peter 1 that the Antichrist began to plant this muck.
  7. knn54
    knn54 22 February 2014 12: 22
    +3
    In Russia, vodka was called an infusion of herbs in spring water. And they drank monastery honey and sbiten, and only 4 times a year on the days of the equinox and only men. The strength of alcoholic (hot) sbitn - 4-7 degrees, non-alcoholic (cold) - up to 1%.
    1. Uhe
      Uhe 22 February 2014 13: 38
      +1
      I think vodka is generally not a Russian word, but Polish. I remember how older people from villages of the late 19th century and early 20th century called vodka wine. The word vodka was not spoken at all, only wine. And wine in Russia has always been weak, overseas. They did their thing, as you say, right.

      The Slavs did not drink the bitter. And now many do not drink. I don’t drink - strong at all, a little home-made honey only on holidays and when required. Which I wish to everyone. Vodka is evil.

      Russian drink has always been kvass. Village kvass is made extremely simple - burnt pieces of home-made rye bread are thrown into a barrel of water and covered with a lid. In a week, sour kvass is ready :). And they drank it - it’s useful, there is weak alcohol, but just 1-1,5 degrees, that is, as in kifir.
      1. shurup
        shurup 22 February 2014 14: 26
        +4
        Bread Wine.
        Only very wealthy people could afford grape wine. for its delivery to Moscow through Arkhangelsk or along the Volga it was possible to give a "Hero of Muscovy", but then they were limited to a monetary equivalent.
        I make kvass based on birch sap in large bottles. I use well-fried barley at the rate of 1 tbsp. for 1l. Better to put in the cellar. Consume to achieve a characteristic brownish color.
        Let them not be surprised that we are discussing it here, but the rear services also have to deal with that.
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 22 February 2014 18: 57
      +1
      Come on, you! They always drank, but by chance. And without coercion. Drunken oversleep, but never cancer.
    3. The comment was deleted.
  8. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg 22 February 2014 12: 39
    -1
    If anyone is interested in how they drink in the West - go to my profile and read "Hangover in the days of rest ...".

    I would be grateful if someone tells me how to link to an article on topwar.ru. I tried it through "url", but it didn't work, the site said - illegal tags.
    1. Hleb
      Hleb 22 February 2014 12: 52
      +1
      read here
      http://topwar.ru/faq.html
      perhaps it will help. contact the moderators or admins.
      I’m unlikely to show anything new, because this topic has been discussed more than once. The administration and participants share interesting material. The site does not lag behind other resources, in terms of relevance or veracity of materials. One of the most advanced
  9. 11111mail.ru
    11111mail.ru 22 February 2014 15: 09
    +5
    From the memories of my grandfather. Spelling of the original. Time until about the First World War, tk. there is a quote "In 1913, in July, our daughter was born, and in November I was taken as a soldier."
    "In the village of Sh ... there were two patronal feasts (and in other villages there were also two patronal feasts, they only celebrated their saints) Peter's day -29 June and the Intercession day-October 1, and especially the Intercession day was a rich holiday, because for the holiday, relatives from distant villages gathered for 30-40 miles and celebrated 3-4 days, treated themselves to a small bottle of vodka, but for the most part leaned on home-brewed beer. it was very pleasant, perhaps very good for health.Brew for the holiday 6-7 buckets of beer and in 3-4 days they will drink, why during the holidays there were no drunks before the badness, but were a little tipsy, and relatives and not family. They will sit at the table, serve them a glass of vodka and 1-2 glasses of beer - "thanks for the treat" and went to the next yard. For the whole holiday they did not clean the table, the whole holiday the table is ready to receive guests, there is a person in every house, to receive, help and see off guests. Only elderly men of 30 and older drank, women were not drunk at all, and young men did not go around the yards to collect glasses like the elderly, but spent most of their time on the street with girls or played eagle for money. And single boys and adolescents of 16-17 years old did not drink at all, a rare case of stupidity someone drinks a glass and dizzy, shakes him from side to side, and if they see a mother or father, they will shame him and take him home so that he does not go down the street, did not disgrace himself. "
  10. DS22
    DS22 22 February 2014 16: 20
    +4
    Russian - means sober! For a long time already I am repeating about the alcoholic myth about the Russian people, to no purpose only everything, unfortunately! How firmly this damned myth has stuck in our brains!
    1. allexx83
      allexx83 23 February 2014 02: 28
      0
      one hundred %!!!!!!!!!!!
  11. demotivator
    demotivator 22 February 2014 18: 32
    +3
    I respect Valery Shambarov as a historian and writer. I have in my library several books by this author. As for the topic of drunkenness, many here correctly reflected the essence of the problem - today drunkenness is here, it really is no longer a myth, but a real reality. What happened in Russia is already the past, but today, not to see that drunkenness is killing people, killing young people and, ultimately, "the country is simply unacceptable. I will cite Stalin as an example. So, what did Stalin do? Allowed to sell vodka - right I did, you can't solve anything with a ban on this issue. For vodka to be vodka and not poison - introduced a state monopoly, and he did the right thing. To prevent drunkenness from interfering with production, he introduced harsh rules in factories and did the right thing.
    But most importantly, Stalin fought not with drunkenness, but with its causes.
    A giant network of stadiums, sports grounds, Palaces of Culture, clubs was built. All possibilities were offered for an interesting, full-fledged leisure.
    Children's memories ... A small mining town in the Rostov region, a fork in three roads, a blue beer stall where the seller was Khazin (I even remember the last name!). And “going to Khazin” became a local idiom, mockery and characterization. And in the town there are volleyball and city courts, a stadium, a shooting gallery. And in the evenings there were sports battles, there were companies, there were masters and champions. I remember feasts, holidays, birthdays, and then adults drank, but somehow I can’t remember anyone drunk. Adults had fun, joked, sang songs, invented all kinds of jokes.
    So, it is necessary to fight against drunkenness and alcoholism not in Gorbachevsk, but in Stalin's way. Do not prohibit, suppress, destroy, but eliminate the causes. What were the reasons before? The surplus of free time, money, and the inability to rationally use the resource appeared. And it was necessary to teach people, instill cultural skills, provide opportunities to use this resource wisely and correctly.
    Stalin was not a prude, like Gorby. He could drink, and express the most important political thought in the form of a publicly pronounced toast. And when they drank for him, he didn’t crooked. And how many songs, folk songs, in which it was offered to drink for the Motherland, for Stalin, and drained to the fullest for friends, and pour along the front-end charm ... But, it was always said that you should be able to drink so that drinking is good and not to the detriment.
    What did its new "masters" do with Russia? First of all, they destroyed what Stalin gave the people - free and free access to culture, physical education and sports, creativity, and a healthy lifestyle. But, most importantly, they destroyed confidence in the future, destroyed the purpose in the life of every person, destroyed faith in the justice of the social order. It is quite natural that drunkenness and drug addiction became the reaction of the people to this.
    1. 11111mail.ru
      11111mail.ru 22 February 2014 20: 16
      0
      Quote: demotivator
      and today, not to see that drunkenness is killing people, killing young people and, ultimately, "the country is simply unacceptable.

      I remembered a quote from a T-shirt, circa 1989: "Don't drink, because drunk you can hug a class enemy!"
  12. studentmati
    studentmati 22 February 2014 23: 13
    +3
    Here is the definition of vodka from a person who has studied this topic from the very roots, and who has defended the Russian origin and belonging of the term.


    "Vodka is not just a 'means of intoxication', but a complex national product that has concentrated in itself the historical, food and technological fantasy of the Russian people."
  13. allexx83
    allexx83 23 February 2014 02: 27
    +3
    RUSSIAN MEANS SOBER! Not the first such post on the forum and it pleases. Another moment. Beer (powder, for there is no other) - addiction gives good health. Low alcohol and alcohol-containing energy should be banned altogether, because target youth.
    1. stroporez
      stroporez 23 February 2014 14: 41
      +1
      SHOWER NOW SELL AT STORES --- NOT BEER !!!!!! ON THE LABEL, THE TRUTH IS WRITTEN BUT ON THE FENCE ALSO WRITTEN ......
  14. ddmm09
    ddmm09 23 February 2014 08: 36
    0
    Guys, stop drinking yourself and talk constantly about the dangers of drinking to your children !!! Teenage drinking is a serious problem in our society! The whole modern history of Russia depends on the current generation of young people, and we educate this generation ourselves!
  15. demotivator
    demotivator 23 February 2014 09: 55
    +2
    Quote: allexx83
    RUSSIAN MEANS SOBER!

    I dug deeper into this topic and found so many interesting things that I myself did not expect. From history we know that in our country there were various popular uprisings - "salt", "copper", etc. And in the 19th century. there was also a sober revolt! The bottom line is this. The battles of that war unfolded on the territory of 12 provinces of the Russian Empire (from Kovno in the west to Saratov in the east) in 1858-1860.
    Historians often call this war "teetotal riots", because the peasants refused to buy wine and vodka, vowed not to drink the whole village. In those years in Russia there was a practice: each man was assigned to a certain tavern, and if he did not drink his "norm" and the amount from the sale of alcohol turned out to be insufficient, then the innkeepers collected the uncollected money from all the yards of the area subject to the tavern. Those who did not want or could not pay were flogged with a whip for the edification of others.
    Vintners, getting a taste, inflated prices: by 1858, a bucket of sivuhi instead of three rubles began to sell at ten.
    In the end, the peasants were fed up with feeding the parasites, and they, without saying a word, began to boycott the wine merchants. The peasants turned away from the tavern not so much because of greed, but because of the principle: the hardworking, hardworking owners saw their fellow villagers join the ranks of bitter drunkards one by one, who are nothing but sweet to drink. Wives, children suffered, and in order to stop the spread of drunkenness among the villagers, at the gatherings of the community, the whole world decided: no one drinks in our village.
    What was left for the wine merchants to do? They cut the price. The working people did not respond to "kindness." The shinkari announced a free distribution of vodka in order to bring down the temperance mood. And people did not fall for this, answering firmly: "We do not drink!" For example, in the Balashovsky district of the Saratov province in December 1858, 4752 people refused to drink alcohol. All the taverns in Balashov were given a guard from the people to ensure that no one bought wine, those who violated the vow were fined or subjected to corporal punishment by the verdict of the people's court. The townspeople also joined the grain growers: workers, officials, nobles. The priests also supported the sobriety, blessing the parishioners to refuse drunkenness. The winemakers and potions merchants were already intimidated by this, and they complained to the government.
    In March 1858, the ministers of finance, internal affairs and state property issued orders for their departments. The essence of those decrees was to ban ... sobriety !!! Local authorities were instructed to prevent the organization of sobriety societies, and the existing sentences on abstinence from wine should be destroyed and continue to be prevented.
    It was then, in response to the ban on sobriety, that a wave of pogroms swept across Russia. Beginning in May 1859 in the west of the country, in June the riot reached the banks of the Volga. The peasants smashed drinking establishments in Balashovsky, Atkarsky, Khvalynsky, Saratovsky and in many other districts. The pogroms became especially widespread in Volsk. On July 24, 1859, a crowd of three thousand smashed wine exhibitions there at the fair. The riots were pacified. All in all, 11 thousand people were sent to prison and hard labor in Russia. Many died from bullets: the riot was pacified by the troops, who were ordered to shoot at the rebels. All over the country there was a reprisal against those who dared to protest against the soldering of the people. The judges raged: they were ordered not only to punish the rioters, but to punish them approximately, so that others would be discouraged to strive "for sobriety without official permission." Those in power understood that one can pacify by force, but sitting on bayonets for a long time is uncomfortable.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. siberalt
      siberalt 23 February 2014 18: 56
      +1
      I fully support. The Russian people lived and determined the measure for themselves. Then the Jews - the shinkari and the Romanov monopoly. So everything went up and down. There is a large book in the libraries - "The Great Peasant Reform of 1861", published in 1901-03. There are interesting statistics over the years. For example, the necessary products supplied to the village. The first three lines: vodka, salt, matches. Vodka can be in second or even third place, but not lower. But then there was a monopoly, and now? So, what (andestend?), Dear, and think, who is interested in breaking the brains of a Russian person in a Christian way? For the truth and the gallows is not terrible ... Minus.
  16. loginovich
    loginovich 23 February 2014 17: 11
    0
    They didn’t drink from empty to empty, which is the problem. We drink the problem in the 21st century and how to make sure that drugs and vodka did not interfere with our lives, the blue drove the population did not reduce.
  17. Bosk
    Bosk 24 February 2014 00: 18
    0
    There was a study recently and it turned out. that Russia today has "dropped" in consumption by 13.5 liters per person, this is where it may be just a little bit more than in England and Germany .. for your information the Germans were not slightly offended ... Well, about drunkenness ... these are not peculiarities of the people, this is a character trait, my old man also taught "If you had enough foolishness to get drunk, then be kind on the second day enjoy the hangover to the fullest, well, and then somewhere after dinner on a full stomach you can" festival " further if there is such a desire "
  18. mvkot120669
    mvkot120669 24 February 2014 00: 34
    0
    I was fed up with the COMPLETE ILLITERANCE of the Authors! How long can you write a full X then? "In the 16th century in Russia" !!!!! And "earlier in Russia .." !!!!!! Russia was formed in the 17th century !!!!!!!!!!!! There were no Russians under the "tsar pea" ... the tribes were Slavic! There was no ancient "Rus"))) I am amused by such names! Neither "Kievskaya", nor "Vladimirskaya" Rus' existed! Nowhere in the documents is there "Rus" ... "Russians" ... "ancient rosichi")))), etc. Everything was SOME OTHER CALLED!
    1. Corsair5912
      Corsair5912 24 February 2014 07: 25
      0
      Quote: mvkot120669
      I was fed up with the COMPLETE ILLITERANCE of the Authors! How long can you write a full X then? "In the 16th century in Russia" !!!!! And "earlier in Russia .." !!!!!! Russia was formed in the 17th century !!!!!!!!!!!! There were no Russians under the "tsar pea" ... the tribes were Slavic! There was no ancient "Rus"))) I am amused by such names! Neither "Kievskaya", nor "Vladimirskaya" Rus' existed! Nowhere in the documents is there "Rus" ... "Russians" ... "ancient rosichi")))), etc. Everything was SOME OTHER CALLED!

      Your ignorance is limitless and certain.
      Russia has existed as a state since at least the 7th century BC, there is irrefutable archaeological evidence, for example, "Serpent Shafts". Such grandiose defensive structures could only be built by a strong, wealthy state with a large population.
      There was no Kievan Rus, it was invented by "historians" in the 19th century, but Great Rus, Malaya Rus, Chervonaia Rus and Belaya Rus were.
      The Russians never called themselves Slavs, this term came into circulation in the 18 century. In the Word about Igor’s regiment (12 century) there are words: - O Russian land, after the shelomena, thou shalt! ... Rusich shields the fields ...
  19. Corsair5912
    Corsair5912 24 February 2014 07: 12
    0
    During the reign of Peter, the attitude towards alcohol changed. "Bahusovye fun" began to be perceived as a worthy and respectable pastime. On feasts with plentiful libations was ordered to attract women. Distilleries began to be built, the network of taverns, austeres and other drinking establishments expanded dramatically. It’s only worth considering that this tradition was by no means Russian, but “Kukui”. Western, brought to our country along with shaving beards, dressing in kurguzy German kaftans and wigs.

    Boris Chichibabin dedicated a whole poem to Peter.

    Damn Emperor Peter
    spreading his soul like a straw!
    For the pain of the current past
    it's time to arrange a review.

    Blood spilled hot
    damn you, the carpenter of Saardam,
    bag of crap, ladies man,
    sorrow of the singing executioner!

    Himself bridal sheared? Chapters sec!
    Damn the king of Christ the Killer
    for reveling in blood
    I have never been able to fill!

    And Russia left the face of the earth
    in secret log cabins,
    where no murderers
    they could not offend her.

    Damn Satan’s warrior
    the keeper of the dead stone,
    who from the absurdity of Streltsy
    shook in German pants.

    Damn moral yod
    zealot, enormous flesh!
    And I serve a different care
    and you shut up my mouth.

    Damn the one who cursed Russia -
    this frosty Hellas!
    Cut my head as a reward
    for not submitting to her.
    1970