Military Review

Ukraine in the mirror of the theories of Lev Gumilev

In Russian historiography there is no greater stimulus than the creative legacy of Lev Gumilev. If you follow the reaction to his Passionary theory of ethnogenesis (the science of how people are born, live, develop and die), you notice amazing things: L. Gumilev is either recognized as a genius who created a new theory of the development of society, or ignore and deny the value of his heritage . A flurry of criticism is pouring on the scientist from ardent communists, imperialists, Zionists, globalists ... This negative consensus gives rise to two thoughts in the average person: 1. Gumilev's theories are untenable and unworthy of attention. 2. Gumilev told people something about the truth for the elect, and not for the masses. To understand the dilemma, I propose to look at the events in modern Ukraine through the prism of the Gumilev doctrine.

The crisis of the Ukrainian state has given rise to a question as to why a center of self-destruction has formed within modern Europe. To answer it you need to understand why Ukraine is opposed to Russia. Surprisingly, the cradle of Russian civilization has become a threat to its existence. The process of alienation took a big historical the period during which the Ukrainian from a Russian living in the outskirts turned into the bearer of a new nation. A Ukrainian, a Uralian, a Siberian are people of a certain place of residence. Bogdan Khmelnitsky signed letters as a Russian prince, Cossacks in Gogol's "Taras Bulba" everywhere proclaim themselves the defenders of the Russian land and die for "holy Russia." Cossacks - Cossacks resettled by Catherine II in the Kuban retained their surnames, Ukrainian dialect, elements of everyday culture, but lost their identity with the Ukrainians. In their understanding, they are Cossacks - defenders of Russia. This says a lot, since the Poles resettled in Siberia did not preserve their language and everyday culture, but their belonging to the nation is indestructible. Most Germans, having lived in Russia for 200 years, returned to modern Germany, retaining their surname, language, religion.

Ukrainian language was not originally a separate language. This South Russian dialect, thanks to artificial (political) diffusion with the Galician dialect, was transformed into an idiom (the boundary state between the language and the dialect). If the talk of certain regions of Russia to cultivate as a language for 100 years, then one could not doubt the appearance of the Pomeranian, Kostroma, Uralic languages. Do not believe? Then talk in the Ural village with native speakers of the local dialect and immediately find out a lot of unknown words: “lyva” (puddle), “bucket” (good weather), “pima” (felt boots), “march” (washcloth), “once ), “Galit” (to play the role of the leader in a children's mobile game), “golbets” (underground), “gononok” (wallet), “coil” (ice slide for riding), “fret” (as it should), “trick” (impose), “by no means” (by no means), “little bastard” (boletus), “sit by hunger” (starve), “skat” (roll dough), “flock” (crib), “then lkushka ”(pestle).

If we trace the genesis of the Ukrainians, it can be noted with surprise that it was built not so much on local identity as on the denial of Russianness. In the sense of ethnogenesis, Ukraine is an “anti-system” for the system of Russian civilization. Why did this happen? The mechanism of this problem is disclosed in the works of L. Gumilev.

• “In any society there are always a certain number of people with a negative attitude - i.e. when a person opposes himself to nature, in which he sees the sphere of suffering. At the same time, he is obliged to include in the biosphere rejected by him and his own body, from which it is necessary to free the "soul", consciousness. The ways for this were supposed to be different, but the principle was always the same - the rejection of the world as a source of evil.
A system of people with a negative outlook is called the Antisystem.

The antisystem pulls drive from the ethnos, like a ghoul, its goal is not creation, i.e. complication of the system, and simplification, i.e. the translation of living matter into inert, inert - by depriving the form - into amorphous, and this latter is easily amenable to annihilation, which is the goal of the advocates of the antisystem.

This concept does not arise among ethnic groups (a positive worldview system operates among ethnic groups, which allows the ethnic group to exist, drawing strength from the natural wealth of its region), but at their junctions, and spreads through zones of ethnic contacts — that is, a negative attitude needs direct distributors (immigrants, merchants, travelers, etc.) and in solid carriers, i.e. written text. Anti-systems of ethnic groups do not form - they nest in the bodies of ethnic groups, like cancerous tumors in the bodies of living organisms, negative teachings do not spread as a “living” tradition, assimilated during child education, but only through the process of teaching traditions “made”, i.e. recorded, "book".

Therefore, anti-systems exist for a very long time, changing their capacities - doomed ethnic groups. Sometimes they reappear where two or three ethnic stereotypes overlap. And if they have to change with the symbol of faith and the dogma of religion - it does not matter. The principle of striving for destruction remains the same. ”(Lev Gumilev -“ Ancient Russia and the Great Steppe ”)

If you carefully read Gumilev’s thoughts, the chain of Ukrainian history fits perfectly into the framework of the “anti-system”.

The origin of "Ukraine is not Russia" in the minds of the inhabitants of Ukraine-Russia occurred during the last 400 years. The prologue for this process was the Brest Church Union (1596), which fixed the decision of a number of bishops of the Orthodox West Russian Kiev Metropolis, headed by Metropolitan Mikhail Rogoza, about adopting Catholic dogma and switching to submission to the Pope, while maintaining the worship service of the Byzantine tradition. The union actually split the society, predetermined the transition of the Ukrainian elite under the patronage of Poland, the Pope, the Western European superethnos (a community of the scale of many states, united by a common ideology, behavioral stereotypes). The first injection of the Uniate anti-system was the defeat of the hierarchy of the Orthodox Church in the Ukrainian lands. The decapitated church could not keep part of its flock from participating in the intervention against the Russian kingdom at the time of the Troubles.

During the 300 years, the Ukrainian anti-system developed rather inconsistently. She was fed by the passionate (effective, passionate) surge of Cossack riots, the Polish-Russian wars, the separatism of the local elite, etc. But the main trend-assimilation with Russia was out of competition. It is not a matter of the force domination of Muscovy, about which svidomits love to spread, but of a global passionate surge of the entire Russian civilization. The peoples of the Center and suburbs combined the strategy of moving to the Black Sea, eliminating threats (Turkey and the Crimean Khanate), developing new lands, and getting new opportunities from colonization. The main center of the anti-system, Uniate Galicia, was isolated from the Russian world by new borders established after the partition of Poland.

The revolutionary upsurge in Europe in the 40-s of the nineteenth century, awakened democratic sentiment in Russia, is experiencing a crisis of feudal capitalism. On the outskirts, a surge of discontent with autocracy among the passionate intellectuals led to the search for models of freedom in the historical past. The term “Ukraine-Rus” is born, where the significance of the concept “Ukraine” has increased, and the word itself has been perceived not only as a geographical term, but partly as the name of an ethnic space. This became especially noticeable by the end of the XIX century. At the turn of the XIX and XX centuries, the term "Ukraine" as the name of the entire ethnic territory became completely independent and self-sufficient, displacing other self-names that have since been used only at the regional level. In the course of the struggle of Ukrainians against the Little Russian identity, he began to compete with the official and ecclesiastical term Little Russia, displacing it finally in the 1920-ies in connection with the Bolshevik policy of Ukrainization.

Many researchers portray T.G. Shevchenko, as a fighter for Ukrainian independence, but the study of the poet’s creativity gives an idea of ​​his dream of freedom for the inhabitants of the region, and not of the creation of an “okramoa power”. Sovereigns appeared later, when the liberation wars in the Balkans led to the emergence of independent Slavic states. The wave of Slavophilism with a revolutionary inclination resulted in the idea of ​​liberation from autocracy, which was associated with the Russian people and Orthodoxy, proceeding from the official triad of the times of Nicholas I "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality". The antisystemic surge in the ranks of the Ukrainian provincials was picked up by Austria-Hungary and Poland (divided but not deprived of expansionist sentiments towards the "eastern creases").

The Austrian authorities officially renamed the Russian Galicians to Ruthen. People just said that from today they are Ruthenians, not Russians, Russians - those in Russia. The formation of anti-Russian Rus began. The struggle with the Russian literary language, with Russian books has intensified - the spread of both was equal to treason, many Russian patriots were imprisoned. Under the auspices of the government, a "Ukrainian" party emerged, splitting the unity of the Russians in the Carpathian region. The national doctrine of this movement was Russophobia.

The Austrian government "writes out" to M.Grushevsky’s Lviv, which has three tasks:
1) create Ukrainian literary language, perhaps less similar to Russian;
2) remake the history of Little Russia so that it ceases to be part of the history of the Russian people;
3) to form the core of the "Ukrainian" intelligentsia, who hates Russia, the ideal of which would be to tear Little Russia from Russia and to include it in the Austrian Empire.

Of course, it is impossible in a short study to reveal the entire scope of M. Hrushevsky's activities, he worked very hard. The History of Rus-Ukraine written by him is replete with references to “Ukrainian princes”, “Ukrainians”, etc. At first, the provincial historian’s unbridled imagination caused laughter and indignation not only among Russians, but also among European scholars (the French refused when, instead of Russian history, he began discovering Ukrainian history). There is not even a hint about Ukraine and Ukrainians in historical science, in chronicles and historical documents, all of a sudden - op, and "Russia-Ukraine", "Russian-Ukrainian" language appears. Then the word "Rus", "Russian" can be rejected and will remain "Ukraine", "Ukrainian", "Ukrainians". Ukrainian historical metamorphoses, rejected by all serious scientists, migrated to the world of public opinion Russophobic forces.

In 1900, Grushevsky managed to unite almost all the figures of "Ukrainians" in Galicia into a national democratic party. In 1909, a “All-Ukrainian” congress was held in Lviv, at which a memorandum to the Viennese government on the possibility of separating the entire Little Russian part of the Russian people through agitation of the Galician “Ukrainians” was developed. Introduced into the consciousness of the habit of calling the Ukrainians Ukrainians.
Hrushevsky recognized that "Ukrainians" are not a nation, but "one should be willing to be a nation, all efforts should be devoted to this direction, all public funds should be moved in order to process the potential energy of ethnographic existence into the dynamics of national development." The goal is the same - the split of the Russian people. An ally of Austria-Hungary, Germany also hatched plans to weaken Russia before the decisive battles. A branch was set up in the German General Staff, which dealt with "Ukrainian" affairs. From the first year of World War I, the captive Little Russians were isolated in special camps, where they were subjected to "Ukrainization". Returning to 1918 in Little Russia, they became the main instrument for the spread of Ukrainian ideology among the peasantry.

By 1917, the entire Ukrainian (Russophobic) ideology was formed and spread in passionary circles. First of all, she walked freely among radical revolutionaries. Why did the fighters against autocracy accept the nationalists in their circle? First of all, the kinship of souls affected: both those and others are the passionaries of the Antisystem (active people who overcome the fear of death). From their point of view, any destroyers of the old foundations are allies.

The paths of the Bolsheviks and the independent supporters temporarily diverged at the time of the civil war, but soon they again needed each other. Having conquered the space of the former Russian Empire, the Bolsheviks faced the problem of how to establish management. The ideas of internationalism functioned well during the war, but they did not work in peacetime, when it was necessary to create. Lenin and his comrades-in-arms had the idea that after the revolution each nation would receive the right to self-determination and the course of events demonstrated the mass escape of nations from the empire. In fact, the Bolsheviks were left alone with the Russian people and felt the threat of counter-revolution. To protect themselves Communist anti-system resorted to maneuver. She built the USSR-state conglomerate, in which Russia counterbalanced anti-systems in the form of the Union and autonomous republics.

In order to consolidate power, the Bolsheviks took up the implementation of a program of indigenization — replacing the Russian language with the languages ​​of national minorities in administration, education, and the cultural sphere. In Ukraine, this program is called Ukrainization. In April, 1923, the XII Congress of the RCP (B.), Announced the indigenization of the official course of the party in the national question. In the same month, the VII Conference of the CP (B) U declared a policy of Ukrainization, that the Ukrainian CEC and Council of People's Commissars immediately issued decrees. It was decided to Ukrainize government agencies and enterprises, which was planned to finish before January 1 1926. All workers and employees of enterprises and institutions were obliged to learn the Ukrainian language under the threat of dismissal from work.

With active pressure KP (b) U, in 1920-x - the beginning of 1930-s, Ukrainization of the Kuban, Stavropol Territory, part of the North Caucasus, Kursk and Voronezh Region of the RSFSR, historically inhabited by people from Ukraine, was carried out. In the form of an order, schools, organizations, enterprises, newspapers were translated into Ukrainian language of instruction and communication. Ukrainization affected a number of regions of Northern Kazakhstan, which at that time was an autonomy within the RSFSR. So, almost all schools of the Fedorovsky district of Kustanai district in 1930-1932. were translated into Ukrainian, and the Ukrainization itself in the area was assigned to the Kharkov Obkom Party.

Ukrainian nationalists are again in trend. They were given at the mercy of not only Little Russia, but also the vast territories of Novorossia and the Don Army. To strengthen the Ukrainian Bolsheviks called upon M. Hrushevsky from emigration. The enemy of the whole Russian led the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences to its natural demise (1934). And believe me, he was not silent.

The result of Ukrainization manifested itself soon enough. It could be seen in the practice of re-issuing documents, where Russian (and very often a Jew) were recorded by Ukrainians, changed their names to “correct”, in the appearance of intelligentsia corrupted by national privileges, etc. In the ranks of the Communist Party of Ukraine there was a mass flight to the Ukrainians.

The blitzkrieg of the Ukrainian Bolshevik project was stopped by the Stalinist repressions of 1937. At that moment, it became clear to Stalin that the zealous Kosior and Quiringa began to play and created the conditions for the manifestation of Ukrainian opposition.
The Leader’s temporary cooling in relation to the Ukrainian project was replaced by the euphoria of 1939, when the USSR annexed Eastern Poland. The reunification of Western and Eastern Ukraine turned into a tragedy for the Poles. They were pushed out of all spheres of public life and set the stage for repression within post-war Poland.

The Great Patriotic War showed that the rate of the Bolsheviks to build anti-systems was erroneous and disastrous for the USSR. Citizens of the autonomies impregnated with the nationalist spirit massively betrayed their country, cooperating with the fascists. A new phenomenon, “traitor nations,” appeared, as small peoples of the Caucasus and Crimea were christened for their loyalty to the invaders. Stalin even resorted to mass relocations, deportations. Their goal was not only to demonstrate the inevitability of punishment for treason, but also to conduct a social experiment on re-education. The Stalinist regime deprived the antisystem of the natural environment (landscape) and sought to assimilate it. It must be said that such a genocide did not bring the communists any deliverance from the problems of destruction on the part of anti-systems, but on the contrary raised passionaries ready to destroy the Soviet homeland.

Ukrainian Nationalists have become the most implacable and bloody against the general background of the collaborationism of Soviet citizens. The scale of Ukrainian collaborationism (as well as the collaborationism of other peoples of the USSR) has long been one of the secrets of Soviet post-war ideology. At the same time, according to the data of the German command and the estimates of Russian historians, only the number of Ukrainian legionaries who were part of the armed forces on the German side (Wehrmacht, SS troops, police) was 250 thousand. Mass Ukrainian betrayal was manifested in various forms of assistance and cooperation of ethnic Ukrainians with the Nazis, from participation in sabotage and reconnaissance units, administration structures and police in the territory occupied by the Third Reich, service in the ranks of the Wehrmacht and the SS, in a voluntary a priesthood in the destruction of the Communists, Jews, soldiers of the Red Army, caught in the environment, and other persons.

Stalin could not punish the second largest people in the Soviet state, but he did draw conclusions. It seems that his famous toast to the Victory “For the Russian people!” Became an emotion in which one felt the desire to tell the truth, the womb to all peoples of the USSR regarding who made the decisive contribution to defeating the enemy.

After World War 2, the development of the Ukrainian anti-system became the work of the Cold War fighters. The West has created an informational Ukrainian front that for 46 years has been preparing public opinion not only for independence, but also for the struggle against everything Russian.

The Communists helped them in many ways: inefficiency of the economy, flirting with Ukrainian identity, relying on national cadres, asserting myths about Russia — the prison of nations, the Crimean gift ... The Ukrainian language remained a priority in education, and in the culture of the hopack, invented by the incomparable I. Moses and implanted in the minds of ordinary people as a contribution of Ukraine to the world ballet art.

It would be wrong to portray Ukraine as a continuous destructive territory. Ukraine, rich in resources and people, located in a comfortable for living climate, has received priority development within the Union State. The standard of living of the republic, based on powerful industry and developed agriculture, was the highest in the country. The high standard of living of Ukrainians brought them to the leading positions in all spheres of life. After Stalin, only Andropov was a man formed outside the system of Ukrainian culture. For Ukrainians, the concept of our Pacific Ocean, our Siberia, is not a passage of a humorist, but a part of beliefs. Soviet globalization began to seriously threaten the sentiments of Ukrainian separatism. People actively moved around the country, entered into inter-ethnic marriages, recognized the Russian language as the most useful and ignored the “mova”.

The collapse of the USSR- destroyed a gigantic country, which was built as an anti-system in relation to Russia, and made it possible for all the subjects of this entity to leave its rotten shell.

To a certain extent, independence for Ukraine was a surprise. The people didn’t really want it, but the passionate groups from the Soviet-party nomenklatura, cooperators, athletes, and national minorities were already rushing towards the “independent” seizure of public property in their favor. The decisive contribution to the change of public opinion in favor of an independent Ukraine was made by the passionaries of the Ukrainian anti-system. Combined in the RUH, they force ultimatums to impose sovereignty and inculcate the ideology of the anti-Russian spirit in the policies of the Ukrainian state. Its first conductor was a communist, the main ideologist of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine L. Kravchuk. All his life as a communist, he denied the value of Russian civilization, associating it with tsarist Russia and the new role of the president provided an opportunity to develop the theme. Anti-Russian Kravchuk caused concern to many. And the Russians and Ukrainians in the majority are not yet accustomed to Russophobia. L. Kravchuk paid with losing elections and going into the shadows, where he still feels comfortable as an arbitrator, albeit with protruding ears of a Russophobe. L. Kuchma inspired hope of finding harmony in relations with Russia, but soon his multi-vector policy acquired the character of giving up positions in the West and dependency in the East. In his reign, there was a "capture" of the capital of Kiev by numerous immigrants from Lviv, Ternopil, Ivano-Frankivsk. Kuchma soon realized that without ideology it was impossible to take root, and since he and his party did not have it, the idea of ​​the Ukrainian anti-system came to court. Since then, the Ukrainian Olympus has been in the thrall of Russophobic culture.

The final victory over the Russian consciousness was hindered by the historical memory of the people and the numerical superiority of the Russian-speaking (Russians). That just did not do with this grief nationalists and power. The first blow was the census of 2001, when the number of Russians was dramatically reduced by fraud - by 26,6 percent over 12 years. And then the practice of manipulating numbers became total and inconsolable for supporters of everything Russian, if it goes like this, then soon everyone will have good news about the last Russian in the open spaces of Ukraine (in the local history textbooks they will be mentioned along with the Pechenegs and Polovtsy). It was more difficult to erase historical memory, but even here the 23-year-old drip on the brain gives the result - more and more the thought of reconciliation and forgiveness appears in favor of those who shot in the back, tightened the noose around his neck, burned partisan villages.

The final sabotage of Kuchma against the Russian world was the operation “Yanukovich”, the essence of which is to discredit the Russian Ukraine by imposing on it a clumsy, poorly educated, criminal-related politician. The venture was a success in 2004. Orange Yushchenko’s Sabbath - Tymoshenko wrested power from moderates and sent the country towards the Western world. The events of the Orange Revolution stirred up the public Russophile forces and even showed individuals capable of leading the fight against the anti-system, but they were immediately pushed back from politics and even physically eliminated. Talk about why in Ukraine there are no pro-Russian political forces please with naivety. This is similar to the accusation addressed to the German proletariat, voiced by Soviet philistines during the Great Patriotic War: why would the German workers not rise to the fight against fascism?

Almost 23 of the year is trampling the Russian world in Ukraine. All (ALL) school education is translated into Ukrainian. All (ALL) Russian-speaking, the most powerful and conscientious teachers are expelled. At the lessons of history, literature carry such crap that children come home and Russian father and mother declare that they are not Russians, but Ukrainians. All (ALL) opinion polls were falsified throughout the era of independence. A case in point is the number of Russian speakers in the country. The nationwide census of the population of 2001 of the year states that Russian is native to 29,6% of the country's population. These data did not dare to deny any Ukrainian sociologist, except ... Americans. According to Gallup in Ukraine, the Russian language is native to 83% of the population (the article "Russian Language Enjoying a Boost in the Post-Soviet States" on the Gallup website.).

The crisis of 2013-2014. in Ukraine was the crisis of the Ukrainian anti-system. Its essence is in a deep spiritual crisis, when everyone hates each other, but lives, suffers and waits. The choice of Ukraine cannot be multi-vector, because, thanks to the policies of recent years, it has remained without roots and can only exist as part of someone’s system: either Russian or European.
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  1. Vladimir.z.
    Vladimir.z. 8 February 2014 07: 20
    The tops can’t, but the lower classes don’t want to endure + Wishlist of near and distant neighbors are superimposed on all this - these are revolutionary situations ....
  2. makarov
    makarov 8 February 2014 07: 55
    and yet ... it was much easier for me to read and perceive Gumilyov’s works than the author’s calculations ... everything is too unsteady set out.
    1. Semurg
      Semurg 8 February 2014 10: 16
      There was an intelligent man Gumilyov who put forward a new theory of passionarity with which he tried to trace the laws of the appearance, cycle of life, the disappearance of peoples. Well, the author of the article is trying to put this theory into practice in relation to the Ukrainians, which does not work out very well for him, as it seems to me that he himself has not yet answered the main question, are Ukrainians Russians living on the outskirts (like Siberians, Urals) or a separate people .
    2. The comment was deleted.
  3. washi
    washi 8 February 2014 08: 53
    Quote: makarov
    and yet ... it was much easier for me to read and perceive Gumilyov’s works than the author’s calculations ... everything is too unsteady set out.

    But in my opinion everything is clear.
    Ukraine is an artificial entity created since the Middle Ages to counter Russia. The saddest thing, consisting mostly of ethnic Russians subjected to psychological reformatting.
    1. Egoza
      Egoza 8 February 2014 09: 48
      Quote: Vasya
      Ukraine is an artificial entity created since the Middle Ages to counter Russia.

      Vasya! Well, what the Middle Ages! The very name of the nationality appeared only at the end of the 18th century! And the author largely "flew away" in his pathetic assurances.
      First, Hrushevsky did not know the Ukrainian language at all and was never able to master it, which he himself wrote about. As if he was "discharged to create a literary Ukrainian". Secondly, the hopak, as a folk dance, really existed. Virsky was the first to "ennoble" him, and then Moiseev. And there are many such mistakes in the article.
  4. rosomir
    rosomir 8 February 2014 09: 13
    All this scribble is dog bullshit, nonsense of an inflamed brain ..... I don’t give a damn about this Rygan: I am a Ukrainian and a patriot of Ukraine .... and whoever doesn’t like it, drink cold water and calm down ....
  5. TOR70
    TOR70 8 February 2014 12: 52
    There is a concept of substitution of concepts. Before Peter 1, modern Russia was called Muscovy. Accordingly, the inhabitants of Muscovy were called Muscovites, and the Principality of Lithuania was Rus. The territory of the right-bank Ukraine was part of the Principality of Lithuania. So the inhabitants of this territory were Russian.
    1. Bigriver
      Bigriver 8 February 2014 14: 07
      Quote: TOR70
      ... Before Peter 1, modern Russia was called Muscovy. Accordingly, the Muscovites were called Muscovites, ..

      Dear, who called Russia Muscovy?
      Before you write any nonsense, you would ask, for example, how the full title of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich sounded.
  6. Cristall
    Cristall 8 February 2014 15: 37
    Well, even in Peter 1 (Tolstoy) I see the name Muscovy and Muscovites. Yes, and in other novels and sources. Yes, not the point.
    Prince Rusinov-Khmel wrote so, in general, you can emphasize the fact that Ukrainians are Ruthenians, and Russian Ruthenians. And in general, to dance with a tambourine, who is cooler and who is the outskirts, and who is not.
    As it was customary in the definition of who is older, who is more important, who has more rights and divides us, rather than unites us. Someone says that the outskirts is the name of Ukraine, someone is the other way around, someone is offended, someone is not. All this shares! But does not unite. And I look at the articles are no longer aimed at unification and the dispute. An argument that divides. Like most hot articles that were submitted precisely to provoke a dispute. By the way, families break up precisely because of disputes (in everyday life) and quarrels.
    I personally do not want to argue who is older and who was a good person.
  7. shelva
    shelva 8 February 2014 19: 45
    Gumilyov, as a scientist, ethnographer, often used a specific language rich in terms in his scientific works, but he was able to convey the essence of his research in a popular form, rightly believing that not everyone who is interested in the history of his people is ethnographers.
    It should be simpler, but easier with the same L. Gumilyov about Early Russia, Kievan Rus, Vladimir and beyond.
  8. Boris Dneprov1
    25 February 2014 12: 35
    The comments show that people live with their eyes closed. Russians wake up.