Military Review

The eternal Ruin. From Ancient Rus to Maidan

23
“Gomonila Ukraine,
Dovgo gomonila,

Dovgo, Dovgo shelter steppe
Tekla-Chervonil
Flowed, flowed th visohla.
Steppes are green;
Lie and lie above them
The graves are blued.
What about that temple? ... ”

T.G. Shevchenko, excerpt from the poem "Gaydamaki."



Today’s events in Ukraine worry the masses not only in Russia and in nearby countries, but throughout the world. What caused such a heightened interest, considering that similar revolutionary processes were already taking place in other CIS countries, such as Kyrgyzstan? There are many answers to this question, but the most rational explanation for this is the civilizational and significant geopolitical position of Ukraine. These factors determine the distribution of political and cultural influences among the main players in the international arena in the Eastern European region. Meanwhile, one of the main features of the entire social and political life of Ukraine is its cultural and civilizational fragmentation, which passes through a crack throughout its historystarting with the collapse of the Old Russian State and the Mongol-Tatar invasion, which actually put an end to a single political and cultural space, ending the current national revolution. Analyzing this difficult question, we will have to plunge into the very depths of the centuries, because it is there that lie the causes of the eternal split of Ukraine, and there are also plots, interpretations of which will have colossal consequences.

Galician-Volyn principality founded by Roman Mstislavovich in 1199 year after the unification of Galicia and Volhynia, which Kiev was later joined, was considered the first state to pave the way to the connection of the Eastern Slavs with the Western European Catholic civilization. The prince dreamed of uniting under his power also the southeastern principalities, which at that time were in a state of cruel feudal wars. After the death of Roman Mstislavovich Galician-Volyn principality disintegrated, but his son Daniel Galitsky managed to revive it and continue the consolidation of the Russian lands under his rule. However, the Mongol-Tatar invasion put an end to his plans and put in front of him a cruel choice of civilization scale. The deterioration of relations with the Golden Horde and the desire for independence pushed him to seek support from the Catholic world. Pope Innocent VI offered him a royal title and a declaration of a crusade against the Horde in exchange for his conversion to Catholicism of Galicia-Volyn Rus. However, the crusade was no more than a declaration, and Prince Daniel broke off relations with the papal throne, while retaining the royal title, which was inherited by his descendants. Further, Galitsko-Volyn Rus due to the contradictions between the boyars and princes, as well as the internal economic crisis was divided between Poland and Lithuania in the middle of the XIV century, as well as Hungary and Moldova. The principality that has sunk into oblivion will become for the Ukrainian nationalists something of a ruined Jerusalem for the Jews, which confirms the existence of mythological thinking, “longing for a lost paradise” in people, regardless of the era in which they live. So, the soldiers of the SS division "Galicia" wore the coat of arms of Galician Russia on their sleeves and collars.

In the course of the confrontation of Lithuania with Muscovy and Sweden, Lithuanians were forced to conclude Krevsk Union with Poland (1385), thereby forming a powerful and extensive state of the Principality of Poland and Lithuania. Within this formation, there was a struggle between the Lithuanian and Polish noble families, during which the Polish influence became predominant. This radically changed the state of affairs in the Ruthenian lands, primarily in relation to the peasantry and in the religious sphere. During the period of Lithuanian domination, the peasants remained free, and the pagan Lithuanians were tolerant towards Orthodoxy, and, moreover, they learned a lot from the heritage of the Old Russian state, including legislation and the state language, because decrees were issued in Old Russian and a different administrative activity. The Poles began to lead a rigid linguistic and religious expansion, and after the Union of Lublin (1569) they completely fastened the peasants. From this point on, the Ruthenian language and culture begin to experience strong Polish influence, and the Ruthenian lands lose autonomy. Social and cultural contradictions are brewing in society, including among the Ruthenian nobility, who surrendered their political positions. Soon, scattered uprisings began to flare up, which did not differ in special scale and high organization, and therefore were quickly suppressed. Having failed in their struggle, the Ruthenians of noble origin abandoned their further attempts to liberate their people and began to adopt the culture and religion of the conquerors, forming the so-called “Ukrainian gentry”.

The peasants, in contrast to the nobility, were less susceptible to assimilation, and therefore preserved their cultural identity and self-consciousness. The brutal exploitation forced some of them to flee from their landlords down the Dnieper to the border of Wild Field itself, where they settled in the villages of local hunters and fishermen. They had to repel the constant raids of the Crimean Tatars and Turks, and soon they themselves began to go on predatory campaigns against their opponents. Such a state of affairs was beneficial to the Polish-Ukrainian magnates, since the local residents actually guarded their possessions from Muslim raids. This is how the Zaporizhzhya Sich appeared and the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks were formed, whose cultural heritage formed the basis of the concept of the Ukrainian nation. The Cossacks became the spokesmen for the will of the non-polonized part of the Ruthenian lands, and therefore their numbers continued to grow steadily. Having strengthened their campaigns against the Tatars and Turks, at the end of the 16th century, the Cossacks began a struggle against the Polish authorities, during which they achieved an improvement in their legal and political position. The relations of the Cossacks with Russia were distinguished by their ambiguity, because they participated in the Polish intervention 1609-1618. to Muscovy, during which they were distinguished by a particular tendency to robbery, looting and cruel treatment of the local population. However, by the middle of the 17th century, military-political ties with Russia were strengthened, as evidenced by the Azov Seat, during which Don and Zaporozhye Cossacks jointly defended the Azov fortress from the Turkish siege.

It is interesting that among the Cossack elders opinions about international politics were very different: in addition to the supporters of the Polish and Russian directions, there were even those who considered the citizenship of the Turkish sultan acceptable. Such a fluctuation in international relations will be typical for Ukrainians throughout their subsequent history up to the current events. The uprising of Bogdan Khmelnitsky, supported by Russia, besides the fact that it liberated most of Ukraine from the Poles, created an autonomous, but subordinate to the tsar, semi-state formation. However, things did not go so smoothly. The Vilna truce of Muscovy and Poland part of the Cossack elders and the hetman himself was perceived as a betrayal of the struggle for the liberation of the “Ruthenian” lands, which were still part of Poland. Because of this, after the death of B. Khmelnitsky in the glorious lands of Kievan Rus, another schism occurs: Hetmanate split into Right Bank and Left Bank (loyal to the Tsar), and this schism was accompanied by civil war. Soon the Right Bank Hetmanate fell after hetman P. Doroshenko abdicated, and Poland again seized the Right Bank Ukraine, forcing the Cossacks to serve the king. This period of Ukrainian history was called “Ruin”. But soon the Andrusovo truce after the next Russian-Polish war, the Ukrainian lands were almost completely reunited. The betrayal of Hetman Mazepa (1709), who was originally an Orthodox Polish nobleman, was in essence the last attempt to escape from the influence of Russia, however, most of the Cossacks made their civilization choice not in his favor. For their part, the Russian tsars made it impossible for Ukrainians to break away from the Eastern Slavic integrity that was created: Peter I actually deprived the Sich of autonomy, and Catherine II completely destroyed it, and the Cossacks resettled in the Kuban. These measures for a long time prevented the emergence of Ukrainian statehood, born in the crucible of wars with the Ottomans and Poland. Measures to subordinate, and then the collapse of the Zaporizhzhya Sich, were purely political and managerial in nature, because the Cossacks, for all their loyalty to the Russian throne, still remained extremely unstable and inclined to change their political preferences depending on the situation. The dissolution of the Sich became an excellent reason for Ukrainian nationalist historians to speak almost of the genocide of the Ukrainian people with “cursed Muscovites”, trying to impart a national color to these events.

Minor parts of the Old Russian state continued to be part of Poland (Galicia, Volyn) and Hungary (Uzhgorod), which then came under the rule of Austria after the partition of Poland at the end of the 18th century. It turns out that before the 20th century, these parts of Ukraine were cut off from the rest, which explains their cultural identity. Galicia and Volyn are particularly Europeanized. Most of the inhabitants of these regions profess Uniatism. Uniatism is the recognition of the power of the Pope while preserving the Orthodox rite, this form of Christianity contains the same duality and synthetics that are inherent in Ukraine. Just look at the architecture of the historic part of Lviv or Ivano-Frankivsk to feel the strongest Polish and German influences on local culture. However, with all this influence, the Ukrainians retained their separateness and self-consciousness. This was facilitated by the hard feudal oppression from the Poles, who laid down on the shoulders of the peasants and caused an increase in self-consciousness, resulting in mass rebellions of the Haidamaks in the 18th century. These events will be celebrated in Ukrainian literature XIX and will also form the foundation of Ukrainian identity. It is worth noting that the Russian Empire during these uprisings behaved completely "not fraternal", helping the Poles in its suppression.

At the end of the XVIII century, for the first time, the literary work “Aeneid” appeared, using the popular Ukrainian language as a literary, written by I. Kotlyarevsky, who lived in the territory of the Russian Empire. His business was continued by many other representatives of the emerging intelligentsia of Ukrainian origin. The genesis of Ukrainian nationalism, which may seem strange to someone, developed according to a completely classical pattern: first, a manifestation of interest in folk culture and the formation of a literary language based on the folk (T.Shevchenko’s creativity is an example), then on this basis the concept of the nation is created — the emergence of a secret Cyril and Methodius Society in Kiev, a political program which demanded the liberation of Ukraine from the power of Russia. And then the practice follows; part of the Ukrainian intelligentsia and the peasantry supported the Polish uprisings, during which they hoped to gain independence and overthrow the oppression of the serfs. Note that all this happened exactly on Russian territory. In Western Ukraine, which was ruled by Austria-Hungary, similar processes took place at the same time. Western Ukrainian nationalism has one remarkable feature, unchanged up to the 20 century: a significant part of its ideologues were children of Greek Catholic priests. The national movement of Ukrainians of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was divided into two main opposing directions: “narodovtsy”, advocating an independent Ukraine, and “Muscovites” who did not recognize the existence of the Ukrainian language and dreamed of “a single Russian nation from the Carpathians to Kamchatka”. These Russophiles were actively supported by the Russian Empire and were pursued by the Austrian authorities. During the First World War, almost all of them were destroyed in concentration camps, while the Germans fought against the Russian army on the side of the so-called “usus”, or “Ukrainian Sich Riflemen”.

The author of the anthem of Ukraine, which today is the state one and under which was escorted to the last journey of a UNA-UNSO fighter killed on the Maidan, was characteristically a Uniate priest. An interesting verse, which is present in the original version of the hymn:

"Oh Bogdane, Bogdane
Glory our getmane!
На-що віддавъ Украіну
Moskal trash ?!
Schob return and honor
Bark heads
Let's call Ukraine
Vrnim sinami! ”


As we can see, the Ukrainian identity of the Austro-Hungarian model is based on the opposition of the “Muscovites”. Today it is one of the main tenets of Ukrainian nationalism, in order to make sure of this, it is enough to listen to the recent Maidan speeches of Irina Fahrion, a former party member of the CPSU, who suddenly became a radical supporter of “independence” and a member of the Verkhovna Rada of the Freedom Party. In one of them, she openly declares that “Muscovy” is the enemy of the Ukrainians “number one”. Western regions are traditionally more politically active than the eastern, and therefore the presidents of Ukraine have to listen to them. A significant part of the first participants in the clashes with the "Berkut" were the residents of Western Ukraine.

As in the 17th century, Ukraine is an oligarchic state, but the center of power is shifted to the East from the point of view of the economy. Due to the industrial development of the South-East, all large business is located there, while only the agricultural sector is developed in the western regions. During a meeting with the newly-emerged representative of big business, the country's president, Leonid Kravchuk, asked them a question: “What kind of Ukraine do you want to build?”, But did not receive a clear answer. With all the economic power of the East, he remains politically passive. However, these ideas do not have significant support among representatives of Eastern Ukrainian regions, and sometimes they meet resistance. Today, this is explained not only by the fact that there are more Russians among them and traditionally strong Russian cultural and linguistic influence, but also their strong Sovietization. If they take part in anti-government speeches at all, it is usually solely due to dissatisfaction with corrupt government, and not a heightened national identity. In fact, “Ukrainianship” in Ukraine is a matter of purely self-awareness, because even the most radical Ukrainian nationalists can meet many people with Russian names and surnames, while speaking exclusively Ukrainian and even chanting “Muscovites with knives!” Without experiencing no cognitive dissonance from apparent contradiction. In short, the border between Russians and Ukrainians exists only in the head. More M.A. Bulgakov in the “White Guard” ridiculed the opportunists who changed Russian names into Ukrainian and suddenly became “Sirii Ukrainians” in order to please the Petliura power.

Observing what is happening in Kiev, the Russians were divided in opinions and occupied different sides: on the one hand, there is a national revolution taking place that nationalists dream of, on the other hand it is its participants, professing sometimes completely Russophobic ideas. We must give ourselves an impartial report that as long as the Ukrainian identity exists, among the part of its carriers will be the rejection of Russians and Russia without fail. Ukraine will always contain elements of Western European civilization, which will forever crack in its territorial and civil integrity. Perhaps we are present at the demise of the neighboring state, created from culturally diverse elements, and soon after its collapse its parts will draw almost constant poles of Eastern European politics. For us, the most important thing is to extract valuable experience from what is happening and not to rush to conclusions.
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  1. ArhipenkoAndrey
    ArhipenkoAndrey 6 February 2014 07: 59
    +9
    I agree with the article until the Ukrainians understand that the Ukrainian nationality was artificially created specifically for drilling along the borders (outskirts) of Russia, and it’s taken from Pshek terms to come up with their own, until the outskirts will celebrate a ball and tear apart territories of various kinds of corrupt nationalists (more active, they do not need to plow and sow, work in factories, they are paid for robbing the country), being an instrument for ruining their lands, and this will continue until the outskirts join again and become a great and strong country, because the tear begins when the outskirts are disconnected and become a bastard virtually defenseless against Western progressors, and the peoples of Ukraine should have felt their love over the centuries.
    1. Nicholas C.
      Nicholas C. 6 February 2014 10: 00
      +12
      The article is too vulgar and too far from historicity. This, apparently, alas, is now the level of education in Ukraine. It is an ungrateful affair to create an article about Russian history from entirely anti-Russian myths. I only have enough for a couple of moments.

      Quote: Author Artemy Stepanov
      The first state that paved the way for the unification of the Eastern Slavs with the West European Catholic civilization can be considered the Principality of Galicia-Volyn

      How the "first state" paved the way to "Catholic civilization" is not clear from the article. I will note that the Galician and Volyn Orthodox hierarchs did not even participate in the relations of Daniel Galitsky with the Pope and his representatives. At that time they were at the forefront of the all-Russian metropolis. The union took place much later - in Brest in 1595, when the Poles were able to: 1) physically annex this land to Lithuania after the Union of Lublin, 2) “persuade” the local hierarchs to integrate with fire, sword and bribery. By the way, the Lvov and Przemysl dioceses were the last to surrender.

      Quote: Author Artemy Stepanov
      During the confrontation between Lithuania and Muscovy and Sweden, the Lithuanians were forced to conclude the Krevsk Union with Poland (1385), thereby forming a powerful and vast state of the Principality of Poland and Lithuania. Within this formation ...

      You already decide what was there: the kingdom, the principality, or, like his devil, the formation. The Kreva Union is just a dynastic union about the accession of Jagaila to the Polish throne. He gave the Poles some promises, but could not fulfill. Lithuania then did not lose any signs of the state. Unification occurred much later in the Union of Lublin.

      Quote: Author Artemy Stepanov
      and after the Union of Lublin (1569) they completely enslaved the peasants

      Serfdom in Lithuania was long before that. See, starting with the first printed document - the priest of Casimir of the year 1447. In Lithuania there was even that which was not in Muscovite Russia, which the author calls Muscovy in accordance with the Austrian Jesuit installation. Russia itself did not call itself so. There was slavery in Lithuania too !!

      Quote: Author Artemy Stepanov
      ... It’s the autonomy, and Catherine II completely destroyed it, and the Cossacks resettled in the Kuban.

      The Cossacks moved along with the border, which under Catherine moved to the Kuban. All Cossack troops were located and served along the borders of the empire, and not inside. It is obvious.
      PS. And what kind of lads who supposedly remained? Well, don’t you dress up? - Like all Ukrainian statehood.
      1. Sakmagon
        Sakmagon 6 February 2014 10: 10
        +9
        The article is too vulgar and too far from historicity.

        I agree completely.
        These are all their series - "WE ARE TEACHED A LITTLE SOMETHING AND SOMEONE"... The author tries to convince that "For us the most important thing extract valuable experience from what is happening and not rush to conclusions"
        DO NOT HURRY!!! ... with the rejection of the Nazi coup ... pogroms and arson ... murders ... occupation and coercion ... "reprogramming", and in case of refusal - the enslavement or expulsion of our loved ones, and for many - AND KIND!
      2. zzz
        zzz 6 February 2014 10: 18
        +1
        Quote: Nikolai S.
        The article is too vulgar and too far from historicity. This, apparently, alas, is now the level of education in Ukraine. It is an ungrateful affair to create an article about Russian history from entirely anti-Russian myths. I only have enough for a couple of moments.



        And here's how you like it ?!: After the death of Roman Mstislavovich, the Principality of Galicia-Volyn collapsed, but his son Daniil Galitsky managed to revive him and continue to consolidate Russian lands under his authority.
        1. Nicholas C.
          Nicholas C. 6 February 2014 10: 28
          +2
          Quote: zzz
          Daniil Galitsky managed to revive him and continue consolidation Russian lands


          What's wrong here? Daniil Galitsky - Russian prince!
          Or are there other versions?
          1. zzz
            zzz 6 February 2014 11: 01
            0
            Quote: Nikolai S.
            What's wrong here? Daniil Galitsky - Russian prince!
            Or are there other versions?


            Well, firstly, I did not deny it, I quoted lines from the article "Daniil Galitsky managed to revive it and continue the consolidation of Russian lands ". But there are other historical data: Daniil Romanovich Galitsky converted to the Latin faith and accepted the royal crown, becoming the first king among princes in Russia.
            1. zzz
              zzz 6 February 2014 11: 04
              +2
              At first, he was praised for many years as the most ardent fighter in Russia with the Mongol-Tatar yoke. And at this time, Alexander Nevsky was called a fighter with the Western invaders, each, it turned out, his own. And in recent years, when they somehow doubted this yoke, Galitsky turned into the banner of unification with the West (as opposed to Nevsky, which turned out to be a traitor to Russian interests, because he agreed with the Mongols).
              1. washi
                washi 6 February 2014 16: 33
                0
                Regarding Danila Galitsky, Bushkov is better.
                And about Nevsky it is better for L. Prozorov.
                I recommend reading it, and then I bet. Books are in free access.
                If you combine and add a little of your own, then you can protect the candidate,
            2. Nicholas C.
              Nicholas C. 6 February 2014 11: 37
              0
              From the lines you quoted, it was difficult to assume that Daniil Galitsky converted to the Latin faith. Where does this "data" come from? And why are they "historical"? Moreover, reliable?

              And he is not the first king in Russia. Simultaneously with him, Mindovg was crowned, the principality of which was called "Black Russia" with the capital in Novogrudok. This is only later - Lithuania. And no one has proved the Zhmud origin of the Russian princes. Both of them did not need to give up their faith to accept the title.

              In addition to the title from the Latins, etc. Daniel eventually accepted Kurems from Berke. So jerking to Europe only went to the Galician-Volyn principality in a minus such that they determined the further disappearance of this Russian land. Unfortunately, Daniel was not a statesman, even an order of magnitude smaller, but comparable to Alexander Nevsky.

              Galitsky took an active part in Orthodox life. For example, he insisted on joining the rank of Metropolitan of the All-Russian Metropolitanate of the fellow countryman Cyril II. Cyril II had nothing to do with Latinism.
            3. washi
              washi 6 February 2014 16: 27
              0
              Quote: zzz
              But there are other historical data: Daniil Romanovich Galitsky converted to the Latin faith and accepted the royal crown, becoming the first king among princes in Russia

              He became the first king.
              But the king was not the highest rank in Russia.
              On the contrary, it was a lowering of status. (Grand Duke, Hogan, Khan, etc.).
              There are many kings in the unwashed eujope.
              Daniel was simply frightened for his misbehavior and handed over his for the ephemeral support of Rome. (see Yanukovych)
          2. washi
            washi 6 February 2014 16: 17
            +1
            quote
            Quote: Nikolay S.
            Quote: zzz
            Daniil Galitsky managed to revive him and continue consolidation Russian lands

            What's wrong here? Daniil Galitsky - Russian prince!
            Or are there other versions?

            Of course have.
            In my opinion, the capital of the Poles is Krakow. And Warsaw is a Russian city.
            The entire coast of the Varangian and Russian seas = RUSSIAN.
            Russians saved Europe from the Ottoman Empire.
            At the Battle of Grundwal, the main role was played by RUSSIAN
            Earth to the fore (Elba) - Russian.
            Rome was founded by the Slavs, then came curly-haired and crushed by the mass. And now the founders of Rome are called the founders of RUSSIAN.
            The Christian church under Vladimir the fratricide was subordinate to Byzantium.
            And it was the church, with the assistance of nomadic peoples, that destroyed both the faith and the Russian people
            1. zzz
              zzz 6 February 2014 17: 06
              0
              Quote: Vasya
              Of course have.



              This is exactly what I wanted to say when I highlighted the word "consolidation Russian lands " love
      3. AVV
        AVV 6 February 2014 10: 22
        +2
        Quote: Nikolai S.
        How the "first state" paved the way to "Catholic civilization" is not clear from the article. I will note that the Galician and Volyn Orthodox hierarchs did not even participate in the relations of Daniel Galitsky with the Pope and his representatives.

        What kind of Catholic civilization is there, Catholic priests are solid pidophiles, if the UN condemns them already !!! Therefore, the whole European civilization is solid blueness, who is not blue, he is either Arab or Negro !!! Although there are normal people in Europe who more and more make themselves felt and the time will come when all this mold will be washed off !!! More and more people are looking at and ready to go for Marie le Pen !!!
        1. Gamdlislyam
          Gamdlislyam 6 February 2014 11: 25
          0
          Quote: Author Artemy Stepanov
          The first state that paved the way for the unification of the Eastern Slavs with the Western European Catholic civilization can be considered the Principality of Galicia-Volyn, founded by Roman Mstislavovich in 1199

          I agree with colleague Vadim,
          Quote: Sacmagon
          These are all their series - "WE ARE LEARNED A LITTLE SOMETHING ANYTHING AND ANYWAY"

          At that time, Geyropa was at the outskirts of civilization. Civilization was in Byzantium, and therefore the Russian princes adopted the Orthodox ideology. The Ottoman Empire came to the place of Byzantium, which is much more progressive and tolerant than the obscurantist Western Geyroma, with its inquisition. Until the heyday of the rebirth era, oh how far it was.
      4. nnz226
        nnz226 6 February 2014 17: 40
        +1
        Lithuania in those "distant times" was then called the territory of present-day Belarus. Noneshnyaya Lithuania was called Zhmud (Samogitia) and was a remote outskirts of the ON. The family castle of the "Lithuanian" magnates Radziwills stands in the town of Nesvizh, 60 km from Minsk. So the author's passage about "pagan Lithuanians" refers only to the ancestors of today's Lithuanians. And the Lithuanians (Belarusians), about whom a lot is said in the novels of G. Senkevich, were Christians, first Orthodox, then the noble part began to catholicize. The Cathedral in Minsk near the Government House clearly bears traces of Catholic architecture.
      5. GDP
        GDP 11 February 2014 19: 02
        0
        ... It’s the autonomy, and Catherine II completely destroyed it, and the Cossacks resettled in the Kuban.

        Catherine II - really destroyed the battlefield as a political entity, and the Cossacks resettled in the Kuban.
        But she did this not so much for political reasons, but for the simple reason that the Cossacks were already very accustomed to robberies and robberies and actively robbed not only Tatars, but also other Russians ... This largely affected all Cossacks, not only Zaporizhzhya, we recall at least the Pugachev uprising that happened under the same Catherine II.
        No one was going to suppress their national identity, since the Cossacks then actually felt Russian ...
    2. vladimirZ
      vladimirZ 6 February 2014 10: 39
      +1
      Two groups of different peoples live in one state.
      In the West, Ukrainian-Austro-Polish Bandera-minded Slavs are Uniates, in the East are Orthodox Russian Ukrainians and Ukrainian Russians, immigrants from Russia to Little Russia, New Russia and Crimea.
      There can be no peace between these peoples in the conditions of an independent oligarchic Ukraine, which is confirmed by more than 20 years of experience in their life under these conditions.
      The passive behavior of the East of Ukraine, in comparison with the West, reminds me of Lithuania, where there were also half a country of passive Russians, who allowed the nationalist Lithuanians to gain the upper hand in their state. What happened to the Russians living in Lithuania, the whole world sees. The Russians turned into second-class people.
      A similar situation can be in Ukraine with Russian Ukrainians and Ukrainian Russians, if the Bandera Uniate Nazis take power.
      What sane people of Ukraine think about is not clear.
      1. rotmistr4
        rotmistr4 6 February 2014 16: 36
        +1
        I agree !!! I hope that the east of Ukraine will still come out of hibernation !!!
      2. rotmistr4
        rotmistr4 6 February 2014 16: 36
        0
        I agree !!! I hope that the east of Ukraine will still come out of hibernation !!!
  2. dark_65
    dark_65 6 February 2014 08: 20
    +1
    Dissidents of nationality, I think so can be called Ukrainians. No offense, but not figured out in yourself for so many years? Even the modeled sidekick Georgia even realizes its national identity, and there are more ethnic groups in Ukraine.
  3. washi
    washi 6 February 2014 10: 07
    +4
    They have not only self-awareness, but also psychology is no longer Russian:
    “I am asked when the Reich will receive at least some economic benefit from the captured Russian territories?
    I answer: never while the Russians live there!
    The thing is that the Slavs are wild people. I’m talking now not about their underdevelopment, sloppiness, laziness. And what they say about animals, "wild" or "domestic." If the latter can be brought to whip submission, then a wild animal by nature will not become meek when it is beaten. It is the same with peoples, regardless of culture. An African Negro or a civilized Frenchman, subject to force, will build himself into a new order, resigned to his lower stage. The Slavs, however, are not capable of appreciating even the proper care for them which a good owner provides for working cattle. As soon as you turn away, and you are stuck a knife in the back, just because you are their master!
    I am talking about Russians, because the western subspecies of the Slavs, Poles or Ukrainians, is already greatly ennobled by the proximity of European civilization. So, among the Poles, voluntary recognition of the hierarchy is very common, in which they put themselves below us, the Germans, but much higher than the Russians and Ukrainians. The same can be said about the Galicians, who in former times were ruled not by Russia, but by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. And the yellow-blue banner of "true Ukrainians" was at one time the flag of the auxiliary units of the army of Karl of Sweden, who served him faithfully against the Russian tsar. "
    Eric Koch, Gauleiter of the Reich Commissariat Ukraine. (C)
  4. Valery-SPB
    Valery-SPB 6 February 2014 10: 44
    +2
    If I am not mistaken. But I remember that after many years of the war with Poland, in the 17th century under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, the agreement established that all the lands on the left side of the Dnieper and the city of Kiev on the right go to the Principality of Moscow. This part was not called Ukraine, but was called Little Russia.

    Crimea. It was legal, according to a peace treaty, to be acquired by the Russian Empire in wars with the Ottoman Empire. Given to Ukraine on illegal grounds. On one of the sites, Ukrainians condemned modern Russia for the fact that, following the example of Germany, it did not repent over the Stalin years. I justifiably informed that Russia will not repent for the atrocities of the head of the Kharkov Cheka’s Chechens, Ukrainian Saenko, and the acts of Latvian riflemen and security officers with Baltic surnames. I was told that since Russia recognized itself as the successor of the USSR, it was she who should repent. But Russia repaid the debt to the West for the Russian empire.
    Recognize. Russia is the modern direct heiress of not only the USSR, but also of the Russian Empire.
    We recognize that after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, not Syria, not Egypt, namely Turkey, became its successor.
    It was between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire that a peace treaty was concluded in Crimea. Crimea was transferred to the eternal use of Russia, and in the event of Russia's refusal, Crimea cannot be alienated to another state, but is subject to return to the Ottoman Empire or its successor.
    1. kp-95062
      kp-95062 6 February 2014 11: 00
      -3
      Following this logic, the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin are to be returned to Japan? There is still no contract.
      1. Gromily4
        Gromily4 6 February 2014 11: 21
        0
        Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands were already Russian when the Japanese sat on their islands and did not show their nose further than they were allowed to do so on pain of death from their own high-ranking officials. The Russians accepted the Ainu citizenship again when the Japanese did not climb further south of Hokkaido.
        So it’s not necessary, we took away to ourselves that which belonged to us by the right of the discoverers. And the Japanese chopped off this force at a time when the Russian Empire was very busy with other matters and could not give a strong rebuff to the Japanese.
        1. washi
          washi 6 February 2014 16: 38
          +1
          Quote: Gromily4
          Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands were already Russian when the Japanese sat on their islands and did not show their nose further than they were allowed to do so on pain of death from their own high-ranking officials. The Russians accepted the Ainu citizenship again when the Japanese did not climb further south of Hokkaido.
          So it’s not necessary, we took away to ourselves that which belonged to us by the right of the discoverers. And the Japanese chopped off this force at a time when the Russian Empire was very busy with other matters and could not give a strong rebuff to the Japanese.

          I don’t understand why the remnants of the Ainu (incidentally living in Russia) do not require recognition of the genocide and the return of their traditional land (in Japanese Hokaido)
          1. Gromily4
            Gromily4 6 February 2014 19: 13
            0
            They demanded, even somewhere this demand was manifested.
            http://ruskline.ru/news_rl/2013/05/01/my_mozhem_ispolzovat_ajnov_kak_soyuznikov_
            protiv_yaponcev /
  5. Roman 1977
    Roman 1977 6 February 2014 11: 04
    +7
    Another nonsense from Svidomo mare ...
    The first state that paved the way for the unification of the Eastern Slavs with Western European Catholic civilization can be considered the Principality of Galicia-Volyn, founded by Roman Mstislavovich in the 1199 year after the unification of Galicia and Volyn, to which Kiev was annexed a little later.
    Yes you that, and the daughter of Yaroslav the Wise, married to the Swedish princess Ingigerde-Anna Yaroslavna, was not she the queen of France, surprising the French with her education, ability to read and the fact that she took a bath every day. And his other daughter Elizabeth was not the wife of the king of Norway Harald the Severe, who even wrote her poems "But the Russian maiden with a gold necklace despises me ...", and after his death she became the wife of the Danish king Knut. And his third daughter Anastasia is the queen of Hungary. And the granddaughter of Yaroslav the Wise, the daughter of his son Vsevolod-Eupraxius, didn’t she become the wife of the “Holy Roman Empire” Henry IV, and then didn’t come out with a denunciation of her husband, who belonged to the Satanist sect of “Nicolaitans”. And the first wife of Vladimir Monomakh was the English princess Gita, the daughter of the last Anglo-Saxon king Harold II. I can give you a bunch of examples ...
    Now about the Galicia-Volyn principality, which Kiev did it attach to itself? By the 1199 year, Kiev had already lost its value and was repeatedly ruined, and the princes there changed with the regularity of the weather. Rurik Smolensky, then Mikhail Chernigovsky, then Yaroslav Vsevolodovich Suzdalsky alternately ruled in it, and all this was accompanied by an ongoing war of all against all with the involvement of the Polovtsy. The only time Daniil Galitsky captured Kiev in the 1240 year and immediately abandoned it, leaving Dmitry the posadnik, learning about the approach of the Mongols who ravaged Kiev to the ground, after which it for several centuries lost all significance. Read the Plano Carpini, about his passage in 1246 year through Kiev.
    Now about the principality itself? It was stable, no more than a sea in a storm. After the death of Mstislav 40 years, an ongoing war continued during which he was repeatedly seized by the Hungarians and Poles, landing on the throne of the Hungarian prince Koloman. About the morals prevailing in the principality is best indicated by the fact that the only case when the boyar usurped power and took the princely throne refers to the Galicia-Volyn principality, when the boyar Vladislav Kormilichich himself rooted in Galich.
    1. Roman 1977
      Roman 1977 6 February 2014 11: 08
      +7
      Now about the "European path" of the principality. Svidomites and liberals like to compare Daniil Galitsky with Alexander Nevsky, they say he chose the European path of development, fought against the Tatars, and Nevsky not only received a label in the Horde, but also defeated the "civilized" Swedish and German knights.
      First, Daniil Galitsky himself received a label for reigning in the Horde in the 1245 year. After which he made several not very successful campaigns against the Horde temnik Kuremsu, however, after the appearance of another Temnik Burundai, he demolished the walls of his cities and dismissed his army, which Orlesle continued to pay tribute to the Tatars, sitting quietly like a mouse behind a broom.
      Now about the "European path", so it consisted only in the fact that in January 1254, Daniel Galitsky was crowned in Drogichin with the crown sent by Pope Innocent IV. And what did it give him? Nothing, not a single European warrior set off to help him on the crusade, to fight the Mongols, and already 76 years after his death in 1340, the Lithuanian Lubart became prince. After that Galicia passed as a rolling banner from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to Poland, then to Austria-Hungary, reuniting with the rest of Ukraine only in 1939, thanks to the "tyrant" Stalin, giving her the cat-dog Banderka, Shlyukhevych and other banderlog, whom we now have the good fortune to observe on Maidan. This is the European way of development ...

      The son of Alexander Nevsky, who chose the so-called. The "Asian path" of development Daniel became the prince of Moscow, and his grandson Yuri became the Grand Duke of Vladimir, laying the foundation for that great country in which we now live and which is the largest country in the world.
      1. Kazakh
        Kazakh 6 February 2014 11: 43
        +1
        Video test man is ready to cut off his ears just to salt the pits. Here he only needs gas and he needs everything else .... To help this
      2. Roman 1977
        Roman 1977 6 February 2014 12: 21
        +2
        If there is no objection, I will continue:
        During the confrontation between Lithuania and Muscovy and Sweden, the Lithuanians were forced to conclude the Union of Krev with Poland (1385), thereby forming a powerful and vast state of the Principality of Poland and Lithuania. Within the framework of this formation, a struggle took place between Lithuanian and Polish noble families, during which Polish influence became predominant. This fundamentally changed the situation in the Ruthenian lands, primarily in relation to the peasantry and in the religious sphere.
        Nonsense again, what kind of clashes could there have been between Sweden, the ON and Poland in 1385? Sweden in 1397 ceased to exist as an independent state altogether, having concluded the Kalmar Union with Denmark and Norway, while the Danish Queen Margaret ruled these states. The first clashes between Sweden and the Rzecz Pospolita began at the beginning of the 17th century, after the Union of Lublin in 1569, over Latvia with Riga. The same applies to the Moscow principality, which in no way could compete with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, especially since the son of Dmitry Donskoy, Vasily, was married to the daughter of the Lithuanian prince Vitovt, respectively, Vasily the Second the Dark was his grandson. On the contrary, the end of the 14th century, the beginning of the 15th century is the expansion of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (the capture of the Smolensk principality, the upper principalities, attempts to annex Novgorod and Pskov). It was only during the time of Ivan III, after the annexation of Novgorod and the overthrow of the yoke in 1480 that Moscow began to crowd out the ON-Moscow. The Kreva Union, first of all, was beneficial to Catholicism, and was directed against Orthodoxy, since the Lithuanian prince Jagailo, having married the Polish queen Jadwiga, promised to convert Lithuania to Catholicism. As for the struggle between the Polish and Lithuanian noble families, it consisted in the fact that over time, Lithuanian and then Russian noble families, relying on new privileges or being seduced by "Western culture", passed from Orthodoxy to Catholicism, becoming ethnic mutants, forgetting their language and customs of their ancestors.
        “An ethnic mutant is at a loss in assessing his nationality, as he feels in his soul the struggle of opposing, mutually exclusive principles. Many representatives of Russian noble families in Ukraine and Belarus just represent such a nationally mutated type: Russians by blood, in their psychology, social life, cultural preferences, joined the Poles and were guided by gentry-caste values. Historical fate decreed that they were not destined to assimilate completely into the Polish ethnic group, but they no longer felt Russian, although they also called them by inertia ”
  6. parus2nik
    parus2nik 6 February 2014 12: 39
    +2
    Politically correct article .. The author did not mention how the Zaporizhzhya Cossacks did not disdain and rob the Russian lands together with the Poles .. When the ON and Poland united, the Russian oligarchs were faced with a choice or adopt Catholicism and enter the elite and have all rights, for example, to participate in the Diet or you don’t have any rights .. And many converted to Catholicism ... They became already powerful Polish magnates, the Vishnevets for example .. The same B. Khmelnitsky, a Jesuit pupil, persuaded the Polish king to reduce religious oppression, to allow Orthodox seniority to rule the Polish state. ..if it was not the stubbornness of the Polish magnates .. there would be no Ukraine .. would Poland ... to Smolensk
    1. washi
      washi 6 February 2014 16: 43
      +1
      As they were with .. corrupt, they stayed like that.
      Question.
      Did the Russians still stay there?
      They are those who will give everything to their own, but will not spare themselves for their enemies.
  7. Booby
    Booby 6 February 2014 15: 59
    +1
    It’s sad to look at all this.
    The Saxons, despite the fact that they fought among themselves (the same Anglo-Amer wars), and the fact that some of them were subordinate to others, etc. now do not spill water, the most faithful allies, have forgotten all the insults and complaints to friend.
    And only we, the Slavs, whom the West has pitted with each other throughout history, continue to bite each other's throats at the direction of the same West.
  8. Booby
    Booby 6 February 2014 16: 10
    +1
    And yet: as many predicted, with the beginning of Sochi in Ukraine, fun began ...
  9. Nikotin13
    Nikotin13 6 February 2014 16: 33
    +4
    One part of the Slavs was imposed on the western version of Christianity, the other - the eastern one, and they were pushed between the foreheads, then they were divorced into ,, national apartments ”and again pushed against the foreheads. Until when will we be at enmity with each other for the joy of our enemies? angry
    1. parus2nik
      parus2nik 6 February 2014 17: 06
      0
      The ideas of pan-Slavism hovered over the Slavic part of Europe .. but somehow it didn’t grow together .. And it doesn’t grow together .. for the time being .. there’s a long way to end the hostility .. Yes, and there should be a desire for it .. but it doesn’t ..
  10. parus2nik
    parus2nik 6 February 2014 17: 10
    0
    Did the Russians still stay there? I would also like to know
  11. PValery53
    PValery53 6 February 2014 19: 47
    -1
    How long will the long-suffering Kievan Rus stagger and rush about in attempts to identify itself? Dy-who is she, Geyropa or Rasey?!. An interesting way of asserting oneself is by contrasting oneself with Great Russia ... Well, what will come of you, poor Outskirts? .. Blaming Russia for everything is a cheap trick and self-deception, or just fooling its population. How can you stretch further without Russia, think again! ..
  12. Booby
    Booby 6 February 2014 23: 02
    -1
    Three circumstantial evidence indicating that it will soon become hot there:
    - A warning from the State Department for its citizens not to hang around on the streets of Kiev until March 24.
    - today's warning of the European Commission of Ukraine’s authorities that if force is used against Bandera, they will arrest foreign accounts of the top of the country.
    - today's march and imitation of the environment of the government quarter of Kiev of two thousand armed Bandera, in other words, either a mental attack, or reconnaissance in battle.
  13. bublic82009
    bublic82009 8 February 2014 01: 58
    0
    About 100 peoples and nationalities live in Russia, which also have a religious difference. but in Russia, all the same, they cultivated tolerance for foreigners and other religions. The elites of these peoples made every effort to bring them closer and incorporate them into one Russian community. zukurov has a different philosophy. they were driven by Poles and Austrians.
    about the Zaporozhye Cossacks. The Zaporizhzhya Sich was not alone, there were other similar formations. there is the concept of Slobozhanshchina. Little Russian and Russian peasants and Cossacks also settled there. it was not mentioned in the article. The Zaporizhzhya Sich is just a ruined brand. if we talk about the destruction of the Zaporizhzhya Sich by Catherine II, one should not forget that both Poles and Tatars burned her before her! Catherine 2 was still a Russian queen, but she came from German families. education cannot be changed. everyone forgets why she burned the Zaporozhye Sich and sent the Cossacks to the Kuban. during this period, Russia fought with the Polish confederates and Turkey. and in the rear a Pugachev revolt arose. The Zaporozhye Cossacks also supported Pugachev. after the suppression of the uprising, part of the Cossacks returned to the Sich. The Sich lost its function; it no longer performed the function of a border guard service. General Tekeli conducted an operation "to enforce peace" bloodlessly, for which he was awarded Catherine. part of the army went to Turkey, part entered the army units. later from them Suvorov and formed the Black Sea army. all the attributes of the Zaporozhye Cossack army were returned. we must not forget that the Zaporozhye Cossacks were far from good. the transition from one master to another was common.