Military Review

Psychological war

33
Psychological war



In connection with the latest events in Ukraine, it is increasingly possible to come up with the statement that many Russian media distort information for political purposes. Electronic "independent" and Western media are more objective. This is the opinion of many Internet users. Is it really?

It is not a secret to anyone today that there are units in the armed forces of Western countries that conduct specific work with the media (including the electronic ones). This is understandable: after all, one of their tasks is to form world opinion that is positive for a particular country.

In world military terminology there is a special term - “psychological warfare”. According to V. Krysko, psychological warfare is a combination of various forms, methods and means of influencing people to change their psychological characteristics in the desired direction (attitudes, opinions, value orientations, moods, motives, attitudes, stereotypes of behavior), as well as group norms , mass sentiments, public consciousness in general.

At present, the bodies of psychological warfare of Western states carry the names of the units of "psychological operations" (USA, UK, South Korea), "operational information" (FRG), "psychological defense" (Sweden), "psychological actions" (Poland), "information operations "(Canada)," psychological warfare "(Turkey)," psychological support "(Israel), etc.

USA


The first army units and psychological warfare units of the US Armed Forces were created during the First World War. Since then, interest in psychological operations has increased several times. Following the extensive use of the forces and means of psychological operations during World War II, the relevant units and units took part in conflicts in all subsequent US military conflicts.

The main unit of psychological warfare in the United States is the 4 Group of Psychological Operations (eng. 4th Military Information Support Support Group), stationed in Fort Bragg. It was formed in December 1967 during the war in Indochina.

The group consists of a headquarters, a staff company and six battalions of psychological operations: 1, 5, 6 and 8 of regional, 9 of tactical psychological operations and 3 of the preparation and distribution of materials.

Regional battalions are designed to organize and conduct psychological warfare at the strategic and operational levels in specific theaters of operations in the interests of the US Armed Forces (1 - Atlantic and Central and South America, 5 - Pacific and Far East, 6 - Europe and Africa, 8 (Middle East).

The 3 Battalion of the preparation and distribution of materials is responsible for the preparation and distribution of printed, audio and audiovisual materials, and also provides a communications system for the units and formations of the group. The battalion includes a headquarters, a staff company and a service company, a printing company (consists of a management section, a heavy (stationary) printing service maintenance platoon and three tactical / mobile / printing service platoons), a radio and television broadcasting company (consists of a management section, a platoon preparing and distributing materials, radio engineering section and computer graphics section) and a communications company.

The typographic company is capable of releasing 24 million of one-color leaflets in the 1 / 1 format of an inch within 32 hours from the receipt of the task. In addition, she can allocate up to three light or modular printing presses with service personnel, or up to three printing platoons to service local polygraphic equipment of foreign countries, or any combination of the above listed forces and means for the transfer to any part of the world. A company of radio and TV broadcasting can simultaneously allocate up to four video filming teams with mobile editing and editing equipment, as well as technicians for operating local broadcasting systems in foreign countries, to be sent to any part of the world; deploy anywhere in the world one mobile TV-complex with an electric generator, as well as mobile radio stations with service personnel.

The 9 Battalion of tactical psychological operations is responsible for planning the psychological operations at the tactical level. The battalion is the largest battalion of psychological warfare of the US Armed Forces and consists of four companies of tactical use ("A", area of ​​responsibility - the Atlantic, Central and South America; "B" - Europe and Africa; "C" - the Pacific Ocean and the Far East, "E" - presumably the Middle East).

Each company is able to allocate a special team, on the basis of which, if necessary, operational units of psychological warfare can be formed. The lower tactical unit of the battalion is a sound station consisting of a sound station that is portable or mounted on an M1025 “Hummer” vehicle and three military personnel serving it and a civilian translator (may be hired from among local residents). Each company has 12-15 such teams.

Currently, the group is served by military personnel and civilian personnel in more than 50 specialties, including graphic designers, intelligence officers, videographers, printers, and psychological operations specialists.

United Kingdom


The main unit of psychological warfare in the UK is the 15 group of psychological operations. The group was created after analyzing the experience of waging the war in the Persian Gulf in 1998. The group is equipped with modern mobile communications and broadcasting, video development and equipment for high-quality printing, the work on which requires a good professional staff. Among the military personnel of the group there are specialists in work with graphics, designers, video engineers, radio journalists and other specialists representing the media sphere.

The group consists of three sections. The design and printing section is equipped with modern computers that support Adobe InDesign, Photoshop, Illustrator; Macromedia Dreamweaver. The materials are printed on color laser printers and large format plotters. The equipment allows you to quickly reconfigure the production of various types of high-quality color printed materials.

All equipment can be placed in the Kunge of the Pinzgauer all-terrain vehicle, which can be transported by C-130 transport aircraft or by helicopter. Another option for placement of equipment is air transport containers that are transported on 4-ton trailers. In both cases, an autonomous diesel power plant and air conditioning systems are provided.

The video recording and video editing section is equipped with laptops with non-linear editing systems of the American company Avid. In addition, the group has two stationary workstations adapted for work in a battle-like environment with a set of programs allowing the use of video materials from VHS and DVD formats.

The broadcasting section is equipped with a standard professional FM radio transmitter. Equipment for broadcasting is also available in two versions. In the form of two mobile studios, it can be placed in air transportable containers equipped with air conditioning and transported on 4-ton trailers.

Poland


In Poland, the tasks of providing psychological impact on the troops and the population of foreign countries are assigned to the central group of psychological actions (Central Group of Psychologicznych, the place of deployment of the city of Bydgoszcz). The central group of psychological actions consists of headquarters, as well as information-analytical, television and broadcasting, editorial and logistic units. Organizationally, the central group includes: headquarters; The intelligence center for psychological control, which is its main coordinating part, consists of four information collection and processing departments (the first is analyzing the press and other open information sources on Poland, the second is mainly in English-speaking Western countries, the third is in Eastern Europe and the fourth is in States with conflict situations); department of television and radio broadcasting; sound department; the department of distribution of materials of psychological influence; publishing department; archive and rear units.

The central group has established continuous interaction with scientific, educational and cultural organizations and institutions in Poland and NATO countries. Various experts are involved in carrying out complex expert activities - ethnographers, sociologists, psychologists, teachers, etc. In the audio archive of the television and radio broadcasting department, in addition to music and video recordings, there are extensive soundtracks on military topics (IWT use) and everyday life activities. man and his environment.

Canada


The main unit of the psychological warfare of the armed forces of Canada is the Canadian Forces Information Operations Group (CFIOG), headquartered in Litrime. The group consists of: a headquarters, an electronic warfare center, a network operations center, an electronic intelligence center, a military technical station.

Thus, at the moment in the NATO countries there are a number of special units that carry out a direct psychological impact on world public opinion in the interests of the policy pursued by their states.

Materials used:
http://www.wikipedia.org/
Krysko V. G. “Secrets of psychological warfare”.
Author:
Photos used:
http://psiwar.narod.ru/
33 comments
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  1. Alexander Romanov
    Alexander Romanov 31 January 2014 06: 59
    +7
    Everything is empty as it is written in general. It seems to be on the topic of the day, but .... request
    1. jjj
      jjj 31 January 2014 07: 05
      +3
      They are now crazy wars wage war. Very similar to that
      1. ele1285
        ele1285 31 January 2014 07: 10
        +4
        Quote: jjj
        They are now crazy wars wage war.

        Yesterday I found Freedom on the party’s website, it’s not very similar to psychos.

        Posts: 11
        Location: Kiev

        PostWrite: 02 December 2013, 22:23 View member profiles Send email Reply with quote Top
        1. It is necessary to find a judge, impressionable and weak, and persuade him to confess that he received orders from "above" to make the necessary judicial decisions. Take him out to the square and let him tell about all the Ukrainians. After that, you need to take him under the protection and protection. Only a judge who does not have a family (divorced) and has adult children, or does not have them at all, is capable of this. In this regard, it is necessary for the opposition, especially "Svoboda", to initiate parliamentary hearings on the use of judges by power and to adopt a law that would oblige to check each judge on a truth detector. Such a check will be organized by the parliamentary commission, or a relevant public organization.

        There are many recommendations, and this is auto-translation.
        1. calocha
          calocha 31 January 2014 09: 09
          +1
          Many institutions are thinking about how to change power; Ukraine is such a training ground for the development of various technologies.
      2. Volkhov
        Volkhov 31 January 2014 07: 12
        0
        In part of Ukraine, psychological warfare is no longer conducted by the media, but by target - they bring wreaths, cut off ears, and everyone has their own media.
        Makhnovist agitation - a poster on a carriage "X..r you will catch up (on the back) X ... r you will leave."
      3. AVV
        AVV 31 January 2014 16: 05
        0
        Quote: jjj
        They are now crazy wars wage war. Very similar to that

        Ward No. 6 in the service of the US Army !!! How similar to them !!!
    2. Bigriver
      Bigriver 31 January 2014 07: 08
      +1
      Quote: Alexander Romanov
      Everything is empty as it is written in general. It seems to be on the topic of the day, but .... request

      The transfer of organizational staff does not give Patam Shta repeat
      We need a methodology for operations using specific examples. And this, IMHO, is a topic for the whole dissertation.
      And the second one. It’s not clear what’s happening here? As far as I know, the question of the need to create a special operations command is only being discussed.
      1. jjj
        jjj 31 January 2014 07: 20
        +9
        If you look closely at the comments on this resource, you can find examples of such a confrontation. I am not talking about people with strong beliefs. Even if they are not shared, they must be reckoned with and respected. They are harsh in their judgments, but what can we do. But when there is propaganda, then this is also felt. Propaganda, especially liberal, is based on manipulation. A certain logical chain is built with emotionally colored interruptions, so that the chain constructions themselves are perceived better. The good news is that so many colleagues understand these tricks
      2. Alexander Romanov
        Alexander Romanov 31 January 2014 07: 42
        +2
        Quote: BigRiver
        It’s not clear what’s happening here?

        And we just defend the truth, without lies. As a result, you could read it in a recent mosaic, when in German sites, those who spit in Russia remain in a deep minority.
        1. Bigriver
          Bigriver 31 January 2014 08: 33
          +1
          Quote: Alexander Romanov
          ... And we just defend the truth, without lies ...

          I’m talking about something completely different.
          About the structure of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation or at the General Staff, as well as about specialists who could conduct special operations during the database.
          All this we already went through when we belatedly realized the importance of this work in the Second World War. And, in the end, they did this work to lower the psychological stability of the enemy not brilliantly.
          Timelessness has disappeared .., but it feels like "the horse was not lying there."
          1. Alexander Romanov
            Alexander Romanov 31 January 2014 11: 04
            0
            Quote: BigRiver
            . And, in the end, they did this work to lower the psychological stability of the enemy not brilliantly.

            So they themselves conduct this work for us, look at their soldier laughing
        2. Peter Ivanov
          Peter Ivanov 7 September 2018 11: 32
          0
          Still would! Academy them. VI Lenin and VIIIA "democrats" Eltsin ... destroyed! And the so-called. President Dm. Medvedeff has repeatedly stated that "military advisers for the Russian Federation are not relevant ....!"
      3. CALL.
        CALL. 31 January 2014 08: 21
        +2
        Goebbels propaganda, based on the cynical presumption that a lie, in order to be effective, must be massive, large-scale, shameless and continuous. Massive rumors and gossip as an alternative to official propaganda. Modern ideologists act much more sophisticated. Their methods are clearly visible in the Anti-Stalinist propaganda. Repeated repetition of the same false thesis, references to authorities in combination with various speculations (from distorting quotes to references to non-existent sources); manipulation (“game”) of figures and facts to create the appearance of objectivity and accuracy; biased selection of illustrative material with an emphasis on the effect of "dramatic effects"; frightening “graphic illustrations” of propaganda views and positions, and other similar techniques designed to create emotional discomfort and neutralize a person’s ability to rationally evaluate the information provided. The introduction of political jokes into the mass consciousness, the composition of pseudo-folkloric (“folk”) sayings and proverbs. Imperceptible penetration into consciousness through advertising of his (beautiful and carefree) way of life, spreading of desirable political values ​​and standards of his mass culture through music, entertaining television programs and films, through fashion. Here with the help of which riots in Ukraine, splits of society were inspired. Brother to brother, son to father, neighbor to neighbor. Simple, cynical, but effective.
    3. mirag2
      mirag2 31 January 2014 07: 16
      +4
      This is always the topic!
      Our society and its moral health must always be protected from the damaging effects from without.
      Especially now.
      And there are pluses - at first I was sure that they were rubbing some kind of hat on me: "enemies, enemies ..." -
      -and when he got deeper into the economy, into what was previously called "political economy (mission), then everything fell into place, and thanks to various sources, not RT or RTR, ORT, OTV, NTV, but from a completely different camp- I saw what at first I did not believe myself.
      But at first I didn’t even consider Navalny dangerous for Russia ...
      Did not go deep fool
      1. jjj
        jjj 31 January 2014 07: 22
        +2
        Well, Navalny is exposed, it has become neutralized. But in everyday life, he’s not so dangerous, he doesn’t rush to people
    4. makarov
      makarov 31 January 2014 07: 32
      +1
      I support the position. At the same time, it should be said that on the topic of the day there is no crap at all, as if nothing was happening.
      And where is the infa about "smart subdivisions" from students and scientists in the RF VV ???
    5. Canep
      Canep 31 January 2014 07: 33
      +2
      Quote: Alexander Romanov
      Everything is empty as it is generally written

      Greetings Alexander hi Why empty, for example, I did not know about the existence of such units, although I served in the army. In Kazakhstan, it seemed, there was only a department for working with the press at the main department of the VSPR (educational and social legal work) of the Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Kazakhstan. There were no special military units.

      Then it came to mind that it would be better to place scientific companies, formed ... what would journalism be called, or something in each district. And would they be staffed with student journalists and similar specialties. With the task of forming on the Internet a positive image of the army, government and president. Type fighting English trolls. There would be more sense about them.
      1. Alexander Romanov
        Alexander Romanov 31 January 2014 11: 06
        +2
        Quote: Canep
        Why empty, for example, I did not know about the existence of such units,

        Hello, Sergey! And remember the attack on Iraq, so they organized such a press center, who did it? And where are the images of brave American soldiers coming from? The work goes to brainwashing, but it gives the opposite result when the truth comes up hi
    6. artyushenkooleg
      artyushenkooleg 19 December 2014 13: 22
      +1
      What do you say about this article?
      PSYCHOLOGICAL BLOOD WAR. Purpose: the extermination of the Soviet multinational people, the seizure of its territory, material and natural resources.

      PSYCHOLOGICAL WAR is a complex form of subversive activity, which includes all types of reconnaissance and military operations based on psychological impact aimed at modernizing the worldview, undermining political power, the moral and psychological state of the population and the armed forces, and changing domestic and foreign policies the enemy and its subsequent complete destruction.

      Further on the link: http://artyushenkooleg.ru/index.php/psihologicheskaya-vojn/
      1. Peter Ivanov
        Peter Ivanov 7 September 2018 11: 39
        0
        ... + the creation of a fifth column in the enemy camp and reliance on it when conducting hostilities on enemy territory, up to the creation of an anti-Soviet underground and partisan, anti-Soviet formations. Remember the actions of the Brandenburg 800 battalion in the Caucasus and especially in Chechnya and Ingushetia in 1942!
  2. Denis
    Denis 31 January 2014 07: 38
    +6
    Electronic "independent" and Western media are more objective. This is the opinion of many Internet users. Is it really?
    They would like it so much. And what are many Internet users?
    Stupid and pimple youngsters literally for every case are louder than a flock of howler monkeys screaming that it’s Putin's fault. Power can be loved and disliked, but it’s necessary to think. It’s hard, it’s impossible for some, but even if Putin wanted to be guilty everywhere, how to catch all places?
    I wanted to think that the dirt of SALOGENitsin, the magazine of the light of 90's, etc., was dirty, but she gave sprouts
    1. Peter Ivanov
      Peter Ivanov 7 September 2018 11: 43
      0
      "Independent US Media" is a myth of psychological warfare during the Cold War! There is no physical union, and the goal has been achieved !? It's time to throw off the mask ... today we see that this myth is destroyed, But only - DOES EVERYONE SEE AND KNOW THAT the myth: "Independent US media" - THIS IS A MYTH !?
  3. borisjdin1957
    borisjdin1957 31 January 2014 07: 44
    +1
    from the Don.
    Well, it’s understandable with the West. And where are our state structures? Or are those who are not lazy doing this? Well, then the result will be disastrous!
    1. engineer74
      engineer74 31 January 2014 08: 05
      +1
      And where are our state structures? Or are those who are not too lazy doing this? Well then, the result will be disastrous!

      The goals are different, in the West, the units of psychological warfare have a task: to paint black in white, but what should we do - to repaint it back, or, still, bring white to the client? Therefore, problems. smile "Power is in the truth!"
      1. CALL.
        CALL. 31 January 2014 08: 45
        +1
        “Information wars”, “How secret wars are waged”, “Psychological wars” ... In principle, it is enough to read one of these books to get an idea of ​​the basic theoretical concepts and technologies. A set of the hottest examples also wanders from book to book: Dorenko, Chechnya, the Vote or lose campaign, the Gulf War, and events in Yugoslavia.
  4. Bigriver
    Bigriver 31 January 2014 07: 46
    +1
    By the way, here is a recent example of psychological warfare here on the site soldier
    Ukraine: the birth of civil society
    http://topwar.ru/38992-ukraina-rozhdenie-grazhdanskogo-obschestva.html
    There are characteristic tricks: misinformation, deception, manipulation, manipulation of rumors and myths.
  5. ZU-23
    ZU-23 31 January 2014 07: 47
    +2
    And it seems to me that half of the people are interested in when Serdyukov sits, judging by the conversations at work, Putin is still a thief for the third term. But politics begins with trusting the president, I don’t care about all kinds of behind-the-scenes and yellowish talk, yes I’m watching RT, Russia, etc., but because it’s 80% true, if you read any dreary press you can shoot yourself, because this negativity forms the character of the person who suffered from this psychological warfare. The result is important to me, and the result is the steamboats sailing, the planes are flying, Olympic facilities are being built, yes, like everyone I don’t like bilalov stole money, well, law enforcement officers are engaged in this matter, and he stole 0.0001% of the construction, so I Now focus on this, this is ordinary corruption from which not one country has yet to leave, but Russia is fighting it.
    1. ZU-23
      ZU-23 31 January 2014 08: 02
      +3
      Oops, oops, I was waiting for your minuses, I understand those who do not work and climb to VO to shit in the morning, there is no way to raise and act the ass.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Olegovich
      Olegovich 31 January 2014 13: 51
      +1
      Absolutely! After all, the fact is that if it was possible to introduce a tear in society, the reason for this abuse is no longer important. The result is important - a split.
      One way to counteract this is to take your time in judging by reading the title of the article, and the article itself. Analyze the information. Even here, an article about theft has been posted today, gives a complete sense of just global theft in the defense industry. Although it also slips that the main claims fall on the period 2007-2010 (what was this time? Let's remember. Only UAC OCK concerns were being formed, shares were bought from the shareholders of the factories that had scooped them up in Yeltsin’s times, lawsuits were being conducted with all sorts of offsets -shore owners. The prosecutor's office was weaker, lobbyists stronger, and the composition of the government was different. Gradually cleared from theft department.
      On the other hand, all claims of the prosecutor's office cannot be taken on faith. For a minute, what are "commercial banks" are VEB OJSC and Sberbank OJSC, Promsvyazbank and others - and through them even the state conducts operations. Then, if the enterprise has debts (and they were in the defense industry), then the current account is arrested. In order to continue working, pay taxes, wages, buy metal, and simply - to fulfill the state defense order! The plant opens another account from which the money will not immediately go into debt. It seems that he did a good job, but according to the law - "placing funds in a commercial bank to make a profit"! Oh how.
      The prosecutor's office may be healthy, but wash it off later, prove to everyone that you are not a thief.
  6. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 31 January 2014 08: 05
    +7
    And it seems to me that psychological stability has been forming since childhood. And those basics of attitude to information, how to process, analyze, draw conclusions are laid from school. Subsequently, when a person is faced with new interpretations of certain events, he himself, based on his worldviews and experience, draws conclusions on how to relate to this problem.
    And if already our children in the morning go to war on computers and for them Bill Gates is the father of peoples, then the question of where people come from, changing their beliefs ten times a day, disappears.
    And a thinking person can distinguish truth from lies. And only he can determine whether to believe in him or not. The rest of the person is trained to believe only what they say, and not what really happens. Only thinking people can resist the mechanisms of psychological warfare. And they have been etched from us for a whole generation.
    Voila, gentlemen. Draw conclusions hi
  7. philip
    philip 31 January 2014 08: 45
    0
    Well, sifting through the information war. But it’s not yet evening.
  8. F.P.
    31 January 2014 09: 42
    0
    Stupid and pimple youngsters literally for every case louder than a flock of howler monkeys screaming that Putin is to blame

    Dear, unfortunately the world public opinion is formed by just these pimply youngsters, and not you and me. For they are many times more ...
  9. valokordin
    valokordin 31 January 2014 11: 01
    0
    The question is for the leadership of the country, who is engaged in anti-propaganda against NATO in our country, why our security forces are not waging a decisive counter-propaganda fight in the media. (The Administrator was frightened and does not allow to speak out further).
  10. demotivator
    demotivator 31 January 2014 11: 40
    +1
    Quote: valokordin
    who is engaged in anti-propaganda campaign against NATO, why our security forces are not waging a decisive counter-propaganda fight in the media

    Nobody does it. We have a purely partner relationship with NATO. In order not to spoil them inadvertently, no one conducts any counter-propaganda. As in the song: "Everything is fine, beautiful marquise!"
  11. SPACE
    SPACE 31 January 2014 20: 35
    0
    Quote: borisjdin1957
    Well, the West is understandable. And where are our government structures?

    Quote: BigRiver
    We need a methodology for operations using specific examples.

    Quote: makarov
    And where is the infa about "smart subdivisions" from students and scientists in the RF VV ???

    Quote: valokordin
    The question is for the leadership of the country, who is engaged in our anti-propaganda campaign against NATO, why our security forces are not waging a decisive counter-propaganda fight in the media

    Give you the ideology, then something else, but who are you yourself? Waiting for someone to come and snot erase and show the way?
    There was ideology in the USSR, there was an iron curtain, there was propaganda, there was censorship, did it help you? An entire generation has grown Bud idealists! The action of the government is not the whole state, just as going to the temple is not all faith, a particle of the homeland, faith and state must live in every person! Life is not only flowers and correct judgments, it is a dyrmo which does not need to be covered with a screen, it must be able to see and distinguish, so as not to get into a mess, when everyone and the majority realizes this, then then no one can shake you or anything . To think, think and think again, soberly and independently!
  12. alone
    alone 31 January 2014 23: 52
    0
    An article about what everyone has known for a long time.
  13. artyushenkooleg
    artyushenkooleg 22 December 2014 07: 23
    0
    Quote: lonely
    An article about what everyone has known for a long time.

    The article is not about anything.
  14. artyushenkooleg
    artyushenkooleg 22 December 2014 07: 25
    0
    Wacky is a military review! Stupid aftors write here to cudnies. I will not even look at this trash anymore and will notify others. what to do here not what