Military Review

The war that the Prussian teacher won

18
The war that the Prussian teacher won



There is one wonderful legend. It sounds like that. At the beginning of 1871, after the victorious end of the Franco-Prussian War, one of the representatives of the Prussian leadership, a certain Bismarck :), made a very interesting statement. He declared that the country owes its victory not to anyone, but to the Prussian teacher.

This is a legend. In fact, the apology to the Prussian teacher sounded not from the mouth of Bismarck and not about the victory over France. In July, 1866, after the victory at Sadovaya, won by the Prussian army during the Austro-Prussian War, the professor of geography from Leipzig Oscar Peshel wrote in the newspaper “Zagranitsa” edited by him:
"... public education plays a crucial role in the war ... when the Prussians beat the Austrians, it was a victory for the Prussian teacher over an Austrian school teacher."


But who is Peschel? And what is the Austro-Prussian war compared to the catastrophe of France, which for a long time changed the political situation in Europe. After all, it was as a result of the brilliant victory of Prussia in this war that the German Empire arose. That is why public opinion firmly established: “Bismarck, after the victory over France, said: Prussian school teacher won the war”. However, it is quite possible that Bismarck actually said something like this, with reference to, say, Peschel itself. But this is not documented by anything documented.

In fact, it is not so important to us who exactly and about what exactly expressed this thought. It is important that soon after this many and very many countries, first of all England, France and Russia, for some reason began to vigorously introduce the Prussian, and by that time already Germanic gymnasium system.

In Russia, however, unlike Germany, the gymnasiums for a long time remained elite educational institutions, in which only the children of very wealthy parents could study, but the “rushki” (real schools) were organized, in principle, on the same foundations. It is another matter that in gymnasiums and “rushkah” no more than 20% of Russian children were trained together, but this is already a question of the social structure of the then Russian society, which, even when embarking on the path of capitalist development, is in many ways and, above all, in the ruling mentality elite, continued to remain a feudal empire.

But back to Bismarck Peschel. And not even to them, but to Moltke. It was he who, sharply speaking out against Peschel's thesis, actually confirmed it. So, the word to field marshal General of both empires - German and Russian (it seems this is the only such case recorded in stories, there were no others):
“They say that the school teacher won our battles. Knowledge alone, however, does not even bring man to that height when he is ready to sacrifice his life for the sake of an idea, in the name of fulfilling his duty, honor and homeland; This goal is achieved - his education. "

"Not a scientist won our battles, but an educator ...".


Good field marshal! Well, good, right? And the most interesting thing is that Moltke is right! In the same way, however, as Peschel is right (or, if you will, Bismarck :). For the Prussian gymnasium system was different in that, regardless of the level of knowledge, and in general, regardless of any knowledge, it shaped its graduates (and formed what is called in full) quite definite qualities. Like: discipline, accuracy, respect for elders (not by age, but by position), “patriotism” (in the sense of absolute trust in the government and full acceptance of its foreign and domestic policies).

From this point of view, the social mission of the German gymnasium system (which included organically and “realshule” - the prototype of Russian “rushki”) was the most significant, because it allowed to form such a “citizen”, from which it was possible to easily make an ideal soldier of the industrial era. What Germany used in the course of two subsequent world wars.

And now about what Moltke is wrong. However, it is not his fault. To understand this, one would have to look at the situation from the middle of the 20th century, or at least from the time after World War I. In addition to the social and educational tasks, the Prussian gymnasium system, of course, solved the actual educational, more precisely social and educational tasks. That's just the meaning of these tasks was not exactly the way it is usually represented.

The objective objective of the educational sense of the Prussian gymnasium system (that is, regardless of what its creators thought about it) was not to provide its graduates with a brilliant education. All the talk about the fact that "the amount of knowledge possessed by a graduate of a classical gymnasium (in Russia) exceeded that which a graduate of the present secondary school possesses" is idle figments of people who are not familiar with the real state of affairs. Let me just point out that in this case, elite educational institutions, such as classical gymnasiums, are compared with the entire set of secondary educational institutions of modern society. On the other, I'm not talking. The social meaning of such a system was to give the entire population the necessary basic level of culture, without which normal and, moreover, accelerated scientific and technological development is impossible. In Russia, this did not happen precisely because the system covered too few children.

What is it about? Yes, all about the same patterns, which is manifested in all spheres of human activity. If you want your players to become world champions, make sure that millions of boys play football. If you want to create a dozen masterpieces each year at your film studios, ensure production of 300-400 films per year. Yes, two or three hundred of them will be “so-so”, but they, together with hundreds of good films, will create the soil on which ten masterpieces can grow. It was this intellectual, cultural ground on which the intellectual, scientific and technical elite, in turn, was already sprouting, and created the Prussian gymnasium system.

Thus, the second effect of the Prussian gymnasium education was the creation of the foundation of such an educational system that allowed Germany not only to quickly take leading positions in world science and world technological progress, but also to preserve them for almost a century. And this despite the fact that Germany twice during this time suffered crushing military defeats, which reduced its scientific and technical potential to a seemingly zero value. So, the German school teacher, although he did not win these wars for his country, at least gave her the opportunity to lead them!
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http://livepark.pro/blog/derzhavin/6235.html
18 comments
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 27 December 2013 07: 27
    +6
    The German technical genius is undeniable - the Germans do technology well due to technical education and natural qualities (pedantry, meticulousness, the desire to always bring things to the end and then more.)
    It would be nice to take the best from them and adapt to our realities.
    1. haron
      haron 27 December 2013 08: 31
      +3
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      It would be nice to take the best from them and adapt to our realities.

      That's just the school and were taken from them. Although I can be challenged, the construction of the education system in the early 20s and especially in the 30s was built just on the basis of the principle described in the article.
      The Germans always took a lot, starting with the arrival of the Romanovs: from wives to a systematic approach.
      And they did it right.
      I’ll explain why (so that they don’t start throwing slippers before they understand).
      In the 16th century, Russia began to play actively with Europe, while it was a continuous war and military thought was a cut above the east. The German principalities (even being scattered) in most cases fought the rest; from which it follows logical to take their brains and sits in the form of education in Russia. Go get your lomonosovs and then learn them.
      Architects were taken by Italians, talkers (PR specialists) - French.
      Well, after their mackerel, sailor and chicken were grown.
      1. Nagaibak
        Nagaibak 27 December 2013 09: 04
        +1
        haron "Although I can be challenged, the construction of the education system in the early 20s and especially in the 30s was built exactly according to the principle described in the article."
        The Soviet school left the old Russian gymnasium. Although the gymnasium, in turn, could go from the Germans. And also the French were from whom we took more I do not know, but I am inclined to the Germans.
        haron "The German principalities (even being scattered) in most cases fought the rest"
        I don’t know who they were fighting there, but their mercenaries were not bad. Both the Scots and the Swiss.
        1. haron
          haron 27 December 2013 09: 21
          0
          Quote: Nagaibak
          I don’t know who they were fighting there

          In the 30 year war. In addition to the fact that they wrote each other, the Spaniards, Poles, and Austrians were also deceived.
          1. Nicholas C.
            Nicholas C. 27 December 2013 09: 27
            0
            Quote: Author Vyacheslav Derzhavin
            It’s another matter that not more than 20% of Russian children studied together in gymnasiums and “rushki”, but this is already a question of the social structure of the then Russian society, which, even having embarked on the path of capitalist development, is largely, and above all, in the ruling mentality elite continued to be a feudal empire.

            The author, do not abuse my country as a "feudal empire". At that time, approximately the same ratio was between the urban and rural population. Agree that it is difficult to imagine a gymnasium or a real school in a village even now. The villagers studied in parish schools, etc.
          2. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 27 December 2013 12: 19
            0
            haron "In the 30-year war. In addition to the fact that they pissed each other, so also the Spaniards, Poles, Austrians."
            Hmm ... the guys were cocky. However, if we talk about the armies of that period, then in my opinion one of the combat-ready and advanced was the Swedish army.
          3. Fedya
            Fedya 27 December 2013 23: 12
            0
            After the 30th war, only a third of the Germans remained! They gave a good shot to them.
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. yehat
          yehat 27 December 2013 12: 14
          0
          The main quality of the German mercenaries was that it was customary for them to work out their money.
  2. predator.3
    predator.3 27 December 2013 07: 30
    +8
    “They say that the school teacher won our battles. Knowledge alone, however, does not even bring man to that height when he is ready to sacrifice his life for the sake of an idea, in the name of fulfilling his duty, honor and homeland; This goal is achieved - his education. "

    In the recent past (in the USSR) we had the same thing; I still remember with gratitude my teachers, especially the military instructor.
  3. Valery Neonov
    Valery Neonov 27 December 2013 07: 32
    +2
    "... the meaning of the Prussian gymnasium system objectively (that is, regardless of what its creators thought about it) was not to give its graduates a brilliant education."-Oh, ... in this case, the current "reforms from Livanov" SOVIET EDUCATION SYSTEM can also be considered objective,BUT DOES THEM CAN BE CONSIDERED SUCH...
  4. borisjdin1957
    borisjdin1957 27 December 2013 07: 33
    +4
    from the Don.
    I agree! Education is one of the pillars of society. But only the education that teachers with decent salaries provide, they are provided with housing, they follow the instructions of the Ministry of Education, headed not by Fursenko and the hedgehog with him, but by a person who cares for the future of the country! And remove this moronic USE!
    1. ia-ai00
      ia-ai00 27 December 2013 08: 16
      +3
      And it would be necessary to force to pass this USE - ITS "inventors" and "implementers" in universal education, together with Fursenko, and PUBLISH THE RESULTS in all media!
  5. makarov
    makarov 27 December 2013 07: 38
    +2
    I can not agree with the conclusions of the author for the following reasons:
    1. The development of education in future Germany (as I wrote about it earlier) began in a forced manner with corporal punishment even to parents after a 30-year war.
    2. Germany by and large was created by Bismarck with associates using military-political conjuncture.
    3. We should not forget that in the gymnasiums of the Republic of Ingushetia, up to its collapse, physical methods of influence, punishment cells, rods, and others were used.
    4. The modern education system with the obligatory initial study of a number of sciences (which actually remain unclaimed in many lives) makes it possible to single out a tendency to specific knowledge in children, which further gives direction to higher education and science.
    5. Children who finish high school in EXCELLENT manner without the help of tutors, using their own work and diligence, this is the GOLDEN FUND of the nation, and it is these children that the state should take under its care, and nurture them as a national treasure, which will return a hundredfold in the future.
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 27 December 2013 09: 12
      0
      makarov "2. Germany, by and large, was created by Bismarck and his associates using military-political conjuncture."
      But Frederick the Great nothing to do with? But it all started with him.
      makarov "It should not be forgotten that physical methods of influence, punishment cells, rods, and others like that were used in the gymnasiums of the Republic of Ingushetia until its collapse."
      And where can I read about it? And then I read so the worst punishment for the gymnasium students was a record in conduit. I met L.Kassil, B.M. Shaposhnikov in his memoirs. None of them seem to be secrets. And I would like more detail about the punishment cell.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. yehat
      yehat 27 December 2013 12: 21
      0
      Quote: makarov
      We should not forget that in the gymnasiums of the Republic of Ingushetia, up to its collapse, physical methods of influence, punishment cells, rods, and others were used.

      but what is the tragedy of these methods? permissiveness and regular fights reign in schools without punishment; pressure is not uncommon.
      This is nothing better than a stick system.
      Are you afraid to grow tucked up people? So they will grow all the same, but they’ll also become morons.
  6. treskoed
    treskoed 27 December 2013 07: 51
    +5
    Everything in our life begins with a teacher, educator ... And Pushkin owes his Arina Rodionovna ... However, when you look at today's "elite", you understand that not everyone is lucky with teachers ...
  7. drop
    drop 27 December 2013 08: 09
    +4
    The author of the article is right, the fate of Russia depends on the upbringing and development of education, the intellectual, patriotic level of youth. M. Miloradovich, our outstanding military leader and savior of Russia, was taught and educated by I. Kant. The result was an outstanding statesman. At the aerospace university, where I also head the department, we are seriously engaged in the scientific preparation of students. We try to catch up and celebrate what was allowed in this area of ​​derogatory and criminal.
  8. andrejwz
    andrejwz 27 December 2013 10: 57
    0
    They used to play football in every yard, and the masterpieces are not born of the number of films, and therefore the money allocated for this, the cuts are increasing.
    It is the social mission of the German gymnasium system (which organically included the “realschule” - the prototype of the Russian “rushki”)

    We often do not attach importance to words, we automatically speak in bundles-stamps. But the main thing in the quoted phrase is the word SYSTEM. So that all the components: pre-school education, junior school, higher school are in a single system and are really complementary parts of a single whole. To be worked out (and not just listed on paper) system selection and provision of opportunities will be realized by all the most talented students (as the most striking example: schools at the Novosibirsk Academgorodok, where children gathered from all over the country studied). System education should include upbringing, creating a broader motivation for learning than ensuring personal well-being.
    And again we rest against the absence of a clearly formulated national idea. We build elements of the house without having a common project, and then we are surprised that often the wonderful parts as a whole do not work. Someone in the forest, some for firewood.
  9. Ross
    Ross 27 December 2013 11: 06
    0
    Quote: The same Lech
    The German technical genius is undeniable - the Germans do technology well due to technical education and natural qualities (pedantry, meticulousness, the desire to always bring things to the end and then more.)
    It would be nice to take the best from them and adapt to our realities.

    The Russian engineer of the late 19 of the beginning of the 20 century was no worse than the German one. Imagine - the first graduation of the Petersburg Polytechnic was 29 engineers! But what! These people were the backbone of Soviet engineering personnel in the early 20's, their structures (bridges, etc.) are still in operation and are surprisingly reliable.
  10. alone
    alone 27 December 2013 18: 49
    0
    Without education there is no person, without a person there is no society, and without society there is no normal state system. Everything comes down to education. And with such reforms, and even more so reformers, it is not surprising that education is in this state.
  11. makarov
    makarov 27 December 2013 20: 24
    0
    Quote: lonely
    Without education there is no person, without a person there is no society, and without society there is no normal state system. Everything comes down to education. And with such reforms, and even more so reformers, it is not surprising that education is in this state.


    Well said!!!