Military Review

Holy Knight of Russia

16
Holy Knight of RussiaDecember 6 turned 750 years from the day of the death of one of the heavenly patrons of our country, St. pious grand duke Alexander Nevsky. He lived and ruled in a very difficult era. Just in the 13th century, the aggressive nature of the Western world became especially frankly manifested. And even in those days, Western expansion was by no means limited to military campaigns. It was widely complemented by ideological, propaganda operations, the temptations of the "European way of life", the introduction of foreign commercial and financial corporations.


The Orthodox Byzantium became the victim of this onslaught. She embarked on the path of Westernism, opening wide the doors to foreign advisers, merchants, and usurers. As a result, the great empire collapsed over a hundred years and was occupied by the crusaders. But Russia was not far from a similar fate. Western notions, fashion, morals became popular among the nobility. The Baltics initially depended on the Russians. Latvians paid tribute to Polotsk, Estonians to Novgorod. But the Polotsk princes themselves launched into Latvia German preachers, allowed to build fortified villages. Cultural people, why not let it go? And when they came to their senses, it was already too late. The Germans, one by one, crushed the Polotsk princes, took away their possessions.

But other rulers or enmity with the victims or remained indifferent - they are not beaten. Some princes at this time considered it useful to be related with the Germans, Poles, Hungarians, transferred to their service, became related, changed their faith. Novgorodians came to their senses only when the Germans from Latvia climbed into their lands, into Estonia. But the Crusaders promised to pay the same tribute as the Estonians. With tribute, by the way, they deceived, but they beckoned the merchants and boyars with other benefits.

Back in 1228, Prince Yaroslav Vsevolodovich, Alexander's father, intended to crush the Germans, preparing a great campaign in the Baltic States. Already came numerous Vladimir-Suzdal regiments. But suddenly the citizens of Pskov closed the gates in front of the prince. And the supreme authority of Novgorod, the democratic assembly, suddenly decided that it would not fight with the Germans, too, demanded that the Vladimir regiments be removed. Following the regiments kicked out in the neck of the prince himself.

Casket opened simply. At this time, the rich German cities created a trade and political union, the Ganzu. Russian moneybags were also very interested in participating in the “World Trade Organization”. Even with 1227, the top of Novgorod, Pskov, Smolensk, Polotsk conducted secret negotiations in Riga. Smolensk and Polotsk signed contracts with the Bishop of Riga and Ganza, and the Prince and Pskov crossed the path! They signed contracts only after the expulsion of Yaroslav, in 1230. Although it should be noted that the negotiations were not only on trade topics. The plenipotentiary ambassador of the Pope, Bishop of Modensky, participated in them, and the mood of the partners was so encouraging that he enthusiastically wrote to the Vatican - the Russians would easily convert to Catholicism!

Pope Honorius III was delighted, sent out a letter to all Russian princes. He promised them prosperity "in the arms of the Latin Church," and asked them to express "goodwill." But the benefits for Novgorod and Pskov turned out to be doubtful. The treaties on joining the Ganza became unequal, the Germans poured into their markets, but they were not allowed into theirs. Once Novgorodians were famous as seafarers - now their voyages remain only in the epics about the daring Sadko. Foreigners began to suppress Russian shipbuilding and travels around the Baltic. But the Vatican and the Crusaders tried to draw the Pskov and Novgorod citizens into political dependence. Use against their own fellows!

Among the recipients of the papal invitation to cooperate were the “Suzdal king” Yury Vsevolodovich and his brother Yaroslav (recently expelled from Novgorod). They did not hurry to “express good will” to betray Orthodoxy. On the contrary, they ordered the Catholic preachers to leave their possessions. Then the Western partners pushed Novgorod and Pskov to unleash a war against Yuri and Yaroslav! They were declared enemies of republican "freedoms", veche "democracy". Although in the XIII century. Such slogans did not deceive the majority of Russian people. The common people loved Yaroslav. When the boyars announced that they had to fight him, the mob rebelled and overthrew the pro-German party. Traitors fled to the Germans. Yaroslav Vsevolodovich returned to Novgorod, and he still reprimanded the knights, in 1232 he defeated the Emaygi River on the ice. The Crusaders asked for peace; they had to repudiate attempts to crush Pskov and Novgorod. And next to Yaroslav he studied his 11-year-old son Alexander, his military skills.

But soon the situation changed. In 1237, hordes of Batu poured into Rus. Burning Ryazan, Moscow, Vladimir, Grand Prince Yury Vsevolodovich died in the City. And at the same time, Pope Gregory IX declared a crusade "against the pagans and Russians"! Success seemed to be one hundred percent. The Russians were exsanguinated. With the mediation of the Pope, they concluded an alliance with the Livonian Order, Denmark and Sweden, signed an agreement in Stanby in 1238. And in Russia, the Germans still had quite a few supporters. Now they have an additional argument - they must surrender to foreigners, and they will protect from the Tatars ...

In the literature, for some reason, it is customary to divide the attacks of the Germans and the Swedes. In fact, these were parts of a single plan. In 1240, the Swedes were supposed to hit Novgorod from the Neva, and the Germans from Pskov. Birger was just a bit ahead. Therefore, he was in no hurry, camped. Crusaders will begin the offensive - and the Russians will be seen between two fires. But the young Prince Alexander suspected double danger. He also knew that the veche was unreliable. He did without a veche, without mobilizing the general militia. He rushed at the enemy with a personal squad and a handful of volunteers, but he appeared on the Neva swiftly and scored his first victory, earning the nickname Nevsky.

Success was extremely timely. The Germans were only a few weeks late. They took Izborsk by storm, and besieged Pskov. A city with stone walls could hold on for a long time, but the boyar Tverdilo Ivankovich and his accomplices entered into negotiations and in September 1240 was surrendered to Pskov. Recognized the citizenship of the Order, for this Tverdilo was appointed German governor. From Novgorod to Pskov was closer than to the Neva. The prince would have enough time to rescue. But ... in Novgorod, too, the Ivankovichi hard winners took the upper hand! The boyars in the veche forbade Nevsky to gather troops, moreover, they provoked a riot. The prince who just saved the Novgorod land was kicked out! He went to his tribal Pereslavl-Zalessky.

However, the Russian Westerners miscalculated. The occupants judged that you can no longer flirt with them! Pskov obeyed. On another site, the northern one, the knights crossed the border, bribed the foremen of the Vozhan tribe, and built the Koporye fortress. Crusaders unceremoniously divided the village, free Russian peasants turned into slaves. All trade trapped Riga merchants. A German garrison and two Focht rulers were stationed in Pskov. They themselves enacted laws, exactions, rebellious executed. They crossed the Russians into Catholicism, the pope gave the Novgorod land to the bishop Heinrich Eselsky beforehand. Traitors left only the role of servants - to follow the instructions of the owners. From Koporye and Pskov, knights raided, burned villages, slaughtered and drove people near Novgorod itself. Even those who were at first inclined to succumb to the Order thought to themselves. Not expected ...

Appealed for help to the Grand Duke Vladimir Yaroslav, to his son Alexander. And who else could save Novgorod? During the Tatar invasion, Yaroslav managed to preserve the core of the Vladimir regiments, Alexander was an unsurpassed commander. But he was also a real Christian, he did not remember offenses. He demanded only one, full power at the time of the war. The first counterattack beat off Koporye. In the fall of 1241, his father sent him Vladimir regiments, and Alexander liberated Pskov by a decisive assault. But the enemies were gathering all the forces - the knights of the Livonian Order, the Danes, rose. It was then that the Ice Battle occurred.

Falsifiers tend to lower its value, referring to supposedly small losses - 400-500 knights. Forgetting that knights are notable fighters, unit commanders. For comparison, in 1214, the 70 of the German knights fell in the battle with the French under Buvin, and all of Europe spoke of the severe defeat of the Germans. 400-500 died on the Knights of Lake Peipsi, and 50 was captured! This figure does not apply to ordinary warriors, no one considered them, the corpses lay on "seven miles". It is not by chance that the chronicles called the battle a “slaughter”. The extent of the defeat is confirmed by the reaction of the enemies. The Germans were in complete shock, waited for the invasion, the master of the Order of Balk begged for the salvation of the Danish king, Pope. But Alexander soberly estimated that Russia is not in a position to fight for the Baltic States. Victory he used to make peace. And he warned the enemies very eloquently, slightly paraphrasing the words of the Gospel: “He who comes to us with a sword will perish by the sword. That was where the Russian land stood and will stand. ”

Well, the battle on Lake Peipsi was sung in many works, films. But she unwittingly overshadowed the other achievements of St.. Alexandra. The prince almost a dozen times crushed the Lithuanians, suppressing their raids on Russia. He revived after the Batu invasions of the city, temples, administrative structures. But before the holy prince got another feat. The feat of the greatest humility. He needed to bow his head before the Horde! For the first time since the formation of the Russian state to submit to foreigners! However, the most power was not. A scattering of specific principalities, quarreled among themselves, could not oppose the Khan hordes. It was possible to perish heroically. But ... it meant finally destroy Russia.

Alexander realized this. He took upon himself the feat of humility. Very difficult feat. His father was poisoned. He himself had to go to bow to the Volga, to the Shed, or even far away to the Mongolian Karakorum. True, there was an alternative. Union with the West against the Horde! Pope Innocent IV twice sent respectable embassies led by Cardinals Gold and Gement to Nevsky, wrote personal messages. He was tempted to go to the Latin faith, promised for this all-round support, an alliance with the Crusaders.

Alexander perfectly understood where the papal diplomacy is aimed. Substitute Russia, pitting her with the Horde. Distract the Tatars from hiking in Europe, let them kill the Russians. And the West will take over what remains of our country. In the examples of Byzantium and the recent occupation of the Pskov region, it was obvious that the Europeans see in the Russian principalities in any way not allies, but prey. It was clear and more. Western invaders, unlike the Mongol khans, are not content with tribute. They do not leave any independence to the conquered lands, either spiritual or political. Enslave completely, destroy Orthodoxy.

The prince answered Innocent with a fair amount of irony: “From Adam to the flood, from the flood to the separation of languages, from the separation of languages ​​to the beginning of Abraham, from Abraham to the passage of Israel through the Red Sea, from the exodus of the sons of Israel to the death of King David, from the beginning of the kingdom of Solomon to August the king, from the beginning of Augustus to the Nativity of Christ, from the Nativity of Christ to the Suffering and Resurrection of the Lord, from His Resurrection to Ascension to Heaven, from the Ascension to Heaven to the Kingdom of Konstantinov, from the beginning of the Kingdom of Konstantinov to the first Cathedral, from the first until the seventh all Obora well ignorant, and by teaching you do not accept. " Soon after such a response, Nevsky became seriously ill. Apparently, he was poisoned. He was considered hopeless, but he still survived.

And the consequences that would lead to the opposite choice, история presented us very clearly. In Russia there were two pillars, two outstanding military leaders and politicians, of sv. Alexander Nevsky and Daniel Galitsky. And he made a different decision. He entered into an agreement with the Pope about subordinating the Russian church to him, and received from Rome the royal crown. He dragged Nevsky’s brother, Andrei, into the union. But dad announced a crusade against both Tatars and ... Russians. In 1253, the Western coalition launched an offensive in a very curious combination. On one flank, the Livonian crusaders laid siege to Pskov. On the other, Daniel Galitsky with the Lithuanians spoke to Kiev.

No, among Pskov and Novgorod traitors no longer existed. The Germans broke in so that it did not seem enough. And Galitsky was beaten by the Tatars, but suddenly he learned that the Allied Lithuanians were burning and robbing his own cities. Turned on them. Meanwhile, the Horde crushed hapless Andrei Yaroslavich. And then they flooded the possessions of Daniel Galitsky. They ordered the prince and his subjects to destroy their own fortresses, to single out the ratification against the Lithuanians, the Poles. South Russia turned into a battlefield, was completely devastated. Soon the Lithuanians and the Poles divided it and finally got their hands on it.

Thanks to the wise policy of Alexander Nevsky, Northern Russia resisted. But it was not at all cheap. In our time, bikes have been bred, as if there was no Horde yoke, but a mutually beneficial symbiosis of the Horde and Russia was formed. This is nothing more than cheap pseudo-sensation. The period, more or less reminiscent of cooperation, turned out to be short - during the rule of Batu and his son Sartak. But in the Horde, the Khazar Kaganate began to revive, destroyed three hundred years ago. The descendants of the Khazars, the Khorezm merchants and Jews from the Black Sea cities, rushed to the Shed. They organized a coup, enthroned their protege Burke. He needed money to build a new capital Saray-Berke, he was going to fight with relatives, Iranian Hulagids - he did not share the Transcaucasus with them.

The merchants would give as much gold as they wanted, and in return they would pay a tribute to pay. In cities, "besmermens and Jews" with detachments appeared, committing excesses, robbing people, and capturing the slaves in debt. Well, the princes received the order of Khan to lead troops to him, go to the Caucasus. Although these plans of the Horde turned out to be crumpled. In Yaroslavl, Ustyug, Vladimir, Suzdal, Kostroma, Rostov, the Russian people could not bear the violence and rampant tax collectors, they rose to destroy them. Berke was furious, was ready to throw punitive on Russia.

What could the grand duke do? He could execute the first participants in the rebellion, buy off the khan with their heads. Alexander had just made the shelves for a new campaign on the Order. It was necessary to bring him to Burke, to cajole him — well, they say, they are ready to fight for you. The Russian warriors will go to unknown lands, they will not die for what they are in Khan's strife ... No, Alexander did not punish his subjects, and he also did not fulfill the order to send troops. Instead of the Caucasus, he gave the last command to the warriors - forward to Estonia. And I went to the khan alone. For certain death. What kind of punishment could have expected him for rebellion and apparent disobedience? ... The last campaign organized by Nevsky was victorious, like all his campaigns. Son Dmitriy and brother Yaroslav stormed on taking the powerful fortress of Dorpat, the Order panicked, concluded the world "in full freedom" of the Russians.

But Alexander himself at that time was actually sacrificing himself. Appeared before Burke, trying to save his native country. True, he thought out the arguments sensibly and irresistibly. Give troops? Have mercy, great king, but it means to bare the boundaries of your own ulus. Give it to the Germans. Rebellion? It is the dealers themselves who are to blame. Russia does not refuse to pay, but if you completely ruin people, how will they pay? Why cut the hen that lays the golden eggs? But would it not be more correct to remove tax collectors at all? To collect tribute collected Russian princes, and not visiting likhimtsy?

A miracle happened. Berke did not execute Alexander, did not send punishers. Because Nevsky was absolutely right. Even from the Khan's point of view, everything worked out logically. Khan agreed with the prince. But he saw through both: Nevsky conducts his own policy. Not for him, not for the Horde, but for Russia. Berke no longer trusted Alexander. I have mercy, but I did not allow me to go home. Throughout the winter of 1262, the spring and summer of 1263, the prince stayed in Saray, wandering with the khan's rate on the steppe. Affected and extreme nervous tension, and unusual climate. Alexander is seriously ill. Only then did Berke release him. On the road, it got worse. In Gorodtsa-Volzhsky, with his brother Andrew, he completely collapsed. He turned just 43 year, but he gave himself without a trace - and gave. Burned bright and fast.

Finally, Alexander asked to mow him in his schema. So his youthful dream of monasticism came true. Meekly asked for forgiveness from all, Holy Tain received communion ... In Vladimir at that time Metropolitan Kirill served in the Assumption Cathedral. Suddenly he was stunned by the vision. Alexander himself stood before him. Quiet, bright. He looked at the saint and began to retire to the heights, melted. Metropolitan guessed what it means. He came out to the people with tears and said: “The sun of the Russian land has gone down!” Nobody understood him, and Cyril squeezed out through sobs: “My dear children, know that now the blessed prince great Alexander reposed!” The answer to him was a common, unanimous cry: "We are lost! ..."

It was really so. St. Alexander was the last sovereign, whose colossal authority and talents kept at least the northern part of Russia from disintegration. Nevsky was gone, and she collapsed chaos after the south. Crumbled on udelchiki. Alexander could well have replaced his son Dmitry, an honest, deeply religious, brilliant commander. However, the Novgorodians rebelled and expelled him for the sake of democratic "freedoms". Even his brother Andrei came out against him. I decided to seize the throne of the Grand Duke, slandered Dmitry before the khan, began bringing Tatars against him, indiscriminately burning and plundering Russian cities. The Tver, Rostov, Yaroslavl princes intervened in the fights.

Nevertheless, the Lord did not leave our country. Nevsky's youngest son, Daniel, was born two years before his father’s death. Inheritance he got quite poor. Outskirts of Moscow on the border with Smolensk and Ryazan possessions. Daniel did not get into a mess of strife. He took up farming. He began to improve and establish his small principality. To him from the ruined lands began to flow people. By the way, he also became a saint - St. Daniel of Moscow. In the whirlwind of gloom and doom, a sprout of a new Russian state emerged. Thus, the date of the 750 anniversary of the death of St. Alexander coincides with another important anniversary - this is 750 since the birth of the Moscow principality.

And the people of St. Alexander earned a reputation as a defender of his native country. People prayed to him during the Tatar invasions of Moscow, in the hard times of the Troubles, in the struggle with the Swedes over the Baltic. By the way, in 1941, in the battle near Moscow, the Kalininsky Front struck a distracting blow on December 5. Well, the main blow of the Western and South-Western fronts crushed the Germans exactly 6 December. On the day of St. Alexander Nevsky. Do you think it is a coincidence?
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  1. avt
    avt 14 December 2013 10: 16
    +9
    Yeah ! Liberals - common people of all stripes pour over it pretty much with slop. Well, as it is, Petrusha №1, our European integrator was also a fighter against the "mossy" kingdom of Muscovites, and he couldn't do without the relics of the prince - he built and moved the cathedral in St. Petersburg.
  2. kair_kz
    kair_kz 14 December 2013 11: 26
    10
    Alexander Nevsky in 21 year defeated the Germans in Chudsky ...
  3. Orang
    Orang 14 December 2013 12: 02
    +8
    Great person. Not him, there would be Russia, Russia. On his bones pretty much every bastard has been dancing lately, they cannot forgive.
  4. Walking
    Walking 14 December 2013 13: 28
    +6
    Worship of the West did not bring to good.
    1. Alexey K.
      Alexey K. 17 December 2013 13: 16
      0
      This is absolutely true. Confirmation is the response of the Holy Right Prince Alexander Nevsky to the papal envoys:

      Once the ambassadors from the pope from the great Rome came to him with the following words: “Our pope says this: We heard that you are a worthy and glorious prince and your land is great. Therefore, they sent to you from the twelve cardinals of the two most skilled ... so that you would listen to their teaching on the law of God. "

      Prince Alexander, having thought with his sages, wrote to him, so to speak: “From Adam to the flood, from the flood to the separation of languages, from the mixing of languages ​​to the beginning of Abraham, from Abraham to the passage of Israel through the Red Sea, from the exodus of the sons of Israel to death King David, from the beginning of the kingdom of Solomon to August the king, from the beginning of August and before Christ Christmas, from the Nativity of Christ to the Suffering and Resurrection of the Lord, from His Resurrection to the Ascension to Heaven, from the Ascension to Heaven and to the kingdom of Konstantinov, from the beginning of the kingdom of Konstantinov to the first cathedral, from the first cathedral to the seventh — we all know well, but we don’t accept teachings from you. "They returned home."

      Holy noble prince Alexander pray to God for us!
  5. z-exit
    z-exit 14 December 2013 13: 55
    -6
    I didn't like the article as a whole. Especially loud lines about "democratic freedoms" look ridiculous, this is not an article about Euromaidan, well, it’s not good for her! The author may be surprised, but in those days it was not accepted to call about it, and first of all in the West itself. The form of government in those days was feudal. Rather, it was a social order. This system did not resemble any democracy even close. A dozen slaves followed each knight. In short, nonsense.
    And about the degeneration of the Horde into a kaganate, this is generally a gag of pure water and near-scientific nonsense, forgive me.
  6. predator.3
    predator.3 14 December 2013 17: 20
    +4
    Absolutely correct article!
  7. w2000
    w2000 14 December 2013 19: 01
    -4
    Yes, Alexander Nevsky was a hero and a patriot. But why in the title of the article drag in the Russian Orthodox Church obscurantism and religious PGM? What kind of lord, saints and metropolitans? Quite already, the brains must dry out in order to seriously discuss historical events from the medieval position of religious obscurantism in the 21st century.
    1. Uhe
      Uhe 14 December 2013 23: 12
      -7
      But why.

      "From 1240 to 1243, the southern Russian princes refused and stubbornly resisted to bow down to the Horde. In the north, the Novgorod lands, Polotsk, Turovo-Pinsk and Smolensk principalities escaped the Tatar pogroms and saved manpower. That would be great warrior Alexander and unite Russian forces in one fist, and strike at the Tatars.

      He did not do this, but instead embarked on the path of direct betrayal. In 1249, Alexander and his brother Andrei, once again returning from the Karakoram, brought the labels requested from the Tatars to the principalities. Andrei received Vladimir, and Alexander, as the adopted son of Batu Khan, received Kiev and all of Russia. By the way, his father Yaroslav died back in 1246, having managed to destroy Mikhail Chernigovsky with his denunciation to the Horde and then tidying his lands to himself.

      In 1250, Daniil Galitsky married his daughter to the Grand Duke of Vladimir Andrei (brother Alexander), thus securing a secret military alliance against the Tatars, to which Yaroslav Tverskaya also joined.

      In 1252, Andrei invited his brother Alexander to join the alliance against the Tatars, but Alexander informed him of the khan. Here you have a saint! For loyal service, the khan awarded Alexander the Principality of Andrei to Vladimir. And Alexander himself led the horde of Nevruy to Russia for reprisal against Andrei, but he managed to escape to Sweden. Alexander also reported on Daniel Galitsky, after which the khan sent the Kuremsa horde to Daniel.

      In 1257, Alexander Nevsky agreed to the census of Russia for the full imposition of its tribute, and submission to the khan of Novgorod.

      However, Novgorod refused to go under the arm of the khan. The rebellious townspeople were supported by Prince Vasily, the son of Alexander. Alexander arrived with the Tatars, grabbed his son in Pskov and took him to Vladimir. Boyar, opponents of the Horde, ordered to blind. But only in 1259 Novgorod submitted. However, even this seemed to Alexander the Traitor (as he was called in Russia) not enough. In 1262, uprisings broke out throughout Russia against the Tatar-Baskaks, collectors of tribute. In Novgorod, Suzdal, Yaroslavl, Vladimir, the Rusyns killed the Tatars and the wardens of Alexander Nevsky. Well, and Alexander, of course, supported the uprising of the people against the foreign yoke? No matter how it is! Alexander Nevsky made his choice, as before, exclusively in his own favor - together with the Tatar army, he suppressed the uprising with incredible cruelty. Alexander's warriors, no worse than the Tatars, cut off their fingers, ears and noses, whipped and blinded. Burned Rus! After the suppression of the uprising, Alexander ordered to disperse in all cities of North-Eastern Russia the veche, which raised people to the uprising. "

      It should be remembered that it was the ROC (or whatever it was called at that time) that received liberation from tribute by the Mongols, preserved and increased its wealth, including slaves, and significantly expanded its influence. But the Mongols fought fiercely with the pagans, finally exterminating all the Russian Magi at that time and driving the rest of the Russians underground (remember that in the agreement between the Rus and the Greeks, Svyatoslav wrote "Rus and Christians", that is, Rus and Christians are different concepts;)) ... Therefore, the one who fought on the side of the Mongols and Chingizids became a saint, and the rest - enemies;)

      Strictly speaking, it was Alexander Nevsky who helped establish the real Horde yoke over Russia, setting up the mechanisms of this to suppress the Slavs and collect tribute from them. You can study real chronicles and historical works, and not myths like "the life of a saint" or history textbooks for grade 5;) You will learn many funny facts about this "saint".
      1. Walking
        Walking 15 December 2013 16: 16
        +2
        If Alexander Nevsky joined the alliance against the Tatars, then Russia would probably not exist at all. The Mongol-Tatars were strong and could cut all the Rus. Gathering an alliance, neither Galitsky nor Andrei understood that they could not win. And the South Russian princes so proud surrendered their lands and people to the West, that’s where the betrayal is.
        It was the descendants of Alexander who began to revive Russia and southern Russia for many years remained under the Germans, Poles. As a result, we have not a united Russia but also Belarus and Ukraine.
      2. Prometey
        Prometey 16 December 2013 09: 01
        +1
        Quote: Uhe
        But the Mongols fought fiercely with the pagans, finally exterminating at that time all the Russian Magi

        And why did they need it at all?
  8. psyholirik
    psyholirik 15 December 2013 13: 44
    +6
    correct article well done author!
  9. unknown
    unknown 15 December 2013 18: 34
    -1
    More than a quarter century ago, teachers taught us students that there was no Tatar-Mongol yoke.
    They relied on dialectical and historical materialism. Well, cattle-breeding civilization could not concentrate such resources that allowed them to reach the country of Jews (Europe).
    Even completely disgusting to our culture, but the established custom of redeeming the bride was intended to weaken the newly created family of herders.

    The theory of the Tatar-Mongol yoke itself was invented by the Germans to justify the rights of the new Romanov dynasty.
    The Tatar-Mongol yoke is a non-commissioned officer widow who carved herself
    Before the Zionist coups, they wrote Magol. From the word "magician" - "great"
    And in the word "Tatar" two consonants are missing. That's right: "Tarkhtar". Tarkh and Tara-brother and sister, children of the god Perun, patrons of the ancient Slavs
    Modern Tatars are "Bulgars", in Russian - Volgars, more precisely Volgar-Türks
    Alexander Nevsky is a mythical person, like the Germans of that time, more precisely the Germans-Germans.
    Slavic Germans who lived along the Neman River, and "German" - "relative".
    The very formation of the German language, respectively, of the people, as well as other Jewish (European) languages ​​and peoples, began during the Great Troubles, which they like to call the Reformation, and in Russia
    called the Jewish (merchant) heresy. As a result of the turmoil, the old state was destroyed.
    Each of the created peoples stole part of the history of the old state. The basis of new languages ​​is Latin. Latin is the artificial creation itself, created by Stepan of Perm (Stefan of Parma in the Jewish tradition) based on the Old Slavonic initial. Canonization SP is a political act of the Romanov ROC. Continuation of the canonization of the joint venture of modern Russian Orthodox Church idiocy.
    Russia has not been able to recover from the Great Troubles so far. For more than 400 years Russia has been ruled by henchmen of Western Jewish families. Even after Catherine II was able to unite Muscovy and the Great Tarkhtaria, she did not begin to rewrite history, but, on the contrary, sold Russian history to the class of Jews (merchants), laying the foundation for the history of "the oldest of the peoples"
    1. Walking
      Walking 15 December 2013 19: 09
      +1
      where have you been taught this? In which country? It seems that in the USSR, the programs for universities were the same.
  10. unknown
    unknown 15 December 2013 19: 28
    +1
    The programs were the same, and the teachers were different.

    Many were not afraid to express their own, different from the official, but well-grounded opinion.
    For example, Vladlen Georgievich Sirotkin said that the uprising of the Decembrists, sung by Soviet historical science, is an ordinary coup d'état aimed at putting his king on the throne.

    In addition, in the specialized universities there was and still exists a discipline called historiography,
    which just encourages the study of various approaches, directions, trends within the same topic.
    This discipline is the most difficult of the profile ones, as it involves not only the availability of extensive and deep knowledge, but also certain intellectual abilities.
    It was difficult for those who studied "in the back seat" in this discipline.
    1. OLGRIN
      OLGRIN 16 December 2013 08: 53
      0
      Only the motto of the Decembrists was:
      - The constitution!
      Or wasn’t it again?
  11. Selynin
    Selynin 18 December 2013 08: 42
    0
    A very good article and quite correctly it shows the role of the Orthodox Church in the life of people of that time.