One of the most glorious feats, which is known from different historical publications, including from the classic novel "War and Peace" by L. Tolstoy, was the act of General Nikolai Nikolaevich Raevsky. During the battle with the superior forces of the enemy, Raevsky with his two teenage sons rushed into battle with the words: “Forward, guys, for the Tsar and for the Fatherland! I and my children, whom I sacrifice, let us open the way for you! " Russian soldiers, inspired by this call, went on the attack and defeated the French.
S.N. Glinka wrote devoted to this feat “Poems to General Rajewski. 1812 year ":
Generous Russian warrior,
You should be commended for everyone:
Himself and the young two sons -
You bring everything to the king and to God;
Your deeds are stronger than all words
Leading Russian lions to battle,
Said: "We will not regret the sons,
I'm ready to lie with them,
To anger only enemies to stop! ..
We are Russians! .. we can die.
We know many examples when, at the time of serious military tests, the Russian generals did not hide their sons from danger in the rear and headquarters, but sent them to the most dangerous places of battles, considering it their duty to show soldiers and officers going to death the unity of their own destinies and equality in sacrifice in the name of the motherland. And this tradition of commanders of the Russian army was especially vividly manifested during the Second World War 1914-1918.
Unfortunately, the feats of the Russian soldiers in this first world-wide war, which should have become an example and experience for the Soviet soldiers to fight the German aggressor, were not only forgotten in the 1941 year, but for almost a century were hidden and distorted by the political speculations of ideologues.
One of these family exploits in the first year of World War I was the tragic death of a father and son from the famous military noble family of the Lopukhins.
Lopukhins are a noble family, raised in 1689, thanks to the marriage of Evdokia Lopukhina and Tsar Peter Alekseevich. They were descendants of the Kosozhsky Prince Redded, owned lands and served in various ranks in the Novgorod principality and in the Moscow State. Lopukhins served as voivods, occupied positions in the Boyar Duma and by the end of the XVII century were among the most wealthy and influential noble families of the Russian state. Of the Lopukhins, 7 boyars, 6 okolnichy, 3 dumae nobleman, 11 governor, 9 governor-generals and governors, 13 generals, 2 admiral. Lopukhins served as ministers and senators, headed the Cabinet of Ministers and the State Council. In 1799, by decree of Emperor Paul I, a real Privy Counselor, Minister of Justice and Prosecutor General Peter V. Lopukhin, with his descendants descending into the princely Russian empire, with the title of Serene.
Varvara Aleksandrovna Lopukhina (Bakhmeteva) entered the history of poetic Russia - the main youthful love of the great poet-officer Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov, to whom he (although addressing another) devoted thin and sad lines:
No, I do not love you so passionately,
Not for me is your brilliance beautiful;
I love in you, I past suffering
And the youth of my deceased.
When I look at you sometimes,
In your eyes, penetrating a long look:
Mysterious, I'm busy talking,
But I'm not talking to you with my heart.
I speak with a friend of young days,
Looking for other features in your features
In the mouths of the living mouth long dumb,
In the eyes of the fire of extinct eyes.
The history of these romantic relationships indirectly affected the family of Varvara Alexandrovna's brother - Alexei Alexandrovich Lopukhin, a friend and former classmate M.Yu. Lermontov at Moscow University. The great poet responded to the birth of his son Alexander by the famous poem “The Child of a Lovely Birth”. This “cute child” not only became a well-known lawyer in Russia, but also the father of Dmitry Alexandrovich Lopukhin, one of the first heroes of the 1914-1918 war.
Dmitry Alexandrovich (pictured) was born in 1865 year and passed the traditional way for his family: he graduated from the Oryol gymnasium, and then became, like his grandfather and father, a student at Moscow University, where he studied at the Faculty of Law. But, apparently, the “military bone” of the generals and admirals of the Lopukhins took their toll, Dmitri Aleksandrovich suddenly interrupted his legal career and, having passed the officer examination at the Alexander NNXX military Alexander School, in 3, he began his military service to the Fatherland with the 1888 n Dragoon gender of the Nizhny Novgorod gender. Later on, his brilliant education at Moscow University allowed him to complete the NN Nikolaev Academy of the General Staff in 44 for the 1900 category.
His service was so successful that by the time of the Russian-Japanese war he was already a lieutenant colonel, and for his military service in the ranks of the Russian cavalry on the battlefields of Japan and being wounded at Liaoyan he was promoted to colonel. Dmitri Alexandrovich was simultaneously considered a talented staff specialist and one of the best cavalry commanders. Therefore, after a successful service in the General Staff, he was appointed in the rank of Major General as commander of the famous Life Guards Horse Grenadier Regiment, stationed in one of the most beautiful palace suburbs of St. Petersburg - Peterhof.
In the famous folk work "Zhuravel" XIX-XX centuries. the following couplets sang about the soldiers of this regiment:
Black horses are torn,
The songs are loud.
This is the Horse Grenadiers
On the enemy in a campaign hurry.
Platoon after platoon
Dignified slender ranks,
Song loudly announced
It is true there was a joking couplet about these daring warriors:
Best of all take the barriers -
These are horse-grenadiers.
Who drinks Madeira without measure?
This equestrian grenadiers!
Dmitry Alexandrovich became the last Peterhof commander of this outstanding regiment.
Having gone to the fronts of the Great War of 1914-1918, this glorious military unit of the Russian army never returned to its historical barracks ...
The family life of General Lopukhin was romantically rooted. He met and immediately fell in love with the bright oriental beauty of Princess Elizabeth M. Sultan-Giray. Soon they were married according to the Orthodox rite. Her father, Mikhail Mikhailovich (Tahtamysh) Sultan Giray came from the Crimean sultans and was married to the princess Rodam Rostomovna Abashidze. He graduated from the Nikolaev Cavalry School in St. Petersburg and, while serving as a staff officer for special assignments at the General Department of Horse Breeding, he was particularly proud of his service in the 45 dragoon His Imperial Highness the Tsar Heir to the Tsarevich Regiment. This service in the dragoon shelves especially brought together father Elizabeth Mikhailovna and Dmitry Alexandrovich.
In 1892, the son of George Dmitrievich was born in the Lopukhins family. He, like his father, graduated from the Oryol gymnasium and became a cavalry officer - he joined the cornet in the Life Guards Horse Grenadier Regiment, commanded by his father. When the First World War began, they, together with their regiment, made part of the Russian Guard in East Prussia.
The battles of the Russian armies in this militant German territory were very successful at the beginning of that military operation. Russian troops defeated the Gumbenen-Goldapa battle 20 August 1914. But subsequent tactical and strategic miscalculations forced our troops to leave the territory of East Prussia. During the fighting, the famous cavalry battle of Kaushen took place. The heavy character of this battle is evidenced by the loss of the Russian cavalry. Two regiments of the 1 Guards Cavalry Division (Cavalry Guards and Equestrian Life Guards) lost more than half of their officers killed and wounded. Total losses were about 380 people. The Germans lost 1200 people. The Russian cavalry, especially the Guards, covered itself with unfading glory. German lines were broken through, fortified villages and field guns were taken.
One of the commanders-heroes of this cavalry battle was Major General D.А. Lopukhin. He personally traveled to the front line and, under enemy fire, gave orders, encouraging the fighters with his own example. Next to him, in the forward detachment of the dismounted advancing cavalrymen of the 6 Squadron of the Grenadier Regiment, his son Cornet George Lopukhin participated, who on that day 6 of August 1914 of the year accomplished a military feat.
This is how popular rumor describes its history: under the deadly shelling of the Germans, the hurried ranks of cavalry grenadiers launched an attack on the enemy. The stubborn resistance of the Germans forced the Russian Guards to stop. Suddenly, in front of his father, who commanded the entire attack of the guards regiments, Cornet Lopukhin rose to his full height and called on his soldiers to march on the enemy. The German soldiers fired a few rifle volleys over the brave Russian officer. The hero-officer staggered and grabbed his injured side. Then he straightened up and began again to raise the soldiers to the attack, but, struck down by several more enemy bullets in the chest, fell dead ...
In 1914, the patriotic upsurge of the entire population of the Russian Empire was not cold, and any feat on the front was not only discussed in newspapers and numerous military publications, but also displayed in posters, paintings, cheap popular prints, etc.
Therefore, the feat of Cornet Lopukhin, a young handsome man, a cavalry officer, and the grief of seeing the death of his father’s son, became particularly tragic in the public mind. Famous typography I.D. Sytin in Moscow at the end of 1914, a poster was published titled "The feat of Cornet GD. Lopukhina "(in the photo that opens the article). Very interesting artistic decision of this poster. Against the background of the pink-blue, gentle hills of East Prussia, Russian cavalry dismounted under the light, in traveling clouds, sky trying to capture the German height. They lay down and shoot from the defending enemy. A young cavalry cornet officer, Georgi Lopukhin, took the killed soldier’s rifle in his right hand and rose to his full height, calling on Russian soldiers to attack. At this time, several German bullets pierce his chest and, having pressed his white-gloved left hand to the wound, begins to lean back. Paint paintings emphasize the tragic, but bright in its spirituality, the death of a young commander, leading his soldiers to battle with the enemy. The essence of this rather traditional feat for Russian officers was noted with pride and bitterness in his diaries by the Minister of War of the Russian Empire, Infantry General A.A. Polivanov: “... a Russian soldier fights stubbornly and will climb anywhere, as long as there is an officer who leads him ... So, the officer is always ahead, which is why there is a huge wane among them. The Germans and Austrians are all behind the officers and from there they rule ... ”
Respecting the history of national worship of this feat, I would like to bring real memories of him participating in these events, Colonel Georgy Adamovich Goshtovt, while a young officer of the Life Guard Regiment of the Cuirassier. Here is what he wrote in his book “Causen”: “Fate led me to be a witness and participant in the battle, in which regiments and batteries of the Guards Cavalry, rooted in their centuries-old stories, welded with love for their dear parts, friendship and traditions — showed immeasurable height to prowess and military spirit. Many years have passed from the memorable day of 6 August 1914. Years go on and on in a continuous sequence ... Many of the participants went to the grave ... The memory of the survivors is dulled ... Facewalka destroyed the regimental archives ... Therefore, I found his duty to capture, before it is too late, the glorious Causeni battle, having told about him simply without any comments, as he did in reality ... ".
Here is how he describes this feat: “The 6 th squadron battle was full of tragic beauty — the horse-grenadiers, suffering losses from the enemy’s highest-level adversary fire, continued methodically by rushing. Cornet Lopukhin, being wounded in the shoulder, continued to lead his platoon.
The squadron commander, wanting to push the right flank forward, raised himself to voice the command, but fell heavily wounded. Kornet Kolokoltsev, rising to fulfill an order, was hit by a bullet and fell killed. Following this, the death of the brave already injured cornet Lopukhin.
The only remaining cornet in the ranks, Skryabin, was shell-shocked by a rupture of a shell so hard that it fell unconscious - at first they were sure that he was killed. Squadron was commanded by platoon noncommissioned officers Prass and Krakowiak. Under their leadership, the chains continued to fight at 300 steps, and all the wounded were shooting, who could still hold a rifle in their hands. There were only twenty people left in the squadron. ”
According to Goshtovt, General Lopukhin did not see his son’s death: “General Lopukhin took over the leadership of all the units operating at Opelišken. At the dressing station, he gathered chiefs for the meeting. It was decided to attack the village again. Causen. Lopukhin said the words: "The resistance of the Germans must be broken!". Inquiring about the casualties of the captain Skuratov, he asked about his only son, a junior officer of the 6 squadron. Skuratov did not dare to tell him the truth immediately, but reported that he was seriously wounded in the arm. ”
The behavior of General Lopukhin at the moment when he was finally informed about the death of his only son is striking in its harsh simplicity and internal tragedy. This is how General A.E. describes this event in his military front-line diaries. Snesarev: “... The State Duma honored memory of deputy Alekseenko, a really good and hardworking person, by abandoning a large and urgent matter, what everyone is now. We have front-line soldiers - the opposite attitude to duty. General Lopukhin's only son is killed. He shakes himself, is baptized, and then says: "Let us pray and burn later, now we must continue the work." Would good Alekseenko be glad when he learned that the rear statesmen honored his memory by doing nothing in the fatal moments of the life of the state? But the combat general, having lost his only son, is ready to continue the common cause. There is, therefore, a belief in this great cause, and he will not disgrace the memory of the deceased. ”
At this most tragic moment of his life, General Lopukhin, who took the life of his only son, adequately fulfilled his duty as a Russian military leader. The general’s combat actions were immortalized in the words of the order awarding him, because “directing the 6 of August under Causen at the center and the left flank of the battle formation, he was personally in combat lines all the time, who, despite the fierce artillery and rifle fire of the enemy , riding around, especially raising the spirits of his units, keeping the positions occupied from the beginning of the battle, despite the stubborn and energetic attempts of the Germans to embrace the left flank and knock down the center on the highway, which was concentrated especially strong frontal and flank . S enemy artillery and rifle Encouraging personal example, all part of its order of battle, they moved forward with the battle took the position of the enemy, inflicting huge losses and that especially contributed to the ultimate success of the battle - the complete defeat of the German infantry brigade with 3-batteries on me. "
Dmitry Alexandrovich did not leave us his letters and diaries. 20 November 1914 of the year he was mortally wounded in the battle of Belkhatov, defending the direction of Petrok from the advancing Germanic regiments.
Three days later, on November 23, 1914, an outstanding cavalry commander of the Russian Guard, Major General Dmitry Alexandrovich Lopukhin, died of wounds in a military hospital in Warsaw. Posthumously, he was awarded the Emperor Nicholas II the highest military order of the Russian Empire, the Order of St. George the Victorious.
Today, the descendants of the Lopukhin family live in Russia, Poland, Ukraine, France, USA, Canada, Great Britain, Sweden and, I hope, not only they know and remember the feat of the father and son of the Lopukhins, the general and officer of the Russian army who honestly gave their lives for the Faith, Tsar and Fatherland.
“Honor is the desire to be a noble, higher being of inner virtues, to commit acts worthy of glory, without any compulsion from without and without any other reward, except for the approval of his conscience.” (Field Marshal PA Rumyantsev).