Military Review

He kept Russia from the abyss of disaster

14
Near Kharkov, a monument to Emperor Alexander III


He kept Russia from the abyss of disasterAn electric train from Kharkov to the Spastov Skit platform takes just over an hour, via Meref, in the direction of Lozovaya. We are approaching the place where 125 years ago the imperial train crashed. That was a truly miraculous event, “the miracle of God, which appeared on the Anointed One of God,” - the salvation of the august family, because then many people died. On the way, we talk about the most beloved Russian Sovereign, Alexander III Alexandrovich. My unfamiliar companions remember his unfading statements: "Russia has only two allies - the army and the navy" or "When the Russian tsar fishes, Europe can wait."

The name “Spasov Skit” was returned to the platform in 2003, when the restored Chapel of the Holy Face was consecrated - at the very railway track, on the slope of the embankment, “49 miles from Kharkov”, right on the spot where in 1888, on the day of remembrance Rev. Martyr Andrew of Crete, that is, October 17, according to Art. Art., at 14 hours 14 minutes the train went off the rails, in which the Russian Emperor Alexander III and his family were traveling from Crimea to St. Petersburg. Nearby is the station and the village of Borki, by whose name it is named historical and spiritual event: the collapse of the Royal train in Borki.

The Sovereign, who was in the dining room carriage, was hardly hurt then, as were his family members.

This act invariably admires: a man of remarkable physical strength, uncommon fortitude, the Emperor kept the ceiling of the car that came off the rails on his shoulders until his family left and the servants who were at that moment in the dining room.
Once again we recall that at the time of the crash there was only Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna (later a famous artist), thrown together with her nanny on the embankment, and the juvenile Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich, taken out of the wreckage of the guard, with the help of the Emperor himself.

In memory of that event, the Savior skete was then established, attributed to the Holy Dormition Svyatogorsk monastery not so far away (in modern times, from 2004, Laurus), which is on the Donets River.

30 October with. We arrived at the Savior skete to consecrate the new monument to Sovereign Alexander III, whom the pious people called the Peacemaker. In Orthodox Russia, the nine evangelical precepts of bliss were well remembered (Matthew 5, 3-11). “Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called the sons of God,” says the seventh. It should be remembered that in the early Slavic texts instead of the word "peacekeepers" stood "resigned", and this definition also fully characterizes the personality of the Emperor.

About four hundred Orthodox, both residents of the neighborhood and more distant ones, who arrived by bus, cars, and railroad, flocked to prayers and celebrations.

On a wonderful sunny day, sparkling with blue sky and the gold of the last leaves, we walked from the empty train to the slope to the lowland, where the monument to the Sovereign, initially hidden by white silk, was placed on the granite pedestal on the edge of the village of Pervomaysky. It was thought about the confidentiality of the sovereign peg formed at the House of Romanov with this particular place, with Kharkiv as a whole, in connection with a terrible accident (the version with the attempt was also considered) and a miraculous rescue. What is the message and instruction for the residents of Slobozhanshchyna, for local places, also attached to the miraculous discovery by St. Joasaph of Belgorod here, in the city of Izum, on Pesky, one of the Slobozhansky shrines, icons of the Virgin Peschansky, - during the invasion of our faith Free?

* * *

A century and a quarter ago that day was a completely different, if not terrible weather: it was raining, and in the utter slush the Sovereign, as historians point out, himself commanded the removal of the wounded from the wreckage of broken wagons. The Empress, with a hand injured above the elbow, walked around with the medical staff of the victims, assisted, in every way trying to alleviate the suffering of the wounded. Already at dusk, when all the dead were identified and decently removed, and the wounded received first aid and were sent on a sanitary train to Kharkov, the Royal Family set off.

A month after the catastrophe, the Emperor recalled: “Through what the Lord pleased us, through what trials, moral torment, fear, sadness, terrible sadness and, finally, joy and thanks to the Creator for saving all those dear to my heart, for saving my whole family small to great! This day will never be erased from our memory. He was too terrible and too wonderful, because Christ wanted to prove to all of Russia that He still performs miracles and saves from the apparent destruction of those who believe in Him and in His great mercy. ”

Quite quickly, the construction of the temple complex began at the crash site.

21 May 1891 in the presence of Empress Maria Feodorovna and Grand Duchess Xenia Alexandrovna, a solemn laying of the church in the name of Christ the Savior took place. They assure that this temple in size, significance and magnificence was second only to the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow.

The project was compiled by architect R.R. Marfeld, and all the artwork was performed by the famous professor of painting V.E. Makovsky (who created two years before 1894, 50 of pictorial images, of which for the iconostasis 38). In addition, Makovsky wrote four images of saints for the cave chapel, sketches for some mosaics. Alas, only black and white reproductions of these images have survived.

At the foot of the embankment was placed a wooden cross with the image of the Divine Savior - just at the place where the Imperial family came out from under the wreckage of the dining room carriage; there was erected a cave chapel, embedded in the railway embankment. In the passage between the chapel and the tower were installed four black marble plaques with the names of those killed in the crash. At the place where the Empress was caring for the sick with the children, the administration of the Kursk-Kharkiv-Azov railway set up a square between the church and the chapel.

Now, not far from the chapel, closer to the newly built temple, we see a gazebo with a wooden Crucifix, also set up in 2003. (Remember that during World War II the temple was blown up, and the chapel was badly damaged.)

It is difficult to read any lists, but here - that neither the name, the milestone. You read, and you already know these fates, often tragic, martyric. In celebration of the consecration of the church and the chapel of Our Savior, held on June 14 1894 was attended by Emperor Alexander III, his wife Maria Feodorovna, Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich, Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna, Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich, Grand Duke Alexander Mikhailovich, Grand Duchess Ksenia Alexandrovna, as well as the Minister of the Interior of the Russian Empire I.N. Durnovo, Ober-Prosecutor of the Holy Synod K.P. Pobedonostsev, and the Kharkov Governor A.I. Petrov. The consecration of the chapel was performed by the Bishop of Sumy, His Grace John (Kratirov), and the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, with a fair crowd of people, was consecrated by the Archbishop of Kharkov and Akhtyrka, His Eminence Ambrose (Klyucharyov).

To perpetuate the memory of the miraculous salvation of the Tsar's family, then the construction of chapels, temples began across the country, and charitable institutions were opened. In the incident, the subjects reasonably saw the Divine Cover, which resides over the family of the Sovereign.

At the same time, a disabled house for railway employees was opened at Borki station, named after the Sovereign Emperor. In front of the 17 entrance in October, 1913 was opened a monument to the Emperor Alexander III - in the form of the Emperor's bust in a frock coat and a cap, on a pedestal of pink granite. The money for the monument was donated by employees of the railway.

Should we doubt that the Savior skete has become a place of pilgrimage and prayer, to which the Orthodox have flowed. Over the years, many representatives of the Romanov dynasty visited the monastery; Sovereign Alexander visited here three times - 22 in October 1891, 11 in May 1893, 15 in June 1894.

It was noted that after the miraculous salvation of the Imperial family, the rise of patriotism and love for the monarch was witnessed.
Throughout the Empire, thanksgiving prayers were served. A number of memorable events were undertaken in Kharkov, a silver bell was cast for the Church of the Annunciation (now the cathedral of the city). A truly peculiar tribute to the Emperor Alexander III was the construction of the Commercial School from 1890 to 1892. It was the first Kharkov project of a young architect A.N. Beketov (today it houses the National Law Academy. Yaroslav the Wise).

It is believed that Kharkiv is obliged to Sovereign Alexander Alexandrovich “to raise the status of the spiritual capital of Slobozhanshchyna by erecting outstanding masterpieces of town planning, temple architecture and sublime architecture, and abrupt and fast industrial and commercial construction. Due to the unusually high position of Kharkov as the center of railway communication in the vast Russian Empire, the city acquired the status of a major industrial and commercial center. ”

The fate of the inhabitants of this monastery was tragic. A detachment of the sailor-Bolshevik P. Dybenko (the villain came from Chernigov peasants), after being mocked and tortured, shot monks at the Savior Skete, including the abbot, 75-year-old father of Archimandrite Rodion, six abbots of nearby churches, as well as officers hiding in the monastery. The date of the crime is known - 29 December 1918.

* * *

The Russian Foundation “Revival of Cultural Heritage” (head A. Panin) took part in the fate of the new monument to Alexander III in the Savior Skete, as part of its own program “Romanov Shrines”, which is particularly active this year on the 400 anniversary of the House of Romanov, as well as the Kharkov public the organization “Triune Rus” (led by S. Moiseyev) and the rector of the Church of the Savior Image of the Savior with. May Day Priest Leonid Pobigaylenko.

The appearance of the monument would have been impossible (and participation is reflected on the side plates of the pedestal) without President of Russia V. Putin, head of the Russian Railways and the Foundation of Andrew the First-Called V. Yakunin and, of course, without the blessing of the Archbishop of Izyum and Kupyansky, Eminence Elisha.

It is necessary to understand the complexity of the socio-political atmosphere in Ukraine, when in Kharkiv since recently there are two dioceses. Moreover, the Kharkiv and Bogodukhovskaya Diocese, headed by Archbishop Onufry (Lung), now leads “his” line, and the flock, seeing itself in inseparable unity with Russia, is drawn to the heart by the care of Archbishop Elisha (Ivanov).

It is necessary to take into account considerable political pressure and opposition to the action carried out in the context of the Ukrainian “Euroselection” (the Orthodox call this the “Eurosod”).

When, under the notorious “European integration” letter, priests of various denominations, including dissenters and samosvyatov, are signed by the Primate of the UOC Vladimir (Sabodan), and 17 bishops of the UOC MP have refused to sign their names.

It is impossible to ignore the social context of the event. For example, the Kharkov newspaper Slobidsky Krai published on its website a good photo selection about the event, while giving the sarcastic title “Putin's monument to Alexander III”. The reader is hinted that not only this edition has nothing to do with “imperial Russia”, but also no one else has it, except V. Putin. It is a manipulation and a lie. As the people think differently than the editor of the engaged publications and the group of anti-Russian-minded people.

We will say thanks to the manufacturers of the monument - the workshop of Mikhail Serdyukov from the city of Kropotkin of the Krasnodar Territory. Before getting to Kharkov, to move across the current interstate border, the bust visited the Nikolo-Berlyukovsky monastery near Moscow. The author of the monument (bust on a pedestal reaches a height of 2,6 m, its weight is 1,8 t) - honored artist of the Russian Federation Alexander Apollon, a sculptor known in the Kuban for his works like the monuments to the Empress Catherine II and “Sea Glory of Russia”, a bust of Georgy Zhukov, Kuban memorials Cossacks.

Took responsibility for the installation of the monument, the head of the administration of the Borksky village council of the Kharkiv region. Tatyana Davydenko. Without wide warning, in order not to cause premature opposition, the October 7 monument was delivered to the installation site, where representatives of the Kharkov Found and Save money (head V. Kartavykh) and Honor and Dignity (head I. Masalov) helped all the work .

The prayer and the ceremony of consecration of the monument were headed by Archbishop Elisey himself, in co-service with the clergy of Zmievsky deanery. The Consul General of the Russian Federation in Kharkov S. Semenov, Consul Advisor to the Consulate General V. Mokin, the leader of the Kharkov Provincial Nobility Assembly, V. Chernai, Head of the Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine for South Railway, Major General A. Melnichenko, representatives of public organizations, cultural figures, journalists.

Having consecrated here the foundation of the temple being built in honor of the Holy Royal Martyrs, the Lord Elisha emphasized in a heartfelt and measured pastoral word: “In the reign of Alexander III, Russia reached the height of its power.

The Tsar, of course, required titanic efforts in order to lead Russia with a firm hand at the intended course.

As with all his strength, he kept the collapsed roof of the car, saving everyone, also, straining, he kept Russia from the abyss of national catastrophe, being guided in his ministry by the commandments of Christ and fully hoping for the help of God. ”

In his speech, A. Panin noted that this is the first such monument on the territory of Ukraine, and bestowed upon Bishop Elisey, S. Semenov, S. Moiseev, and R. Vasin. Imperial medals “Jubilee of the All-People's Exploit. 1613 — 2013 ”, established by the Head of the Russian Imperial House of Romanovs, E. I.V. Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna.

At the end of the celebrations, having sang together the hymn of the Russian Empire “God Save the Tsar”, the Orthodox went to the table. All nearby were treated by rescuers - kulesh from the field kitchen.

The restoration of the royal monument in the Savior Skete should, of course, be understood not only as a tribute to memory, but also as one of the binding moments of the sovereign, contributing to the reunification of the temporarily dismembered Russian people. Vividly put it at the new monument of S. Moiseev, on whose chest the Imperial Medal was rightfully glowing: “The past foundation of monarchical statehood has been the basis of stable development of the Fatherland for centuries.

Our history is only on the external plane contradictory and fragmented, in the deepest essence it is continuous and united. Each era carried a set of negative and positive traits, our task is to generalize the positive experience of the past and call it to help build the future.

The principle of a strong, responsible government was one of the most important clips of a thousand-year Russian history. ”

Above us stood the bronze Sovereign Alexander III in the sovereign crown, and remembered how holy righteous John of Kronstadt, in whose hands the sovereign rested in the Livadia Palace near Yalta, prophetically instructed us all: “... I foresee the restoration of a powerful Russia, even stronger and more powerful . On the bones of such martyrs, remember, how on a firm foundation, Russia will be erected new, - according to the old pattern; Mighty by her faith in Christ God and the Holy Trinity; and will be on the covenant of sv. Prince Vladimir - as one Church. Russian people have ceased to understand what Russia is: it is the foot of the throne of the Lord! ”

In our hands we held the icons of the Virgin “Peschanskaya”, presented by Vladyka Elisha.
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14 comments
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  1. drop
    drop 27 November 2013 08: 36
    +3
    Yes, it was the great Emperor, to whom Russia owes its greatness.
    1. Basileus
      Basileus 27 November 2013 13: 43
      +1
      Alexander III then? You and I have different views on great people, yes. Our country was "lucky" with the last two tsars, you won’t say anything.
  2. Belogor
    Belogor 27 November 2013 08: 54
    +2
    I respect this person, the present Ruler-STATE
    1. AVV
      AVV 27 November 2013 11: 26
      +2
      This is a great man, the ruler of the state, a collector of Russian lands, and not that humpbacks and drunken dukharik who only lost and distributed the lands of the Russian state !!!
      1. alicante11
        alicante11 28 November 2013 04: 29
        0
        Well, at the expense of greatness you waved. And what lands did he collect? You can respect this Emperor, but why exaggerate?
        1. Belogor
          Belogor 28 November 2013 08: 44
          0
          In addition to the capture of Kushka in 1885, which completed the accession of Central Asia to Russia, it was practically nonexistent. But during his reign, rapid development began primarily in the field of industry and in financial policy. The sovereign inherited very upset finances, which was largely facilitated by the heavy Turkish war of 1877-1878. The credit ruble held for several years at the height of two third of its face value. During the reign of Alexander III, the situation changed dramatically. In 1890, the Russian budget exceeded one billion rubles. At the same time, direct taxes, which left less than 10% of the income estimate, were the lowest in the world. In indirect taxes, a significant role was played by revenues from state-owned assets, primarily from railways. The messenger government paid special attention to the means of communication and communications. Under conditions incommensurable in difficulty with the European ones, by the end of 1894 32.500 versts of railroads had been laid. By their length, Russia came out on top in the world. 23.000 versts of highways served as a good complement to the railways. The waters of navigable rivers plowed more than 2 thousand river steamboats. Telegraph wires entangled the Empire for 150.000 miles.
          In 1891, construction began on the world's longest railway — the Great Siberian Route from St. Petersburg to Vladivostok. The construction of this path was explained by economic needs, and military-strategic necessity.
          Industry also developed rapidly. Basically, it is a traditional textile, which fully satisfies the needs of the market, and produces, along with linen, cotton fabrics. After the accession of Central Asia, domestic cotton gradually displaces imported, American. Russian chintz begins to conquer the world market. Along with this, the mining and metallurgical industries are developing, based both in the old Urals and in the new centers - Donbass, Krivoy Rog. The rapid development of gold deposits in Siberia and oil deposits in Baku begins.
          The size of the working class is growing. By 1890, it exceeded one and a half million. It should be noted that despite the rather difficult conditions, the government is doing a lot to improve the living conditions and working conditions of workers. The working legislation under Alexander III (as well as under Nicholas II) was the most humane in the world.
          It’s a pity he didn’t rule for long.
  3. Orik
    Orik 27 November 2013 11: 47
    +7
    Keyword RESTRAINED, one law on "cook's children" is worth it. It was necessary to solve already overripe problems, a catastrophic shortage of land among the peasants, a rotted elite, unfair redemption payments for land, and so on. There are things that the more you hold back, the more cotton sweat.
  4. Letterksi
    Letterksi 27 November 2013 14: 21
    -2
    Perhaps the time was like that, perhaps Alexander III was not so great. But under him the country got into debt and slowed down in its development. Nicholas II "worthily" continued his father's work and brought the country to the three revolutions of 1905 and 1917. Both of them did not meet the challenges of their time. To understand this, it is enough to read the book "Paper Ruble" in 1895 by Talitsky (Sharapova)
  5. kaper
    kaper 27 November 2013 14: 50
    0
    "" When the Russian Tsar is fishing, Europe can wait "" is relevant, even the Pope waited for Putin for half an hour in Rome. True, normal people call it differently.
  6. alicante11
    alicante11 27 November 2013 16: 10
    +3
    Pysanka in the style of Ishimova. As the author himself, it’s not disgusting from his loyal syusyukaniya. Emperor Alexander the Third deserves respect, because a man, not a royal snot, sorry his son did not go to him. I think that if he had a personal conversation, he himself would have explained to the author his stupidity. The only, in my opinion, minus the board of IA3 is that he finally buried the possibility of an alliance between Germany and Russia. Of course, the question is how such an alliance would end for Russia, but the Second World War would definitely not be in this case. However, many people worked on this issue. Including and real geniuses like Bismarck.
  7. USNik
    USNik 27 November 2013 17: 27
    -2
    Alexander 3, was a real emperor rejoicing for the fatherland. He died only early and most likely not without someone's help. I can’t imagine how it can burn up in a few months with such magnificent energy and good health ...
    1. alicante11
      alicante11 28 November 2013 04: 18
      +1
      Actually, help was provided. And the assistant is called - alcohol. As far as I remember, the Emperor died of kidney failure. It is possible that the disaster in Borki also affected health. Still, it is difficult to hold such burdens even for a strong person without consequences. But why this catastrophe happened, there are already questions, of course, there may be. Although unlikely. The Germans did not deal with such matters. But the arrogant Saxons and Franks IA3 policy was beneficial.
  8. Jager
    Jager 27 November 2013 19: 30
    +2
    I read it, barely "asilyl". From an article a mile away breathes loyalty and idolatry. Never understood what the monarchs, religion and true Faith have to do with it? Pink snot about "Father Tsar" quickly disappears with a careful analysis of the political and economic situation of that time. The revolution was not ignited by the Bolsheviks, it was ripening with the direct participation of our last tsars and the elites around them. The catastrophe was predetermined.
    1. alicante11
      alicante11 28 November 2013 04: 21
      +1
      He wrote about the same thing. At the expense of the revolutionary situation, too, + 1. Although, it is not a fact that such a trick as February-17 would have rolled with this Emperor. This is not Loh Nicky. And without him there would have been no October.
  9. Svyatoslavovich
    Svyatoslavovich 28 November 2013 18: 29
    -1
    On the table is the genealogical tree of the "Romanovs", there were no more Russians after Peter, nemchura is 100 percent, and you are all "saints." They twirled Russia in one place, and infantile fools bow down to them.
    1. alicante11
      alicante11 29 November 2013 07: 54
      -1
      True, of course. However, the Germans, if they are guided headlong, will perhaps yield only to the Russians, and even then if we are also guided headlong. And IA3, being not too gifted, as they rightly said, knew how to listen to people. Plus, apparently, he understood them well. And, of course, in spite of all his "Germanness", he was much more Russian than many indigenous "Russians" who sawed through the treasury.
    2. The comment was deleted.
  10. makeev.dmitry
    makeev.dmitry 29 November 2013 00: 34
    0
    Based on historical logic, Alexander III was killed. For the Trans-Siberian, for railway projects to the White Sea and the Persian Gulf, for the military port in Murmansk, for unwillingness to get involved in a global military conflict. A patriot and a statesman, not a snob, he did not hesitate to listen to the opinion of experts on all issues. Rumors about his alcoholism are probably grossly exaggerated. He was mistaken when he passed the law "on cook's children", which limits the education of commoners. Thus, the degenerating Russian elite was cut off from the replenishment of managers-nuggets from the people.