Military Review

"Commanding the fleet ..."

25
"Commanding the fleet ..."The first Russian revolution of 1905 — 1907 became a unique event not only because it was the first to demonstrate the relevance of reforms. She also showed how widespread were protest moods in the whole society: not only the workers, in the midst of whom progressive views were particularly popular, but also the peasants, and part of the army — first of all, the fleet — opposed the existing system.


Battleship "Potemkin" was, as it turned out, only the beginning. And the events that unfolded at the end of November 1905 of the year in Sevastopol, testified, on the one hand, how much the indignation of the people was, and on the other, that in privileged circles there are those who can support his demands.

It all started back in October, when a political strike spread throughout the country, including the Crimea. There, against the strikers, the autocracy threw, as always, the loyal army units, but the passions did not subside. When the 31 of October (in a new style) evening in Sevastopol received the text of the famous manifesto, which provided for the creation of the State Duma, general rejoicing began, which, however, soon passed into a spontaneous protest rally with political demands.

Perhaps, show restraint in power, everything would be different ... But troops threw into a crowd of 8-10 thousand people (at that time it was a lot, especially in a relatively small city), and 8 demonstrators were killed during dispersal from bullets, 50 were injured. On the same day, a retired captain of the second rank Petr Petrovich Schmidt (at the beginning of the revolution he organized the “Union of Officers - Friends of the People” in Sevastopol, participated in the creation of the Odessa Society for the Mutual Assistance of Merchant Sailors fleet”, Conducted propaganda among sailors and officers and called himself an out-of-party socialist) he turned to the local Duma, demanding that the guilty be punished.

Naturally, nothing was done - and not by ill will: the military and civilian authorities could not decide who to do what, and inactive or shifted the responsibility to each other. In this situation, Schmidt was in the foreground.

2 November at the funeral of the victims of the shooting, he made a speech, later received the name "Schmidt's oath", which, in particular, said: "We swear that we will never cede to anyone a single inch of the human rights we have won." The response to this proud phrase was the arrest and initiation of the case, allegedly, the loss of public funds. But the authority of the captain was by that time so great that even the Sevastopol Duma demanded his release, and the city mayor Maximov offered to give up his post. However, this demarche led only to the fact that the power was completely transferred to the military, after which complete destabilization began - almost the entire city went on strike. A couple of days later, the workers of Sevastopol elected Schmidt the "lifelong deputy" of the Council, demanding his release for this reason, and a little later he was able to quietly leave the hospital, which was transferred due to poor health.

Meanwhile, fermentation has spread to the naval crews - first of all, to the cruiser Ochakov, which passed the acceptance tests. Engines installed on it workers Sormovsky plant, among whom were several Social Democrats who launched an active campaign. The commander’s rudeness, bad food, unwillingness to listen to the crew’s demands became the main reasons for discontent, which, after the sailors tried not to be released from the barracks to participate in the work of the local constituent assembly, turned into an open rebellion. November 24 was created Council of sailors and soldiers deputies, who decided to appoint Schmidt commander of the revolutionary Black Sea Fleet. Social and political demands were made, and on November 27 a signal was raised over Ochakovo: “Commander of the fleet. Schmidt. At the same time, the rebel officer sent a telegram to Nicholas II: “The glorious Black Sea Fleet, sacredly loyal to its people, demands from you, sir, the immediate convocation of the Constituent Assembly and will not obey your ministers. Fleet Commander P. Schmidt ".

The rebels managed to seize several ships, they were supported by several more crews, red flags were hoisted on ships, and the Potemkin prisoners in the floating prison were released ... But, alas, that was all. A few days before these events, the locks were removed in advance from the combat guns, they could not be brought back, and when the remaining loyal ships were pulled up to the bay, the fate of the uprising was sealed.

Despite the desperate resistance, the battle lasted just 2 hours. Survivors - over 2000 people - were arrested. In March, 1906 was shot on the island of Berezan, 14 people were sentenced to indefinite penal servitude, 103 to hard labor, 151 was sent to disciplinary units, more than 1000 was punished without trial. But the impulse of Schmidt and his comrades was not in vain: the fleet, the beauty and pride of the imperial army, clearly demonstrated that it is ready to fight for the demands that all progressive Russia shared ...
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  1. ivshubarin
    ivshubarin 23 November 2013 09: 48
    0
    Schmidt was sick on the head and not clean on hand - the idol of the revolution
    1. Sakhalininsk
      Sakhalininsk 23 November 2013 10: 30
      -4
      Quote: ivshubarin
      Schmidt was sick on the head and not clean on hand - the idol of the revolution


      Schmidt was just a liberalist of that era, in fact, liberalists, they are now the same piarasts as then. And the fact that they put and splashed against the wall, so correctly done for organizing the rebellion, was always allowed to flow, and by the way, notice him and his nukers shot humanely enough, but they could organize a thousand and one fun before death.
      1. ivshubarin
        ivshubarin 23 November 2013 10: 43
        +7
        He escaped from a ship going to war with the Japanese as a captain. Losing accountable money in cards is not liberalism, it is theft. Then he was saved only by the fact that he was the son of the hero of defense of Sevastopol.
      2. Yarik
        Yarik 23 November 2013 16: 33
        -5
        Schmidt was just a liberalist of that era, in fact, liberalists, they are now the same piarasts as then. And the fact that they put it and splashed it against the wall, they did it right for organizing the rebellion, they always allowed it to flow ...


        Up to this point, I quite agree. And by the way, the question is: I would like to know how the incredibly difficult working and living conditions in tsarist Russia in 1905-1907 are combined, the "burst abscess" .P. and the people's shipbuilding program after the Russian-Japanese program, for which everyone literally donated? The feeling that Sevastopol was exemplary, monarchist, bloodsucking. Or excesses on the ground? Chukhnin? wink
  2. gsg955
    gsg955 23 November 2013 09: 57
    0
    Such schmidts are now full ...
  3. Ddhal
    Ddhal 23 November 2013 10: 11
    13
    That's what the article really liked — short. Sometimes there is simply not enough time to look through long texts.
    And the conclusions are obvious: snobbery and self-perception is better than others by some members of society always causes a negative reaction.
    Ordinary citizens of the country need to be treated humanly and provide decent material content. Then there would be no revolutions with civil wars and the destruction of the foundations of faith.
    The same thing is happening in a slightly different form with us at the present time.
  4. AlNikolaich
    AlNikolaich 23 November 2013 10: 25
    +8
    Schmidt, conductor Chastnik, sailors Antonenko and Gladkov in March 1906 were shot on the island of Berezan, 14 people were sentenced to indefinite labor, 103 - to hard labor, 151 sent to disciplinary units, more than 1000 were punished without trial.
    That was such freedom in tsarist Russia! Thanks to Peter Stolypin and the reaction! Instead of listening to the aspirations of the people, tsarism, by reaction, drove the revolution underground. What was the result of the regime in 1917!
    And now, Gapon of our time, Navalny, despite the verdict of the court, is still not (hanged) on a bunk, but the notorious "effective" ex-defense minister, but not under investigation, and in office. The authorities should think about ...
    1. Yarik
      Yarik 23 November 2013 12: 53
      +3
      A state, whatever it may be, with any form of government, will certainly defend itself. Otherwise, it is possible to fall under the blows of liberalism.
    2. creak
      creak 23 November 2013 15: 21
      +7
      AlNikolaich.

      And what about the Kronstadt sailors who rebelled in 1921 against the Soviet regime to strengthen which they did so much ... After the suppression of the rebellion, according to official figures, 2103 people were sentenced to capital punishment, several thousand to prison terms .. In both cases, armed rebellion and the corresponding punishment ... Or in the case of Schmidt, was this the unjustified cruelty of the tsarist regime, and in 1921 was everything done right? Then why most of its participants were subsequently rehabilitated ...
      1. AlNikolaich
        AlNikolaich 23 November 2013 17: 27
        +3
        Quote: ranger
        And what about the Kronstadt sailors who rebelled in 1921 against the Soviet regime to strengthen which they did so much ...

        Quote: ranger
        Or in the case of Schmidt - was it the unjustified cruelty of the tsarist regime, and in 1921 everything was done right? Then why most of its participants were subsequently rehabilitated ...

        I cannot say that the repressions against the participants in the Kronstadt rebellion were legitimate. Hence the rehabilitation of participants in those events ... And I do not justify the Bolsheviks in this. But there was a civil war, there was red and white terror. And the events of 1905 of the year and 1921 are by no means equivalent!
  5. Internal combustion engine
    Internal combustion engine 23 November 2013 10: 58
    12
    Now there are no such Schmidts. The state is being plundered in a black way, the people of the country are being destroyed, and the army is silent and even substitutes its back seat for "reforming" itself.
  6. revnagan
    revnagan 23 November 2013 11: 47
    10
    The man went to certain death and knew about it. But nevertheless he declared that it was no longer possible to live in the old way. Everyone who is now slandering him, try to take his place. Try to loudly declare to the authorities that you think, well, at least about Serdyukov. And to make you better heard, you can take command of "Peter the Great" and directly from his control room, in plain text: "Serdyukov, three! Everyone who is with him, three!" This means that such Schmidts they say now - immeasurably ...
    1. ivshubarin
      ivshubarin 23 November 2013 12: 15
      0
      The man was treated in a mental hospital and was far from adequate. I would like a heroic death, I would not have escaped from a bulk carrier with coal going to the Russian Christmas squadron and was sunk by the Japanese.
      1. Yarik
        Yarik 23 November 2013 12: 59
        +1
        Yes, that's exactly what happened. In general, to put it mildly, a strange personality. And here's an ineradicable adventurism, otherwise I can’t name it, on “Ochakovo”, which even being armed (and not with removed drummers), with its 152-mm well could not compete with the squadron. What is this, if not adventurism? And even a command with a trailer?
        1. Sour
          Sour 23 November 2013 20: 04
          -1
          Quote: Yarik
          What is this if not adventurism? Yes, and even a team with a trailer?

          In Soviet times, there was Sablin, the same scum, if not worse.
    2. Yarik
      Yarik 23 November 2013 16: 16
      +1
      In addition to everything else, at present, the "two-three" should be addressed to V.V. (with this I would agree), and then with the letter to P.P. Schmidt. (Serdyukov) did not address Chukhnin. wink
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. Peaceful military
    Peaceful military 23 November 2013 15: 57
    -2
    The article has a strange pathos, just a la Suslov, because the truth is known and it is not in favor of "Lieutenant" Schmidt, who else was skillfully teased by I. Ilf and E. Petrov in "The Golden Calf".
    1. Peaceful military
      Peaceful military 24 November 2013 18: 16
      0
      Some individuals minus silently, but why say no brains, so as to articulate fool
  9. Klim podkova
    Klim podkova 23 November 2013 16: 22
    +2
    Schmidt was not a second rank captain. Shoulder straps for a senior officer he put on during the uprising (insurrection) to give himself credibility. He died as a lieutenant, which Panikovsky and Balaganov knew by the way. His biography does not cause either delight or respect.
    1. Sour
      Sour 23 November 2013 19: 53
      +3
      Quote: Klim Podkova
      Schmidt was not a captain of the second rank.

      Some sources say that he was dismissed with the rank of captain of the 2nd rank.
      In active service, he did not have such a rank. And at the time of the uprising on the cruiser "Ochakov" he was in reserve. He can be blamed here for the unauthorized restoration of oneself in the service, and not for the unauthorized assignment of a rank.
      In general, the case is significant. Society was imbued with a revolutionary spirit. How it ended is known. But better to think, why did it happen.
  10. Captain45
    Captain45 23 November 2013 19: 58
    +3
    Just a month ago I read V. Shigin's book "False Heroes of the Russian Fleet" from the "Marine Chronicle" series. Well, nothing to do with the article. Those interested can download the book on the Military Literature website at: http: // militera.lib.ru/. Indeed, neither the service, nor the revolutionary path of the lieutenant commands respect.
  11. Vadim2013
    Vadim2013 23 November 2013 20: 26
    +1
    By 1905, the Russian empire needed democratic reforms, but Nicholas II and the governments did not want to reform the government and waited for the February revolution of 1917.
    1. not good
      not good 23 November 2013 23: 09
      +1
      You do not observe analogies with today ???
    2. ivshubarin
      ivshubarin 24 November 2013 15: 48
      0
      With the advent of Gorbachev, we waited for democratic reforms and what happened to the country
  12. dmb
    dmb 23 November 2013 20: 30
    +5
    These are the fruits of "liberal education". The whole revolution is reduced to Schmidt. And about him, the reasoning of "history experts" strongly resembles the reasoning of the hero Starygin from the movie "We'll Live Until Monday." For their information, the conductor (the emphasis is on the last syllable) is not at all an illiterate sailor, but a technical specialist, and even among the sailors with a diploma it was oh so good. Therefore, only people with a virgin brain washed by liberal historians, under the leadership of Minister Livanov, can believe that they went from not figs to death.
  13. soldier's grandson
    soldier's grandson 23 November 2013 21: 15
    0
    Quote: AlNikolaich
    Quote: ranger
    And what about the Kronstadt sailors who rebelled in 1921 against the Soviet regime to strengthen which they did so much ...

    Quote: ranger
    Or in the case of Schmidt - was it the unjustified cruelty of the tsarist regime, and in 1921 everything was done right? Then why most of its participants were subsequently rehabilitated ...

    I cannot say that the repressions against the participants in the Kronstadt rebellion were legitimate. Hence the rehabilitation of participants in those events ... And I do not justify the Bolsheviks in this. But there was a civil war, there was red and white terror. And the events of 1905 of the year and 1921 are by no means equivalent!

    Kronstadt rebellion was raised due to the activities of Trotsky who still had political weight
  14. Ross
    Ross 24 November 2013 03: 18
    0
    Quote: DDHAL
    That's what the article really liked — short. Sometimes there is simply not enough time to look through long texts.
    And the conclusions are obvious: snobbery and self-perception is better than others by some members of society always causes a negative reaction.
    Ordinary citizens of the country need to be treated humanly and provide decent material content. Then there would be no revolutions with civil wars and the destruction of the foundations of faith.
    The same thing is happening in a slightly different form with us at the present time.

    "The Revolution" of 1905 is based on Japanese and British money, a play by Alexander Parvus, a very characteristic protégé of the World Behind the Scenes. It was he who would then offer the Germans to pay Ulyanov in 1915 for a new "revolution".
    And then, in 1905, even Lenin slept through the "revolution"! And that says a lot.