The non-European nature of Russia emerged immediately. Pavel I declared foreign debt null and void, and offered to the Genoese and Dutch lenders to collect the necessary amount from England, who allegedly delayed the payment of subsidies for the war with Napoleon. The tragic fate of his all known.
Loans were taken, including from the Rothschilds themselves: 10 million in two tranches in the 1822 year, and later, at the beginning of 1850's, another 37 million dollars from a certain Gopa. However, measures were also taken to weaken financial dependence on the West, Nicholas I himself tried not to intercede with the Rothschilds. Moreover, in 1850, he acted as the initiator of forcing Europe to the world: “I will open fire on anyone who fired first,” such a position did not diverge from the matter, hindering “projectability stories».
For example, in 1831, the first “Arab spring” happened in Egypt: the rebels led by Mohammed Ali opposed the Turkish sultan. Suddenly, the rebels were armed and trained according to the principle of the European regular units, with the result that the defeated Sultan turned to England for help. But both England and Paris were pointedly silent, and at the end of 1832, the royal namesake Muravyov-Amursky secretly arrived in Istanbul, and after negotiations the Russian squadron entered the sea.
Despite the diplomatic pressure of France and England, Mahmut II requested additional assistance from Nicholas I, since by 1833 his situation had become disastrous. Twelve thousand Russian landing camped near Istanbul. England and France, frightened by the Russian military presence on the Bosphorus, urgently pressed Muhammad Ali and 24 on April 1833, Turkey and Egypt signed a peace treaty. At the same time, the Ottoman and Russian empires concluded an agreement under which the Turks closed the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles for third countries, the Black Sea became the inner water space of empires.
Then the Rothschilds undertook to finance, and in fact to organize the Crimean War.
In the face of the threat of Japanese aggression, Russia was forced to sign the 7 in February of 1855, the Russian-Japanese agreement on the division of the Kuril Islands and joint ownership of Sakhalin Island. Soon, inexplicably Nicholas I died suddenly, a year later Alexander II signed an ultimatum from Europe, the head of the House of Commons and the Liberal Party, Russell, said: “you have to pull the fangs out of the bear ...” - now it’s forbidden for Turkey and Russia to have a navy on the Black Sea, because Crimean War lost both empires.
During the Eastern Company, the Ottoman Empire occupied 7 million pounds from England, with the result that in 1858 it declared bankruptcy. Russia spent 800 million rubles, to finance military spending, the government had to resort to printing unsecured credit cards. To try to stabilize the monetary system with gold collateral, a large loan was provided by the British Rothschilds, to cover which in 1867, it was decided to sell Alaska to the United States of America for 7,3 million dollars, which were never received.
However, despite the tactical defeats, all this time there was no power that could be opposed to Russia. The deployment by the American ally Alexander II of two Russian military fleets in 1863 saved the United States from re-colonization.
In addition, Russia is blocking private projects for the construction of railways, which, intercepting the internal logistics of the state, acted as a ram breaking the financial systems of European states. In 1886, Russia and Deutsche Bank faced a competitive struggle for the railways market in Bulgaria, which appeared on the map due to Russia's declaration of war on Turkey. Nevertheless, the confrontation was lost, also because the railways and foreign banks already in Russia themselves became the source of extreme corruption in the highest echelons of power.
Heine also once concluded that "the Rothschild brothers are true revolutionaries." Elemental popular uprisings are a very convenient tool. Baringi with whom the Rothschilds competed for profits from reparations loaned the Argentine government a large sum, and the country was seized with the flames of revolutionary unrest and the deal turned into a financial catastrophe. For help in saving the oldest bank in England, the Prime Minister, Lord Salisbury, turned to Nathan Rothschild, but he believed that Baringi’s competitors now had to “retire and settle outside the city, being content with modest pensions.”
The Prussian king Frederick William IV, who disliked all manifestations of liberalism, had two assassinations, but not them, but the popular uprisings of the 1848 of the year convinced him to make concessions. Following the “popular unrest”, he tried in every way to give up the crown, which he was offered by the “Frankfurt National Assembly,” calling it for some reason an “iron collar.” Well, and after he became fully supportive of Nicholas I, who was an ardent admirer, and retained neutrality in the Crimean War, it became clear to everyone that Frederick William had literally lost his mind, he had to abdicate the throne in favor of Wilhelm I.
He, since joining big politics, wanted to show himself as an advocate of “Old Prussia”, but an unexpected popular uprising forced him to shave off his mustache and as a “postman Leman” to flee to England, where he was explained that “the constitution does not mean anarchy” . Having joined democratic values, Wilhelm returned to his homeland, where Samuel Blechroeder’s banking house “S. Bleichröder Bank ”- from 1828, the official partner of De Rothschild Freres Bank in Prussia.
Gerson Bleuhröder created his own private intelligence service, through which thousands of thalers were bought off by 400, Hungarian nationalists, who started the uprising, played into Prussia during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. A year later, the defeated Austria turned into Austria-Hungary, with two parliaments and governments, which greatly weakened the Habsburg monarchy.
Investments in the Hungarian nationalists paid off with interest, if we take into account 20 million thalers contributions made from Austria. In addition, Austria pledged to recognize the boundaries of the intended German union. The Bavarian king Maximilian II was a supporter of the alternative unification of the German lands under his own command, who by the time of the events had suddenly passed away after a trip to Italy.
Ludwig II, who ascended to the throne, who was ready to abdicate, in order not to go to war with Prussia, the loss of which obliged the Bavarians to participate in the war with France on the side of Prussia and pay out astronomical reparations 154 million marks.
Bismarck appeared on the historical scene in 1851, the representative of Prussia at a meeting of the Confederation in Frankfurt, which, in order not to go far, Rothschild spent right in his garden, where "Amschel's keen glance immediately distinguished this newcomer in a crowd of diplomats and officials." It remains only to marvel at the controversial gaze of the son of the founder of the dynasty, because the life of Bismarck in Göttingen "forced him into debt." In her book, Hannah Arendt points out that Bismarck “maintained close relations with Jews even when he became prime minister and when he was accused of being dependent on Jews and taking bribes from them.” But as always, it is necessary to clarify what kind of Jews they were, according to Bismarck, his protection extends to "wealthy Jews ... whose interests are connected with the preservation of our state institutions."
Bismarck financier was occupied by Mayer’s nephew Karl Rothschild and family friend Gerson Bleichreder, who, despite Wilhelm I’s categorical refusal in July 1865, sold the state shares of the Saar coal mines and the Cologne-Minden railway, which he credited twenty years earlier, recovered 20 million gold. , which will be organized by a new, Franco-Prussian company.
France, providing 50 million dollar loan, will be funded by the Morgans. In 1868, the Spanish queen Isabella II was overthrown as a result of the “glorious revolution” and the heir to the throne turned out to be two heirs. The question was resolved by the world, but Bismarck did not hesitate to falsify the text of William I’s dispatch and to distribute it in newspapers, provoking France to declare war on Prussia.
Napoleon III Bonaparte, who had gone on a military campaign, received a shah from his own queen. Taking advantage of her husband’s absence, his wife ousted the government, and she wrote a letter to her husband forbidding him to return to Paris. Thus, Napoleon III had to either sacrifice the capital or return to Paris and regain power using the army, but open the front to the troops of Prussia.
After the king’s withdrawal from command, Empress Eugene ordered Marshal MacMahon to advance north-west, first exposed Paris, and secondly sending French around the Sedan fortress, where they capitulated September 1 on September 1870.
General Truusho, with the support of the military, overthrew the Empress, after which she fled to England. The fact is that the parents of Eugenia Bonaparte, nee Montijo, were big debtors of James Rothschild, and the dynastic marriage of Napoleon III was dictated by a lender, to whom she listened as well as his successor Alphonse Rothschild.
King William I and the permanent Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck settled right in the possession of Alfons Rothschild, where Bismarck continued the policy that 2 in November 1878 itself summed up as “the triumph of our state art”, because “we managed to leave open the eastern abscess and thanks this upset the unity of the other great powers and secure our own world. " The union of the three emperors was now in danger, not only because of the old antagonism between Russia and Austria-Hungary, but also the new contradictions between Russia and the German Empire, which Alexander II was extremely annoyed about.
18 January 1871 of the year to the proclamation of William I by the emperor did not arrive only Ludwig II ex-king of Bavaria. During the war with France, he threatened to go over to the enemy, but despite this he received an annual 100 subsidy of thousands of thalers, which he spent on staging his friend Wagner’s operas and building refined castles. For lack of funds, he was going to flog the finance minister and gather loyal people with the aim of starting to rob banks. After such statements, at the beginning of the summer of 1886, at the direction of Prime Minister Lutz, the council of doctors declared Ludwig “incurably insane” and was about to refer him to compulsory treatment, but was met by local residents. The appeal to the people was intercepted, the circulation of the only newspaper that managed to publish it was withdrawn. From the second attempt, due to the treachery of the governor of the castle, the violent ex-monarch was taken to Berg. Psychiatrist Bernhard von Gudden acknowledged that he was “paranoid in severe form”, but he was not afraid to let 13 bodyguards of June go with his patient on a walk to Lake Stanberg. Both were found in the lake with umbrellas and coats, a doctor with traces of struggle on the body. So sadly end the rebellion of the German aristocracy against the banking system, with which another famous Wagner fan will be more accommodating.
When Dostoevsky writes in his diary: “Yes, Europe is on the verge of a terrible catastrophe ... All these Bismarcks, Beaconsfield, Gambetta and others, all of them are only shadows for me ... Their master, lord of everything without exception and the whole of Europe is the Jew and his bank ... ”- he will not be far from the truth, the newly minted heads of the Second Reich undertook to prepare“ Drang nach Osten ”, while the term itself belongs to the Polish revolutionary - Julian Klachko from the family of a wealthy Jewish textile merchant Zvi Hirsch Klachko, whose business was associated with Germany.
Over a hundred years from 1804 to 1904, the Rothschild family, on loans alone, received 1300 million pounds sterling, according to the former German monetary system it was 26 billion marks, and in the last German currency it was about 70 billion marks.
Russia will have time to take part in the extraction of these percentages. "We were ordered to go to battle:" Allied for the sake of nations! " And the main thing is not said. Someone for the sake of banknotes? ”- somehow wrote Demian Poor.
We can definitely say for the sake of whose bills Russian troops will storm Beijing in 1900. In 1893, Russia received the largest loan from France, two years later, in exchange for acquiring concessions to build a railway in the north of China, on behalf of Russia, its neighbor in the amount of 400 million francs in gold was credited to Credit Lyonnais. The participation of Alphonse de Rothschild in the founding of “Credit Lyonnais” was discovered in the bank’s archives by the historian Jean Bovy, who said that the participation of the famous banker “contributed to these matters something like a predetermined ultimate success”.
In the same year, 1895 appeared “Russian-Chinese Bank”, owned by French bankers, under the contract, the strip of land under the railway built by him actually no longer belonged to China and was not subject to duties, something like “free economic zones” was created in which modern Chinese factories are working - the basis of the "economic miracle".
In 1898, the Chinese "branch" of the Rothschilds "Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking Corp." (HSBC), with a partner, provided China with a £ 16 million loan, and the navigable Yangzi River became the focus of England. In the end, from such "entry into the family of civilized peoples", which led to the complete impoverishment of all segments of the population, an uprising broke out, the leader of which was the Ihequan society, which means "A fist raised in the name of peace and justice" - symbolism borrowed by modern " colored revolutions ”. The uprising stopped the work of the railway, which seems to be in a concession with Russia, so the "peace enforcement" of the debtors was organized by the Russian-German-English-Japanese-American coalition.
However, participation in the operation strengthened the position of Russia in the Far East, in 1902 the Anglo-Japanese alliance was formed, which initiated the Russo-Japanese War of 1905, financed by Jacob Schiff. This help and his debt to "certain Jews" will be remembered in 1939 by the Japanese Ambassador to Berlin Oshima Hiroshi, a certain Jew was Jacob Schiff who organized through the bank "Kuhn, Loeb & Co." government bond issue for the Japanese government in the amount of $ 200 million.
At this time, in the west, the created Second Reich was being prepared for the new aggression, where the fire of the war was swelling with might and main by the “Iron Chancellor” and William II, whose father grew up keeping the Rothschilds.
In May 1899, on the initiative of Nicholas II, the first peace conference on disarmament was held in The Hague. In 1912, Emperor Wilhelm II wrote that the era of the Third Great Migration of Nations was approaching, in which the Germans would fight the Russians and the Gauls. And no peace conference will be able to change this, since it is not a question of politics, but a "question of the survival of the race." Perhaps the greatest impact in terms of the antagonization of the two peoples was played by the Ostzhey V. Hen, who set the trend of comparing Russians with the “Chinese of the West”, who have perpetuated soul in centuries-old despotism, who have neither conscience nor honor, who are ungrateful and love only those whom they fear . Thanks to active propaganda, the striving for war in the German Empire became nationwide. In 1887, the future Reich Chancellor of the Second Reich, Bernhard von Bülow, in his letter expanded the boundaries of claims: "We must let the Russian, on occasion, have so much blood so that he will not feel relief, and for twenty-five years he will not be able to stand on his feet. We should have stopped for a long time Russia's economic resources by devastating its Black Sea gubernias, bombing its coastal cities, possibly with the utmost destruction of its industry and commerce. Finally, we should have pushed Russia away from those two Baltic and Chernog Sea. On which to base its position in the world, but I can imagine a really long time weakened Russia only after the rejection of those parts of its territory, which are located west of the Onega Bay, Valdai Hills and the Dnieper ... ".
The Chancellor of the German Empire, Bettman Golweg, also did not hide his hostile attitude towards Russia, considering that the problems of the relationship between Germany and Russia are solvable only in war. The development of the idea was facilitated by the work of Friedrich Engels, who divided the people into revolutionary and reactionary, to the latter, according to the “countryman” of the Bayer concern, all Slavic peoples who “will have to die in the turbulence of the world revolution” in the near future.
Back in 1875, Engels predicted: "The Russians will have to submit to the inevitable international fate that from now on their movement will take place in front of and under the control of the rest of Europe." Gradually, in the works of German theorists, the image of the main enemy, enshrined by the ideas of Fr. Von Berngardi “The Pan-German Union” is directed “against the Slavic peoples, mainly Russia”. In 1888, the German philosopher Edward Hartmann made an article “Russia and Europe” in the magazine “Gegenwarth” with a proposal to build a geopolitical barrier in the form of the “Baltic” and “Kievsky” kingdoms, one of which should be passed under the protectorate of Germany, the second - Austria-Hungary, where they immediately began to stir up Ukrainian nationalism.
The development of the concept was further advanced by General Friedrich von Bernhardi in his work “Germany and the Future War”, where propaganda appeared which appeared in 1894 at the initiative of A. Hindenburg of the Pan-German Union, which grew up on the basis of the General German Union. The Union united in its ranks large industrialists, landowners, as well as conservative intelligentsia and by the end of World War I totaled 40 thousand members. Actively collaborated with similar organizations: Military Union, Colonial Society, Navy alliance, the Maritime League, the Imperial Association, each of which propagated the aggressive policy of Germany and the formula for the success of the German nation: "Prussia - under the leadership of the Prussian king, the German Empire - under the leadership of Prussia, the world - under the leadership of Germany."
The Prussian Minister of Education in 1891 pointed to the need to educate young people in such a way that they “were ennobled by enthusiasm for the German people and the greatness of the German genius”. As a result, in 1910, by the decree of the Kaiser, “Youthful Army”, “Jugendver” - the prototype “HitlerYugend” appeared. The memorandum of the Pan-German Union, prepared in September by 1914 by its Class Chairman and approved by the leading representatives of large-scale industry, said: “The Russian enemy” must be weakened by reducing its population and preventing its growth in the future. would be able to threaten us in a similar way. " Later it will be somehow forgotten that all the notorious ideas of the Third Reich: both “Drang nach Osten” and “Jugendver” are not the product of a Hitlerite evil genius.
The scientific elite was even more resolute than the artistic one engaged by the Second Reich. In the stream of brochures, appeals and book publications, they justified German military policy. Haeckel, Darwin's heir in his book Thoughts on World War, gave Germany territory from the Baltic via the English Channel to Gibraltar. German intelligentsia: Gerhard Hauptmann and Max Lieberman considered themselves obliged to help with pen and brush to the front and military claims of Germany. Artist Max Beckman spoke of the war as a “miraculous catastrophe”, whose presence during just a year so seriously damaged the psyche of the young orderly that his paintings during the Third Reich would be attributed strictly to degenerative art. Thomas Mann praised the artist-soldier, calling them "essentially identical natures." The war of cultures was declared war on all sides, and the German system of bureaucratic domination with parliamentary control was “the ideal form of domination of the 20 century, which is better able to solve the social problems of industrial society than the parliamentary systems of the West”.