Military Review

Cryptography secrets

25
With the development of modern communications and technologies, cryptography, that is, a way to encode information using certain algorithms, has found wide application in everyday life - in electronic document flow, web payments, communication channels, etc. But even ancient people thought about how to hide from outsiders the right information. One of the first to stories Auxiliary devices became a hermitage, invented in ancient Greek Sparta in the form of a simple wand for swapping encryption. As science developed, mathematical algorithms appeared, but all of them remained vulnerable, especially after the invention of frequency analysis in the 9th century. Only in the 15th century, the Italian architect and theorist of the arts, Leon Battista Alberti, developed the concept of polyalphabet fonts, thanks to which the defense moved to a qualitatively new level. He also invented an encryption machine in the form of two discs, on which letters and numbers were inscribed.


Subsequently, such encryption mechanisms appeared as the Tritemius square board, Thomas Jefferson disk cipher, etc. In the 20th century, the complexity of machines increased by an order of magnitude, they became rotor electromechanical. The most famous are Lorenz and Enigma, various modifications of which were used by Germany in the 1917 – 1945, the American Sigaba and the British Typex. Note that the breaking of the Enigma cipher, as well as the Japanese military codes, was an important contribution to the Allied victory in World War II.

Cryptography secretsThis breakthrough in cryptographic science happened with the advent of computers capable of dividing information into bits. Such systems can be subjected to hacking, but in most cases time costs do not justify themselves. Computers allowed to encrypt any data that can be represented in a digital binary form, in contrast to the classical ciphers, intended only for written texts. This led to the unsuitability of linguistic methods of cryptanalysis, as computer ciphers are characterized by working with sequences of bits (possibly grouped into blocks) without traditional letters and numbers.

High-quality modern ciphers are usually too tough for cryptanalysts, since hacking requires more and more effort. In the middle of 70's, asymmetric cryptosystems appeared, which generally do not require the parties to transmit the secret key. In the book by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman, “New Directions in Modern Cryptography,” published in 1976, the principles of such an exchange of encrypted information were first formulated. Asymmetric cryptography has opened several new application areas, such as electronic digital signature systems and electronic money.

The main tasks of practical cryptography are now the protection of e-mail, payments and private networks, the creation and use of key information carriers, electronic digital signature, identification and authentication. Such a multitude of tasks is solved by means of cryptographic information protection (CIPS) as a combination of hardware and (or) software components.

Modern means of protecting information used in power structures fall into the category of electronic hardware and software equipment. In most cases, it is based on direct and inverse cryptographic transformations of the information itself or access to it. The creation of such equipment is a multifaceted problem that requires solving technical, crypto-engineering and organizational and technical issues. They set the technical appearance of almost all hardware and software components of the information protection system. In addition, these solutions predetermine the efficiency of operation of all equipment in terms of direct encryption / decryption, ensuring the reliability of information, ensuring integrity and controlling access to only authorized officials.

Electronic equipment for information protection can be used individually or in the mode of group service of subscribers of a protected network. In any case, the equipment should have a unified security system, and all its components - cryptographic compatibility.

For obvious reasons, the market for encryption tools in the post-Soviet space is not very public and open. According to available data, it presents mainly products from Russia, technical innovations of the SINCGARS project (USA), as well as products from Rohde & Schwarz, Motorola, Sectera, Cripto AG. In terms of cryptographic protection of information transmitted through communication channels, four fundamentally different design solutions can be distinguished.

In the first case, the equipment is created in the form of an autonomous block of cryptographic protection, to which analog communication means and digital means are connected to store data that does not have its own protective components. When transmitting voice information in the block, pre-digitization and compression (voice conversion) are performed, then the information is packaged, encrypted, encoded from interference, and transmitted to a wired or radio channel. When receiving voice information operations are performed in reverse order. Sending, receiving or storing data only needs data “slicing” into blocks.

Each copy of the block of such equipment is subject to individual accounting as a technical means of providing secure communication or encryption. An example of this type of equipment is the Russian T-230-1A product, which is sold to countries that have analogue communications in their armed forces.

A similar principle is applied in the TSEK / KY-57 classifying equipment, which was developed as part of the SINCGARS project and is currently in service with the US Army. The equipment provides external (non-INCOM) encryption / decryption of voice information and data transmitted via onboard radio stations: RT-1439, AN / ARC-201 A (V), AN / ARC-210 (V), AN / ARC-222. All radio devices of the SINCGARS family maintain a single interface of cryptographic compatibility AN / PSC-2.

The second variant of the constructive solution is the construction of equipment in the form of a crypto module that is inserted into any external transceiver or cryptographic equipment. If we bring all the constructive and informational interfaces of the module to a single standard, then it will be possible to apply it in many means of wired and radio communications, as well as in pre-encryption techniques. We note here that the equipment into which the module is implanted must be able to control the crypto module and display the indication signals of its states. In the AN / PRC-119 / A portable radio station and in the AN / VRS-88 mobile radio stations (89, 90, 91, 92) / A of the SINCGARS project, this variant is called internal (INCOM). The AN / PSC-2 crypto modules are compatible with TSEK / KY-57 channel encryption equipment.

The German company Rohde & Schwarz in 2004 announced the release of its own embedded crypto module. This is a dual-use product, that is, it can be used in military communications technology such as a multi-band radio station MR-3000 and "in civilian life", for example, in a TopSec GSM mobile phone. This phone was created on the basis of the then widespread Siemens S35i model.

By using a combination of two encryption algorithms, the module was highly secure. An asymmetric encryption algorithm is used to secure a session key agreement between two subscribers. In other words, keys are generated on the phones of both subscribers in accordance with the asymmetric Diffie-Hellman algorithm, as a result a unique number is created for them, which is used as a key. In turn, the symmetric algorithm protects the digitized speech. Successful operation presupposes the use of equipment on the receiving side with a similar cryptomodule (TopSec GSM mobile phone or Rohde & Schwarz ELCRODAT 6.2 ISDN phone).

The third type - the classification schemes are assembled on a separate board and become an integral part of the filling means of communication or encryption (radio or telephone). Functionally, this option differs from the second slightly. If the board is unified, then it can simply be used in various digital media. And if it is not removed, then each copy of external equipment is subject to individual accounting as a means of secret communication or encryption. This type is also used in the communication technology of the SINCGARS project.

Finally, the fourth option - the circuit and software crypto components are completely mixed with other functional units of the device, so that they are not even allocated to separate boards and modules. This scheme gives the best characteristics of mass and dimensions (in favor of compactness) and, as a rule, is used in corporate systems with a conservative composition of communication facilities. In addition, each copy of the equipment used is subject to individual accounting. In information security equipment, the so-called block algorithms are used as encryption / decryption algorithms. These algorithms operate with code blocks (code combinations) of a certain length, into which the initial information is cut (dissected).

Among the known encryption / decryption algorithms for mass application are DES, IDEA, Rijndael, AES, GOST 28147-89. Their modifications are also used, as well as other algorithms, including those not published in the press and not standardized.

The strength of the algorithms is determined by the length of the encryption keys. In the DES algorithm, it is 64 bits, in IDEA - 128 bits. The Rijndeal algorithm uses variable key lengths in increments of 32 bits, in AES, in general, three key gradations with lengths of 128, 192 and 256 bits are used. The GOST 28147-89 algorithm is based on keys of the 256 bit length. In the same sequence, the robustness of the algorithms increases.

In order to sort through all the possible code combinations for key discovery, and with the help of the famous INTEL ASCI RED supercomputer, you will need: DES algorithm - 9,4 h., IDEA - 1,3 X1021 years, GOST 28147-89 - 1,7 X1058 years.

Thus, the analysis of the state of development and use of equipment for information protection shows that interest in this type of equipment in a number of countries around the world is traditionally preserved by the ministries and departments of the power block, as well as by the services of diplomatic and government communications. However, due to the avalanche-like spread of mobile radio communications among civilian structures and the public, the issue has ceased to be the exclusive monopoly of the armed forces, special services and agencies.

Practice has shown that in technical terms, in the structure and principles of building information security tools, including encryption / decryption tools, for military, special and civilian use, there are many common points, with individual technical solutions that complement each other organically.

The current stage of development of systems for cryptographic information protection is characterized by the massive use of various hardware platforms as a material basis for building electronic equipment of this category and advanced software that directly performs the functions of authenticating officials, checking the authority of their access to information, encrypting / decrypting voice information and data .
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25 comments
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 11 November 2013 08: 56
    +2
    Very specific article. Perhaps such information is needed. And secrets ... yes, even animals have them (example: a bear makes a copan, that is, digs its food from others), and people have secrets and everything connected with them always come first.
    1. Walker1975
      Walker1975 11 November 2013 21: 38
      -2
      It’s interesting, but is there secret information in Russia that the United States does not know about?
      1. Su-9
        Su-9 12 November 2013 07: 02
        0
        I'm sure there is. But in Ukraine, maybe not.
        You would think you are writing.
    2. Su-9
      Su-9 12 November 2013 07: 01
      0
      H-Yes.
      It's easy to criticize, of course, and I hope that the authors wanted to write more about everything but were stopped. But the article is just awful.
      Horses-people mixed in a bunch. Here you have cryptomodules, and about their models, and about algorithms, and about key exchange, and about history, and that's all. And everything is written in long complex sentences.
      As a result, there is a 100% chance that those who knew nothing about cryptography were only confused. And those who know - just shrugged.
      The most interesting thing is that there are no errors in fact - everything is correctly written, but very confusing.
      It is necessary more carefully ... (c)
  2. mirag2
    mirag2 11 November 2013 09: 22
    +1
    The article is specific, but about a very important topic — who owns the information — owns the world.
    1. Aryan
      Aryan 11 November 2013 14: 24
      +2
      I want to remind you that the thing
      and in cryptography
      and the reliability of the information transmitted
      these problems are very necessary simply in cybernetics
      for the reliability of the transmitted data
      Totzhe Vinrar or Zip

      I was once struck as a miracle
      when at the very first lecture on probability theory
      the teacher wrote a binary message on the board
      of our randomly said numbers from the audience
      then he immediately painted the encoding algorithm
      where our "callable message" is not much longer
      and after that he proposed to erase any few zeros and ones
      and then, with another formula, he restored the original "our message"

      it's just in a civilian institution
      and what did evil followers come up with now?

      Any ideas why the last time why so often Skype is updated?
      1. Su-9
        Su-9 12 November 2013 07: 06
        0
        Yes, not so much invented. Mathematicians think. Algorithms are all open so that different devices can talk to each other.
  3. Igor39
    Igor39 11 November 2013 09: 55
    +2
    In Soviet times, there was an anecdote: a famous German ace pilot gets captured. In the camp he meets his friend, also a pilot (who was captured earlier). A friend asks him, "Hans, how were you the coolest ace pilot captured? Willie you don’t know but Russians introduced a new code. Previously, they said, 12th, I 17th cover I go to the tail of the messer and it was clear to me. Now -Skull cover the point, I will now this diamonds pi ****** I'll be
    1. Aryan
      Aryan 11 November 2013 14: 50
      +1
      - Grandfather tell me how you shot down a German plane?
      -Well, let’s say so ... I didn’t refuel ...
  4. Executer
    Executer 11 November 2013 10: 09
    +1
    An article about everything and nothing ... The purpose of such a publication is unclear. What would light up? Gather a list of publications? Much attention is paid to encryption, but this is only a small part of the issues of crypto protection. And where is authentication, reliability, authorship?
    Then the article would be called "Encryption Secrets".
    1. zub46
      zub46 11 November 2013 22: 04
      0
      In my unenlightened view, cryptography. her theory, generally abstruse things. I was always amazed at the talent and quality of the brains of those guys who are doing this.
  5. pahom54
    pahom54 11 November 2013 10: 11
    +4
    He put the article plus for the efforts of its authors. But, as a professional cryptographer, I can say that the article is ABOUT ALL AND ABOUT ANYTHING. For knowledgeable specialists, it is not of interest, and for amateurs, it actually does not provide useful information.
    I can only say one thing: with the advent of computers, especially personal computers, the role of the encryptor as such was diminished to the extent that it was not offensive. If before we were taught 4-5 years, today any PC user can be trained in a short time to use protection systems.
    However, I can say another thing: the role of information protection has not diminished, and the role of cryptographic scientists has increased on the contrary. As said by one of the great ones - Who owns the information - that owns the world. Unfortunately, our modern business does not give a damn about information security issues, and for this reason it often incurs losses that are incomparable with the costs of protection.
    I recall how in one of his interviews Kaspersky said something like this: I realized that I could not become a good cryptographer, and therefore went into the field of information protection development ... Heather, bug. Everything is exactly the opposite.
    Well, the need to protect information is not even in doubt.
    1. ivanovbg
      ivanovbg 11 November 2013 10: 59
      +1
      And what have you been taught for five whole years?
      1. Su-9
        Su-9 12 November 2013 07: 10
        0
        He was taught mathematics. Namely: Theory of Numbers, Higher Algebra, Theory of the Rings, Computational Mathematics.
        And in order to begin to learn this, it is necessary that the student at least you learn analysis and discrete mathematics, well, maybe TFDP / TFKP.
        How much do you think it takes?
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 18 November 2013 20: 24
          0
          All mathematics is a gradient of how a person simplifies his perception. In other words, a person carries out all the analysis in a linear and sequential manner. This is his imperfection. The analysis can be done radially. This means that in the system of mathematical constructions of a numerical space, that is, a "cleared" space, this is when the algorithms for radial calculations are not duplicated, but have their own algorithms for all vectors. Therefore, the computation processes are not parallel, but radial. The problem of mathematicians is that the algorithms themselves can be systemic, in other words, not only consisting of separate numbers, but also of their groups and whole series. Then all information can be recorded not with a binary code, but with a real number and not in a sequential linear recording, but in a compact space and not only in a static position, but also in motion, with the positioning of each code relative to structural landmarks or coordinate systems. As a result, in principle, it is impossible to decode such a system without an analytical semantic key. That is, everything is optimally simple and completely effective, like the fact that the mother who gave birth to the child ceases to fully understand him as he grows. It is easier for her to feel it, which is also a two-way informational communication.
          I do not recommend reading this information to those who are trying to remake everything in their own way in advance. Brains will start to "smoke". There is only one vector of cognition - to open to knowledge, but not to come up with something.
          This method of high-performance computing was known to prehistoric civilizations and it does not in any way replace the low-grade mate. analysis of modern man. In addition, this method is only integer calculations, so there are no errors, because there are no guesses and assumptions. Each number corresponds to a strictly defined place in the system. Etc
    2. Asgard
      Asgard 11 November 2013 11: 37
      +4
      Also set +, 2% of people will be interested in encryption techniques, mostly people are cool about security (well, until they get it on their heads)))
      With the proliferation of computers, information has become all encrypted, only end users-90%, do not suspect this, this article should stimulate the thinking process of some)))

      Here is Yura, you would write about trends and techniques as a practitioner, it would be interesting ....
      On the possibilities of protecting information in an "illogical" way (unbreakable))
      About computer security myths, about encryption in radio communications (including cellular networks)) open protocols ......
      Then the uncultivated field, this use of slang words and a mat by Russian soldiers during radio exchanges, was in Yugoslavia, I complained to one NATO specialist why the same short word)) has so many meanings ... and why sometimes sentences consist of one word))) )
      and the higher the rank of the "listened" Russian, the less words he uses)))))
      1. studentmati
        studentmati 11 November 2013 21: 23
        +1
        Quote: Asgard
        ... an uncultivated field, this is the use of slang words and obscenities by Russian soldiers during radio exchange, was in Yugoslavia, one natovsky specialist complained to me why the same short word)) has so many meanings ... and why sometimes sentences consist of one word) ))) and the higher the rank of "listened" Russian, the fewer words he uses)))))


        Subconscious Encryption! good

        I regret the only thing that still cannot be digitized is the human brain activity? (Russian warrior in particular!).
      2. crambol
        crambol 11 November 2013 22: 17
        0
        This is elementary coding!
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 18 November 2013 23: 29
          0
          If you are talking about the methods developed in the Nazi end camps, then these methods are on the verge of psychological perception. Deviations in the destructive direction were the predominant result of such encoding or transcoding. Brain activity is difficult to model, but it is not difficult to direct along the desired reaction vector.
    3. Aryan
      Aryan 11 November 2013 19: 20
      0
      Duck and the point of the article is to introduce the problems of cryptography
    4. zub46
      zub46 11 November 2013 22: 06
      0
      Taught in the Red Banner? I met a famous flower.
  6. pahom54
    pahom54 11 November 2013 10: 11
    +3
    He put the article plus for the efforts of its authors. But, as a professional cryptographer, I can say that the article is ABOUT ALL AND ABOUT ANYTHING. For knowledgeable specialists, it is not of interest, and for amateurs, it actually does not provide useful information.
    I can only say one thing: with the advent of computers, especially personal computers, the role of the encryptor as such was diminished to the extent that it was not offensive. If before we were taught 4-5 years, today any PC user can be trained in a short time to use protection systems.
    However, I can say another thing: the role of information protection has not diminished, and the role of cryptographic scientists has increased on the contrary. As said by one of the great ones - Who owns the information - that owns the world. Unfortunately, our modern business does not give a damn about information security issues, and for this reason it often incurs losses that are incomparable with the costs of protection.
    I recall how in one of his interviews Kaspersky said something like this: I realized that I could not become a good cryptographer, and therefore went into the field of information protection development ... Heather, bug. Everything is exactly the opposite.
    Well, the need to protect information is not even in doubt.
  7. igordok
    igordok 11 November 2013 12: 30
    0
    Crypto protection is everywhere. When buying goods in stores (Russia) you are given a cashier's receipt, at the bottom of which is printed "PDA ##### ########". PDA is a Cryptographic Verification Code. So, no where without crypto protection. smile
  8. Penek
    Penek 11 November 2013 12: 39
    +1
    Note that breaking the Enigma code ...
    If my sclerosis doesn’t fail me, the code was not hacked - the British picked up the encryption machine from a sunken Hitler submarine with a set of code disks.
    This set refers only to the code exchange kriegsmarin, the air force and ground forces had their own keys.
    By the way, they didn’t share with the USSR .. allies.
    1. anomalocaris
      anomalocaris 11 November 2013 15: 07
      +2
      On the basis of the seized vehicles (several were captured), the British created an analogue that cracked messages using brute force combinations.
    2. old rocket man
      old rocket man 11 November 2013 20: 36
      0
      Quote: Penek
      Note that breaking the Enigma cipher ..

      Enigma encoding machine, codes are not cracked in principle, since they are used only once and therefore are not opened by statistical methods (normal codes), signalmen know what a code table is, the simplest encoding method. To transmit top-secret information of special importance, only encoding equipment is used , modern encryption methods vary the complexity of the cipher depending on the time value of the information. For example, disclosing the negotiations of a tactical link per day will not bring any practical benefit, and so on
    3. zub46
      zub46 11 November 2013 22: 09
      0
      Right So it was.
  9. Stinger
    Stinger 11 November 2013 15: 30
    0
    The article is interesting. Especially a comparative assessment. I would like to know how the authors evaluate the prospects of stochastic coding in cryptography.
  10. EdwardTich68
    EdwardTich68 11 November 2013 17: 38
    -1
    How many words in the article. And all the information goes through the satellite, sending it to the supercomputer, for
    disclosures. The Germans came up with something there, their time is gone. Answer: who owns the cosmos, he owns the world.
    1. Cat
      Cat 11 November 2013 18: 26
      +1
      Quote: EdwardTich68
      How many words in the article. And all the information goes through the satellite, sending it to the supercomputer, for
      disclosures. The Germans came up with something there, their time is gone. Answer: who owns the cosmos, he owns the world.

      power over space, in itself, does not give any advantages - if the opponent owns the brain. And not only owns, but also knows how to use them =)
      In the sense that the availability of communication "at any time, in any place" obtained thanks to the same satellites, taught people to trend about and without it, with whom they should and with whom they should not, without hesitation - at which point of geography the interlocutor is ... Well, the more text, the higher the chance of finding some top-secret data in it, or some other compromising material. These are your Internet, again: any self-respecting politician is simply obliged to have an account on Twitter, and systematically "tweet" there. Otherwise they will not understand, appreciate and re-elect. That is, hosh is not hosh, and without boltology anywhere, but what is a chatterbox from the point of view of a spy - everyone knows. And where, one wonders, are the relevant special services looking? Unclear. As a result, we get some kind of A. Merkel, the head of a leading European power - who loves to scribble SMS to the right and left, spitting on security requirements. And after all, not an absolute monarch and not a dictator of some kind, who, by a willful decision, blows off heads and changes the constitution three times a day - but only elected, i.e. temporary an official - who, in his mind, must comply with certain relevant regulations. But alas ...
      In general: the problem is not only the possibility of intercepting information, the problem is the ease of exchanging information and the carefully cultivated fashion for this very exchange. Well, who and for what purpose cultivates is a rhetorical question ...
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. studentmati
    studentmati 11 November 2013 21: 27
    0
    The German company Rohde & Schwarz in 2004 announced the release of its own embedded crypto module. This is a dual-use product, that is, it can be used in military communications technology such as a multi-band radio station MR-3000 and "in civilian life", for example, in a TopSec GSM mobile phone. This phone was created on the basis of the then widespread Siemens S35i model.

    Given German pedantry, the story of Snowden about wiretapping Merkel and Co. looks very strange!
    1. biglow
      biglow 11 November 2013 23: 04
      0
      Quote: studentmati
      The German company Rohde & Schwarz in 2004 announced the release of its own embedded crypto module. This is a dual-use product, that is, it can be used in military communications technology such as a multi-band radio station MR-3000 and "in civilian life", for example, in a TopSec GSM mobile phone. This phone was created on the basis of the then widespread Siemens S35i model.

      Given German pedantry, the story of Snowden about wiretapping Merkel and Co. looks very strange!

      Merkel’s phone had an encryption chip, but she didn’t use it because she wrote and called on unprotected phones
  13. voliador
    voliador 11 November 2013 21: 44
    +1
    Maybe the article, as some say, "ABOUT EVERYTHING AND NOTHING", but for general educational purposes - is quite suitable. Not everyone needs to "head over heels" to delve into such a complex topic.
  14. crambol
    crambol 11 November 2013 22: 14
    +1
    Quote: Igor39
    In Soviet times, there was an anecdote: a famous German ace pilot gets captured. In the camp he meets his friend, also a pilot (who was captured earlier). A friend asks him, "Hans, how were you the coolest ace pilot captured? Willie you don’t know but Russians introduced a new code. Previously, they said, 12th, I 17th cover I go to the tail of the messer and it was clear to me. Now -Skull cover the point, I will now this diamonds pi ****** I'll be

    And this is not encryption, but encoding!
  15. datur
    datur 11 November 2013 22: 55
    0
    in general, cryptography was introduced into the history of the ancient Greek scholar-giron !!