Military Review

Millennium Roadmap

17
How did the transport system develop in Russia before the advent of rails and sleepers


Millennium Roadmap

“Novgorod. Pier ", Konstantin Gorbatov


It is known that Russian statehood arose precisely on the river routes - first of all, “From the Varangians to the Greeks”, from ancient Novgorod to ancient Kiev. But they usually forget that the rivers remained the main “roads” of Russia throughout the subsequent thousand years, right up to the beginning of mass railway construction.

Genghis Khan's Road Heritage

The first to relocate a noticeable amount of people and cargo outside the river “roads” across Russia were the Mongols during their invasion. By inheritance from the Mongols of Moscow Russia, transport technologies were also acquired - the system of "pits", "Yamskaya chase". “Yam” is a Mongolian “road”, “way” distorted by the Muscovites. It was this well-thought-out network of posts with prepared replacement horses that made it possible to connect the vast, sparsely populated area of ​​Eastern Europe into one state.

The Yamskoy Order, the distant ancestor of the Ministry of Railways and the Federal Postal Service, is first mentioned in 1516. It is known that under Grand Prince Ivan III, more than one and a half thousand new “pits” were established. In the XVII century, immediately after the end of the Troubles, for many years Yamskoy order was headed by the savior of Moscow, Prince Dmitry Pozharsky.

But the land roads of Muscovy performed mainly only administrative and postal functions - they moved people and information. Here they were at their best: according to the recollections of the ambassador of the Holy Roman Empire, Sigismund Herberstein, his messenger covered the distance in 600 versts from Novgorod to Moscow in just 72 hours.

However, the situation with the movement of goods was quite different. Until the beginning of the XIX century in Russia there was not a single mile and a half of hard-surfaced road. That is, two out of four seasons - in spring and autumn - the roads were simply not available as such. The laden cart could only be moved there with heroic efforts and at a snail's speed. It's not just the dirt, but also the rising water level. Most of the roads — in our concept of ordinary paths — went from ford to ford.

The situation was saved by a long Russian winter, when nature itself created a convenient snowy path — a “winter road” and reliable ice “crossings” along frozen rivers. Therefore, the overland movement of goods in Russia to the railways was adapted to this change of seasons. Every autumn in the cities there was an accumulation of goods and goods, which, after the establishment of snow cover, moved around the country with large wagons of dozens and sometimes hundreds of sledges. Winter frosts contributed to the natural storage of perishable products - in any other season, with the storage and preservation technologies that were almost completely absent then, they would have rotted on a long road.


"Sigismund Herberstein on the way to Russia", engraving by Augustine Hirschfogel. 1547 year


According to the memoirs and descriptions of Europeans of the 16th — 17th centuries that have come down to us, several thousand sleds with goods arrived in winter Moscow every day. The same meticulous Europeans calculated that the transportation of the same cargo on a sledge was at least two times cheaper than its own transport by a cart. It played a role not only the difference in the condition of roads in winter and summer. Wooden axles and wagon wheels, their lubrication and operation were at that time a very complicated and expensive technology. Much more simple sleds were deprived of these operational difficulties.

Pathways of shackles and postal

For several centuries, land roads played a modest role in the movement of goods, for good reason they were called “postal routes”. The center and main hub of these communications was the capital - Moscow.

It is not by chance that even now the names of Moscow streets remind you about the directions of the main roads: Tverskaya (to Tver), Dmitrovskaya (to Dmitrov), Smolenskaya (to Smolensk), Kaluzhskaya (to Kaluga), Ordynka (to Ordu, to the Tatars) and others. By the middle of the XVIII century, the system of “postal routes” intersected in Moscow was finally formed. The St. Petersburg highway led to the new capital of the Russian Empire. The Lithuanian highway led to the West - from Moscow via Smolensk to Brest, with a length of 1064 versts. Kiev road to the "mother of Russian cities" consisted 1295 versts. Belgorod Road Moscow - Oryol - Belgorod - Kharkov - Elizavetgrad - Dubossary, which is a mile-long 1382, led to the borders of the Ottoman Empire.

They went to the North along the Arkhangelsk road, the Voronezh road (Moscow - Voronezh - Don region - Mozdok) went to the south in 1723 versts and the Astrakhan road (Moscow - Tambov - Tsaritsin - Kizlyar - Mozdok) to 1972 versts. By the beginning of the long Caucasian War, Mozdok was the main communications center of the Russian army. It is noteworthy that it will be already in our time, in the last two Chechen wars.

The Central Russia was connected with the Urals and Siberia by the Siberian Road (Moscow - Murom - Kazan - Perm - Yekaterinburg) with a length of 1784 versts.

The road to the Urals is probably the first stories Russia deliberately designed and built.

This is the so-called Babinovskaya road from Solikamsk to Verkhoturye - it connected the Volga basin with the Irtysh basin. Artem Safronovich Babinov "designed" her on the instructions of Moscow. The path open to them in the Trans-Urals was several times shorter than the previous one, along which Yermak went to Siberia. Since 1595, the road has been built for two years by forty peasants sent by Moscow. According to our concepts, this was only a minimally equipped path that was barely cleared in the forest, but by the standards of that time, a completely solid track. In the documents of those years, Babinov was called “the leader of the Siberian road”. In 1597, the 50 residents of Uglich, accused in the case of the murder of Tsarevich Dmitry and exiled to the Urals to build the Pelymsky jail, were the first to experience this road on themselves. In Russian history, they are considered the first exiles to Siberia.

Without hard coating

By the end of the 18th century, the length of the “postal routes” of the European part of Russia was 15 thousands of miles. The road network was getting thicker towards the West, while east of the Moscow-Tula meridian, the density of roads was sharply decreasing, sometimes tending to zero. In fact, only one Moscow-Siberian highway led to the east of the Urals with some branches.

The road through all of Siberia began to be built in the 1730 year, after the signing of the Kyakhta treaty with China - systematic caravan trade with the most populated and wealthy state in the world was then considered as the most important source of income for the state treasury. In total, the Siberian Road (Moscow - Kazan - Perm - Yekaterinburg - Tyumen - Tomsk - Irkutsk) was built over a century, having completed its equipment in the middle of the XIX century, when it was time to think about the Trans-Siberian railway line.

Until the beginning of the 19th century, there were no roads with hard weather in Russia at all. The capital road between Moscow and St. Petersburg was considered the best way. It began to build on the orders of Peter I in the 1712 year and ended only after 34 year. This road, a length of 10 km in 770, was built by a specially created State Road Office using advanced technology then, but still they did not dare to make it stone.

The “Capital Route” was built in the so-called fascine way, when they dug a pit a meter or two deep across the whole route and fascias and bundles of rods were put into it, pouring layers of fascines over the ground. When these layers reached the level of the earth's surface, a scaffolding platform was laid on them across the road, on which a shallow layer of sand was poured.

The “Fashinnik” was somewhat more convenient and reliable than the usual path. But also on it the loaded cart went from the old capital to the new whole five weeks - and this is in the dry season, if there was no rain.

In accordance with the laws of the Russian Empire, the peasants of the respective locality were supposed to repair the roads and bridges. And the "road service", which mobilized rural men with their tools and horses, was considered by the people one of the most difficult and hated.

In sparsely populated regions, roads were built and repaired by soldiers.

As the Dutch envoy Deby wrote in April 1718 of the year: “Tver, Torzhok and Vyshniy Volochek are inundated with goods that will be transported to St. Petersburg by Lake Ladoga, because carriers have refused to transport them dry by expensive road horse and bad condition of the roads ...”.

A century later, in the middle of the 19th century, Lessl, a professor at the Polytechnic School of Stuttgart, described the Russian roads in the following way: “Imagine, for example, in Russia a freight train from 20 — 30 carts loaded with 9 centners into one horse, following one another. In good weather, the convoy moves without obstacles, but during prolonged rainy weather, the wheels of the wagons sink into the ground to the axles and the whole convoy stops for whole days in front of the streams that overflowed their banks ... ”

Volga flows into the Baltic Sea

For a considerable part of the year, Russian roads buried in mud were literally in the literal sense of the word. But the domestic market, though not the most developed in Europe, and active foreign trade annually required mass cargo traffic. It was provided by completely different roads - numerous rivers and lakes of Russia. And from the era of Peter the Great, a developed system of artificial channels was added to them.


Siberian tract in the painting by Nikolai Dobrovolsky "Crossing over the Angara", 1886 year


The main export goods of Russia from the XVIII century - bread, hemp, Ural iron, wood - could not be massively transported through the whole country by horse-drawn transport. It required a completely different carrying capacity, which could only give sea and river vessels.

The small barge with a crew of several people, most widespread on the Volga, took 3 thousands of poods of cargo — this cargo took over a hundred carts, that is, it required at least a hundred horses and the same number of people. An ordinary boat on the Volkhov lifted a little more than 500 pounds of cargo, easily replacing twenty carts.

The scale of water transport in Russia clearly shows, for example, such a fact of the statistics that reached us: in the winter of 1810, because of early frosts on the Volga, Kama and Oka, 4288 vessels froze into ice far from their ports. In terms of capacity, this number was equivalent to a quarter of a million carts. That is, river transport on all waterways of Russia replaced at least a million horse-drawn carts.

Already in the XVIII century, the production of iron and iron became the basis of the Russian economy. The center of metallurgy was the Urals, which exported its products. Mass transportation of metal could be provided exclusively by water transport. The barge, loaded with Ural iron, sailed in April and reached St. Petersburg in the fall, during one navigation. The path began in the tributaries of the Kama on the western slopes of the Urals. Further downstream, from Perm to the confluence of the Kama and the Volga, here began the hardest part of the journey - up to Rybinsk. The movement of river vessels against the current was provided by barge haulers. The cargo ship from Simbirsk to Rybinsk, they dragged a half or two months.

The Mariinsky water system started from Rybinsk, and with the help of small rivers and artificial canals, it connected the Volga basin with St. Petersburg via the White, Ladoga and Onega lakes. From the beginning of the 18th century until the end of the 19th century, St. Petersburg was not only the administrative capital, but also the largest economic center of the country - the largest port of Russia, through which the main flow of imports and exports passed. Therefore, the city on the Neva with the Volga basin was connected by as many as three “water systems”, conceived by Peter I.

It was he who began to form and the new transport system of the country.

Peter I first thought out and began to build a system of canals connecting together all the big rivers of European Russia: this is the most important and now completely forgotten part of his reforms,

to which the country remained loosely connected by a conglomerate of isolated feudal regions.

Already in the 1709 year, the Vyshnevolotskaya water system began to work when channels and sluices connected the Tvertsa river, the tributary of the upper Volga, to the Tsnoy river, along which a continuous waterway runs through Lake Ilmen and Volkhov to Lake Ladoga and the Neva. Thus, for the first time, a single transport system appeared from the Urals and Persia to the countries of Western Europe.

Two years earlier, in 1707, the Ivanovsky Canal was built, connecting the upper reaches of the Oka River through its tributary Upu with the Don River - in fact for the first time the huge Volga River Basin was connected with the Don Basin, which could link trade and freight from the Caspian Sea to the Urals with the regions Black and Mediterranean Seas.

For ten years, the Ivanovsky Channel built 35 of thousands of driven away peasants under the leadership of German colonel Brekel and English engineer Per. With the beginning of the Northern War, the captured Swedes joined the serf builders. But the British engineer was wrong in the calculations: studies and measurements were carried out in the year of extremely high groundwater levels. Therefore, the Ivanovo Canal, despite the 33 gateway, initially experienced problems with filling with water. Already in the 20th century, Andrei Platonov would write about the drama of the production novel of the era of Peter I - “Epiphany Gateways.

The channel that connected the basins of the Volga and the Don, despite not all of Peter's ambitions, did not become a bustling economic route - not only because of technical errors, but primarily because there was still a century before the conquest of the Black Sea basin of Russia.

The technical and economic fate of the canals connecting the Volga with St. Petersburg was more successful. At the end of the reign of Peter I, the Novgorod merchant Mikhail Serdyukov, who turned out to be a talented self-taught hydrotechnologist, improved and brought to mind the Novgorod merchant Mikhail Vishnevolotskaya, built for military purposes in a hurry for 6 for years by six thousand peasants and Dutch engineers. True, at the birth of this man was called Borono Silengen, he was a Mongol, who was captured as a teenager by Russian Cossacks during one of the clashes on the border with the Chinese Empire.

The former Mongol who became Russian Mikhail, having studied the practice of the Dutch, improved the gateways and other structures of the canal, raised its carrying capacity twice, reliably connecting the newborn Petersburg with central Russia. Peter I, in joy, handed over the canal to Serdyukov in the hereditary concession, and since then his family has been receiving 5 kopecks for almost half a century from the length of each vessel passing through the canals of the Vyshnevolotsk water system.

Burlaki against Napoleon

The entire 18th century in Russia was unhurried technical progress of river vessels: if in the middle of the century a typical river barge on the Volga received an average of 80 tons of cargo, then at the beginning of the XIX century a bark of similar size took already 115 tons. If in the middle of the XVIII century, on the Vyshnevolotsk water system, thousands of ships passed an average of 3 annually in St. Petersburg, by the end of the century their number doubled and, moreover, 2 — 3 thousands of rafts with forest for export were added.


"Barge haulers on the Volga", Ilya Repin. Reproduction: wikipedia.org


The idea of ​​technical progress was not alien to people from the government boards of St. Petersburg. So, in 1757, on the Volga, on the initiative of the capital of the empire, so-called engine ships appeared. These were not ships, but ships moving at the expense of the gate, rotated by bulls. The ships were intended for the transportation of salt from Saratov to Nizhny Novgorod, each raising 50 thousands of pounds. However, these "cars" functioned for the entire 8 years - barge haulers turned out to be cheaper than bulls and primitive mechanisms.

At the end of the 18th century, a barge carrying bread from Rybinsk to St. Petersburg cost over one and a half thousand rubles. The loading of the barge was done in 30 — 32 rubles, the state duty was 56 rubles, while the payment for pilots, barge haulers, horsemen and divers (that was the name of the technical specialists who served the canal locks) was already 1200 — 1300 rubles. According to the preserved statistics of 1792, the largest merchant in Moscow turned out to be Arkhip Pavlov, a Moscow merchant - that year he spent from Volga to Petersburg 29 baroque with wine and 105 with Perm salt.

By the end of the 18th century, Russia's economic development required the creation of new waterways and new land roads. Many projects appeared already under Catherine II, the aging empress issued appropriate decrees, for the implementation of which the officials did not constantly find money. They were found only under Paul I, and the grandiose construction work was already completed in the reign of Alexander I.

Thus, in 1797 — 1805, the Berezinsky water system was built, connecting the basin of the Dnieper with the Western Bug and the Baltic by channels. This aquatic “road” was used to export Ukrainian agricultural products and Belarusian forest to Europe through the port of Riga.


Map of the Mariinsky, Tikhvin and Vyshnevolotsk water systems.


In 1810 and 1811, literally on the eve of Napoleon’s invasion, Russia received two additional channel systems, the Mariinsky and Tikhvin, through which the country's increased traffic flow went from the Urals to the Baltic. The Tikhvin system became the shortest route from the Volga to St. Petersburg. It began at the site of the modern Rybinsk reservoir, ran along the tributaries of the Volga to the Tikhvin connecting channel, which led to the Syas River, which flows into Lake Ladoga, and the Neva River. Since even in our time Lake Ladoga is considered difficult for navigation, along the coast of Ladoga, completing the Tikhvin water system, a bypass channel was built, built under Peter I and improved already under Alexander I.

The length of the entire Tikhvin system was 654 versts, of which 176 were sections that were filled with water only with the help of sophisticated gateway technology. In total, 62 gateways worked, of which two were auxiliary, which served to collect water in special tanks. Tikhvin system consisted 105 cargo piers.

Every year, 5 — 7 thousands of ships and several thousand more forest rafts passed through the Tikhvin system. All the gateways of the system served only three hundred technicians and employees. But 25 — 30 of thousands of workers were involved in escorting ships along the rivers and canals of the system. Taking into account the movers on the quays, only one Tikhvin water system required more than 40 thousands of permanent workers - huge numbers for those times.

In 1810, goods for the sum of 105 703 536 rubles were delivered to St. Petersburg by river transport from all over Russia. 49 cop

For comparison, approximately the same amount was the annual budget revenues of the Russian Empire at the beginning of the XIX century on the eve of the Napoleonic wars.

The Russian water transport system played a strategic role in the 1812 victory of the year. Moscow was not a key hub of communications in Russia, so it was rather a moral loss. Systems of the Volga-Baltic channels reliably connected Petersburg with the rest of the empire even at the height of the Napoleonic invasion: despite the war and a sharp drop in traffic volumes in the summer of 1812 of the Mariinsky system, the capital of Russia received cargo for 3,7 million rubles, for Tikhvin one - for 6 million.

BAM Russian Tsars

Only direct expenses of Russia for the war with Napoleon at that time amounted to a fantastic amount - more than 700 million rubles. Therefore, the construction of the first roads with hard stone pavement started in Russia under Alexander I progressed with an average speed of 40 versts per year. However, by the 1820 year, the Moscow-Petersburg all-weather highway was operational and for the first time the regular movement of passenger stage was organized by it. A large carriage on 8 passengers, thanks to interchangeable horses and a stone-paved highway, covered the distance from the old to the new capital in four days.

After 20 years, such highways and regular stagecoach functioned already between Petersburg, Riga and Warsaw.

The inclusion of a large part of Poland within the borders of Russia required the empire to build a new canal. In 1821, Prussia unilaterally imposed prohibitive customs duties on the transit of goods to the port of Danzig, blocking access to the sea for Polish and Lithuanian merchants who became citizens of Russia. In order to create a new transport corridor from the center of the Kingdom of Poland to the Russian ports in Kurland, Alexander I approved the “August Channel” project a year before his death.

This new water system connecting the Vistula and the Neman was built 15 years. Construction slowed down the Polish uprising 1830 of the year, an active participant in which was Colonel Prondzinsky, the first head of the construction work, who had previously served in the army of Napoleon as a military engineer and pardoned the creation of the Kingdom of Poland.

In addition to the Augustow Canal, which passed through the territory of Poland, Belarus and Lithuania, the indirect result of the Napoleonic invasion was another channel, dug far to the north-east of Russia. North-Catherine Canal on the border of the Perm and Vologda provinces connected the basins of the Kama and Northern Dvina. The canal was conceived during the reign of Catherine II, and its previously unhurried construction was forced during the war with Napoleon. The North Catherine Canal, even if the enemy reached Nizhny Novgorod, allowed the Volga basin to be connected through the Kama to the port of Arkhangelsk. At that time it was the only canal in the world built by hand in deep taiga forests. Created largely for purely “military” reasons, it never became economically viable, and was closed 20 years after construction, thereby anticipating the history of BAM after a century and a half.

By the middle of the 19th century, the canal system of the Russian Empire reached its peak for the economy and the life of the country.

But 800 kilometers of the total length of all Russian channels looked not at all impressive against the background of their counterparts in Western Europe. For example, the length of all British shipping channels exceeded 4000 kilometers. The length of the channels of France was close to 5000, and Germany over 2000 kilometers. Even in China, the length of only the Imperial Canal, through which Beijing was supplied with rice, exceeded the length of all the channels of Russia combined.

In the middle of the XIX century, the maintenance of one mile of waterways in Russia was spent around 100 rubles, in France 1765 rubles, in Germany 1812 rubles. Both in Europe and in China, the channels operated, if not year-round, then at least most of the year. In Russia, they functioned at best 6 months from 12, or even less.

Even after the start of mass railway construction, channels, thanks to new technologies, competed with the locomotive and rails. So, thanks to the steamboats, the throughput of the Tikhvin canal system in 1890's increased fourfold compared to 1810 in the year, and the transit time from Rybinsk to St. Petersburg decreased threefold. The load capacity of the first rail cars did not exceed 10 tons, while the canals of the Tikhvin system allowed the movement of vessels with a carrying capacity of more than 160 tons.

In fact, in Russia, canals and river routes were relegated to the background by railways only to the beginning of the 20th century.
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  1. 311ove
    311ove 29 October 2013 10: 31
    +2
    Interesting! And now is something left of the North Catherine’s Canal?
    1. klimpopov
      klimpopov 29 October 2013 10: 44
      +3
      Well, the search engine gave a lot of http://mincult.rkomi.ru/page/7215/


      http://culture.ru/atlas/object/1603 - еще
      1. 311ove
        311ove 29 October 2013 10: 52
        +2
        Oh how! Thank! In our area, the river is now about the same, although once it was also navigable
        1. klimpopov
          klimpopov 29 October 2013 11: 04
          +1
          You know, before the dam was built, the Kuban was (in our places) four times wider and was navigable in principle, at least some troughs went along it (according to the stories), but then two canals took water from the Kuban and it became we have quite small, and at this time of the year it’s generally a trickle.
          And the Yekaterininsky Canal is rather a historical place now. But yes it is very interesting.

          Another channel photo
          1. 311ove
            311ove 29 October 2013 11: 40
            +2
            Hydro-construction has greatly changed the face of many places. Our river seems to be in "one time" in my memory anyway, but in childhood, I remember the spills in the spring were up to 1 km, and how at the end of the 80s "Belgorod Sea" did so about the flood and forgot. But in nature, it seems that changes are taking place near Poltava. Vorskla was a river like a river. The hydroelectric power station probably stood on it for the first five-year plans .... I traveled about 3 years ago, the hydroelectric power station is really still standing and it looks like it even "functions", but after the dam, something more like a stream flows ...
            1. klimpopov
              klimpopov 29 October 2013 11: 49
              +2
              Well, after the construction of the dams, even the forest in the floodplain appeared here, and indeed the nature in the floodplain has changed literally in 50 years. Man has a strong influence on nature through his activities. This is a fact that is difficult to argue with.
              1. ando_bor
                ando_bor 29 October 2013 21: 05
                +2
                The climate is changing, and it is basically a natural process.
                Now in Russia there is an increase in humidity, this is especially noticeable in the south.
                Back in the 50s, trees in Budenovsk did not grow without watering, now anything grows there. Sands - dunes with grass overgrown literally before our eyes for 2-30 years, in the east of Stavropol.
                In general, the climatic split is one of the main engines of history.
  2. misterwulf
    misterwulf 29 October 2013 12: 33
    +2
    Somehow before, I was not particularly interested in this issue. Interesting.
  3. Maximus-xnumx
    Maximus-xnumx 29 October 2013 12: 40
    +4
    Until the 19th century, the main transport was water, 19-20th century rail, now automobile, then string, air, or some other ???
    Without good ways of communication, Russia does not exist.
    PS At the moment, water transport in our country is in critical condition. Rivers are not cleaned, 40% of channel locks are in disrepair, shipyards are barely breathing. What about river traffic? Even visually it is visible that the vessels began to walk much less.
    PSS Water transport itself is the cheapest. High electricity tariffs killed him. How ? Exorbitantly high tariffs for using gateways. At the moment, the same granite to Moscow from Karelia is more profitable to carry by rail.
  4. kaktus
    kaktus 29 October 2013 13: 16
    +2
    Interesting. In the 70-80s, vessels of the Volga type rose along Ufa (Agideli) to Ufa. And now water transport is barely alive, and the rivers are very shallow after the drought of 2010 sad
  5. Lapotnik
    Lapotnik 29 October 2013 13: 43
    +1
    In the light of this article, I propose to consider the war of 1812, very interesting thoughts.

    I do not know if it is possible to give a link

    "Focuses of the Wars of 1812"

    http://igor-grek.ucoz.ru/index/1812/0-14
    1. klimpopov
      klimpopov 29 October 2013 14: 05
      0
      Interesting. I have never met this very position before. There are a lot of questions.
  6. Derlok
    Derlok 29 October 2013 17: 52
    +4
    The notorious Tatar-Mongols cut their ears.
    How can an invader who did not occupy Russia, but supposedly win and oblige to pay tribute to start building roads where he doesn’t live ??????
    Why build roads in an enemy that is not fully controlled? Tribute and so will pay for the water. Then what kind of tribute is such a ridiculous 10 percent ??? Taxes in all countries are higher, and here the tribute is only 10 percent.
    During the "invasion of the Tatar-Mongols" Orthodox churches began to be built more than before them.
    Where have you seen that the enemy comes even if he is a pagan, why do Orthodox churches begin to be built under him ???
    Always hearing the Tatar-Mongols, since childhood I thought who are they? It turns out that according to official history, it was not the Tatar-Mongols, but the Mongols, and they began to call it that way because they have narrow eyes like the Tatars.
    I saw ancient frescoes depicting the Battle of Kulikovo, and on one and the other side in the same armor with the same flags. Sorry for the question of who was mowing under whom and how the Tatar-Mongols could go into battle with flags where Christ is depicted (I don’t remember what the flags are and the image of Christ).
    And why Mongolia became Mongolia only in the 20th century and the Mongols themselves do not know any Genghis Khan.
    Why did the Russian princes fight on the side of the Russian forces, then on the side of the Tatar-Mongol ???
    So what kind of Tatar-Mongols Russia "trampled" ????
    And according to recent studies of the genotype, the admixture of Mongoloid genes in the blood of Russians is least in Europe and is within the framework of the statistical error.
    And so we live with a warped history.
    1. ando_bor
      ando_bor 29 October 2013 21: 23
      +2
      History is not taught at school; historical ideology is taught at school.
      They teach to love "the party and the government" at best, the Motherland.
      In history, everything is logical, clear and understandable, if not, then we do not know something or do not understand correctly.
      Sort it out.
      In the Battle of Kulikovo, the Mongols did not exist as such; the Mamai Army consisted of Yasses, Sheds, Krymchaks, Western Russians, Genoese, and various nomads.
      Regarding temples, freedom of faith is one of the main principles of Yasa - the Genghis Khan constitution. The Mongols did not build roads, they established a communication system.
      And Genghis Khan in Mongolia is even remembered, this is their main brand.
  7. poquello
    poquello 29 October 2013 23: 08
    +1
    "Genghis Khan's road legacy

    The first to move across Russia a noticeable number of people and cargo outside the river "roads" were the Mongols during their invasion. Transport technologies were inherited from the Mongols of Muscovy Rus - the system of "pits", "Yamskaya chase". "Yam" is the Mongolian "road", "way" distorted by the Muscovites. It was this well-thought-out network of posts with trained replacement horses that made it possible to unite the vast sparsely populated area of ​​Eastern Europe into a single state. "

    Where does it come from ... feces rushing? The roads were in Russia to the Mongols, and traveled along the roads in winter and summer and in the off-season. Horde caravanserais added and evenly distributed protection.
    "there was a system of stations - pits - with removable horses and supplies of food and water. The term" yam "took root in Russian to designate a horse postal service."
    http://rusarch.ru/avilova1.htm
    Thanks to the Mongols for the great transport technology. Minus nafig.
  8. Tyumen
    Tyumen 30 October 2013 00: 32
    0
    Very good, informative article. Author well done
  9. Yura
    Yura 31 October 2013 22: 10
    0
    Great article!