Military Review

25 October 1762 Propulsion Ekaterina II ordered that the uninhabited areas of Russia be settled by foreigners

57
25 October 1762 Propulsion Ekaterina II ordered that the uninhabited areas of Russia be settled by foreigners During the reign of Catherine II, vast regions — the Northern Black Sea Coast, the Azov Sea Region, the Crimean Peninsula, Right-Bank Ukraine, the land between the Dniester and the Bug, Belarus, Courland, and Lithuania — became part of the empire. Part of the domestic policy of the Russian government was measures to settle low-inhabited territories. October 25 1762 of the Year Ekaterina Alekseevna issued a manifesto "On allowing foreigners to settle in Russia and the free return of the Russian people who fled abroad." The manifesto from 22 July 1763 was a continuation of this document. “On permission for all foreigners entering Russia to settle in various provinces of their choice, their rights and benefits.”


Ekaterina Alekseevna substantiated the manifesto with her maternal (“mother”) care and works about peace and prosperity of the Russian Empire entrusted to her by the god, as well as concerns about the multiplication of this monastery. The Empress also noted that many foreigners, as well as her former citizens who were outside of Russia, were asking for permission to settle in the empire. Catherine graciously allowed the resettlement of foreigners of all nations (except Jews), and also gave permission to return to compatriots who for some reason left Russia. Foreigners should first of all settle down in the less-populated regions of Russia, including the Black Sea region and Ukraine, which were greatly deserted in previous centuries (the predatory raids of the Crimean Tatars played a large role in this).

Catherine took all measures to learn about the manifesto in Western Europe. The manifesto was printed in Russian, French, German and English in hundreds of copies, and they were sent to Russian diplomatic agents operating abroad. Agents were to get the document published in local newspapers. It is clear that in order to attract people (after all, they had to give up their usual life and go no where else to the “barbarous” and sparsely populated areas of the Northern Empire), additional incentives were needed. A year later, the following documents were developed and published: “Manifesto on advance payments and privileges granted to foreign migrants” and “Decree on the establishment of the Office of the Guardianship of Foreign Migrants”. Thus, the affairs of the immigrants had to deal with a special institution. Migrants received various privileges.

The favorite of the Empress, Adjutant General and Count Grigory Orlov, was appointed President of the Office of Foreign Trusteeship. Later, Saratov established the Saratov office of foreign settlers (it operated from 1766 to 1877 a year). In its activities, the Office submitted directly to the Office of the Guardianship of Foreign located in St. Petersburg. The office received the task of managing the settlers until they became so familiar with Russia that it would be possible to extend the forms of management historically established in the empire to them.

Future colonists, if they did not have the means to travel, had to turn to Russian diplomatic workers and their representatives, who were obliged to ensure the relocation of immigrants and provide them with money for travel expenses. Immigrants received personal freedom, the right to choose a place of settlement, exemption from all taxes for a fairly decent time (in cities for five years, in rural areas - up to thirty years), provided interest-free loans for ten years for housing, household, for reimbursement of expenses relocation, purchase of food before the first harvest, livestock, agricultural implements or tools for artisans. The immigrants who created their production, were allowed to trade and even export goods abroad duty free. New citizens received the right to freedom of religion and the ability to build their own religious buildings, as well as the right to their own local governments in compact places, created without interference from government officials. They retained the possibility of unhindered departure from the Russian Empire. Moreover, immigrants were exempted from military service (recruitment). As a result, the new citizens of Russia received such benefits and benefits as Russians and other native inhabitants of the empire did not have. Solid benefits, with a minimum of responsibilities. Given the overpopulation and serious restrictions on the territory of the German states, many settlers have greatly benefited from starting a new life.

After this, the process of settling in the less-inhabited regions of Russia began at a rather rapid pace. Recruitment and shipment of colonists to Russia was carried out by both official commissars and private entrepreneurs (“summoners”), who entered into an agreement directly with the Office of Trusteeship. Between 1763 and 1766 About 30 thousand people were sent to the Russian empire, about half of them were able to persuade and send the callers to Russia. The colonists were placed in St. Petersburg and in the suburbs of the capital, in Oranienbaum. Here they lived on average 1-2 of the month. Immigrants were introduced to Russian traditions and laws. In particular, the colonists retained freedom of religion, but they were forbidden, under the fear of the full severity of the law, to conduct missionary activity. After acquaintance with the Russian laws, the colonists took the oath of allegiance to the Russian sovereign and went to the place of settlement. Transportation was usually carried out by river transport. Most of the German settlers were sent to develop the Volga region. In 1765, there were 12 colonies on the Volga, in 1766, in 21, in 1767, in 67, in 1769, in 105.

The government rather rigidly established for the German colonists in the Volga region the main task - the development of agriculture. German settlers coped with this task in general. They produced mainly rye, and also grew potatoes, increased the crops of flax, hemp, tobacco and other crops. Already in the XIX century, the colonist industry was developed. In the Volga region flour production, the oil-making industry, the manufacture of agricultural labor tools, the production of wool and linen developed. There was also a leather industry, weaving developed.

The government of Catherine II dealt with the problems of settlement and other parts of the empire. So, the agrarian-colonization policy of St. Petersburg in relation to Siberia has acquired a structural, systemic character. Catherine II, with the help of the decree, "beat up" the runaway Old Believers to Siberia In Altai, a community of Bukhtarma’s Belovodists, “masons”, fugitives, who were hiding in the Altai mountain gorges, was legalized. At the same time, the practice of increasing the Siberian population at the expense of administrative and criminal exiles (“settlers”) continued.

At the same time, the government took measures to settle the Black Sea region. During the Russian-Turkish war 1768 — 1774. Catherine issued a decree calling for Christians, who were under the yoke of the Ottoman Empire, to enter the Russian service, promising reward. Residents of the islands of the Aegean Sea, Greece, Macedonia, Serbia, and partly of the Crimea responded to the call. Of them formed the so-called. "Greek army" - 8 battalions (about 5 thousand people). In 1774, the volunteers decided not to return to their homeland and asked the empress, through Count A. Orlov, under whose authority they served, the rights of settlement in Russia. 28 March 1775 was issued a rescript allowing soldiers who served in Russia and their families to settle in the empire. The place for their residence was the Azov province with Taganrog, the city of Kerch and Yenikale.

This decree had a decisive influence on the decision about the exodus of the Greeks from the Crimea. Christians in the Crimea were severely persecuted by the Tatars. The Greeks were looked upon as unreliable subjects, the most persistent Christians were killed, the weak were converted to Islam. Christians were limited in their rights, could not be in the public service, they were kept almost in the position of slaves. The Crimean Greeks, aware of the resettlement of their fellow tribesmen and representatives of other ethnic groups to the south of Russia, about the privileges that the settlers received, about what heights some foreigners in the economy and in public service also sought to move into the empire. Metropolitan Ignatius of Goths and Kafsky conducted a series of secret talks with Prince Potemkin and the commander of the Russian troops in the Crimea, Prince Prozorovsky. As a result, the metropolitan petitioned the empress to transfer the Christians to Russian citizenship and to withdraw to them a sufficient amount of land for their settlements.

The negotiations were successful, since Petersburg was interested in settling Novorossia and further weakening the Crimean Khanate. Christians of the Crimea - about 8% of the population of the peninsula, mostly Greeks and Armenians, gave the bulk of the income of the Khan's treasury. With the departure of the Christians, the Khan fell into great material dependence on the Russian government. 21 April 1778, Metropolitan Ignatius announced the relocation to Russia. Khan Shahin-Girey went berserk, but could not prevent this decision. In addition, the Tatar dignitaries bribed, giving them expensive gifts and significant sums of money. In total more than 18 thousand people moved. The settlers were settled in the Mariupol district of the Azov province. They received unique benefits and privileges. They were given 1,2 million dessiatinas of land. Each man received about 33 hectares (30 tithes), that is, the average family received up to 100 hectares of black soil. The first years to migrants, despite the benefits, it was hard to settle in new places. The situation was aggravated by a drought that destroyed the entire crop. But by the end of the century they were well settled. The community has grown significantly in number. The source of their well-being was farming and cattle breeding (mainly sheep breeding).

In 1783, the Crimean Peninsula fully entered the Russian Empire and began to invite colonists there: Russians, Germans, Bulgarians, Armenians, Greeks, etc. Each family received land and was exempted from taxes for a certain period. Greek immigrants generally showed no desire to return to the Crimea.
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 25 October 2013 08: 38
    14
    Politics, to relocate to places of low population or not inhabited, has always been a faithful and wise policy of all levels of the highest power of our state.
    Unfortunately, at present, there is an outflow of people to the center of municipalities.
    Everyone wants to live better ...
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. Hudo
        Hudo 25 October 2013 08: 58
        20
        Quote: Vadivak
        Quote: aszzz888
        Politics, for relocation to places of low population or uninhabited, has always been a faithful and wise policy


        Especially under the control of a German whore, who did not care about Russian peasants slaves.


        Under control, as you deigned german whoresRussia resolved the Crimean issue, firmly established itself in the Black Sea and Priazovye, got the right to play the first violin part in European politics, became the superpower of the then world acting in its own interests, rather than looking into its mouth - what will the next European clown say there.
        And as regards serfdom, then recall at least the same Pugachev revolt - in such a situation of endless wars and riots, only noble machinations were enough to solve the peasant question - it would end in the turmoil and collapse of the state.
        Sincerely.
        1. ele1285
          ele1285 25 October 2013 09: 32
          +3
          Quote: Hudo
          Under the leadership, as you deigned to express the German whore, Russia resolved the Crimean issue, firmly entrenched in the Black Sea and the Sea of ​​Azov, got the right to play the first violin part in European politics, became the superpower of the then world acting in its interests, and not looking into the mouth - what’s there another euroclown will say.
          And as regards serfdom, then recall at least the same Pugachev revolt - in such a situation of endless wars and riots, only noble machinations were enough to solve the peasant question - it would end in the turmoil and collapse of the state.
          Sincerely.

          But I have such a question: where did the Pugachev riot have money? After all, it’s clear that such an uprising cannot be launched
          1. Egoza
            Egoza 25 October 2013 10: 15
            +7
            Quote: ele1285
            Where did the Pugachev revolt come from?

            Military Advisers and Gold
            In a letter to Catherine II, Voltaire suggested about Pugachev’s rebellion: “Probably, this farce was placed by the knight Totg.” Baron Tott, a terrible Russophobe, served at the French Embassy in Istanbul, helped Khan Kerim Giray against Russia in Crimea, advised the Turks on how to improve artillery and engineering units.
            Voltaire may be right, but still not lone adventurers set up a "farce"! Here is a quote from a letter from Count de Saint-Prix: "French officers send the baton for the baton from the Turkish army, which is supposed to undertake sabotage in Russia in favor of Peter III."
            Crimean Tatars - not otherwise than at the instigation of Turkey - supported the “Pugach”. Under him were found and Polish officers from among the exiled Confederates, who had previously fought against Russia. Around the detachments of peasants and Cossacks were the natural enemies of our country. And some French officers in the Russian service - the oath to the Empress! - incited the Russian regiments to go to the rebels.
            Foreign military experts told Pugachev that it was necessary to establish a special police force to raise discipline in his army, and helped create a Military College. This headquarters so competently planned military operations that the "peasants" easily smashed a professional army. Pugachevites had more field tools than regular units. Commanders received higher salaries than government officers.
            Where did Pugachev take the money for all this?
            They say he beat the coin. It is checked: there was no such.
            They say that he paid the expenses, ruining the captured cities. This is true, but by the way, nothing else can be expected from the invader. But the looted money would not be enough, and then: at first he had money, and then he began to take over the cities.
            Riot funded from abroad! Known memorandum of Prince Baryatinsky that Pugachev received from the Sultanate of the Ottoman Empire "a notable amount of money." A letter has been preserved that the king of France also sent emissaries and money to the rebels: “Do not spare anything to deliver a decisive blow, if there is a chance. There is no amount that the king would not provide for the implementation of our plans. " ..

            More details here: http://www.paralljelnyj-mir.com/products/russkij-bunt-na-njerusskije-djengi-jemj

            eljan-pugachjev-nje-byl-pjetrom-iii-i-organizatorom-vosstanija- /
            1. Volkhov
              Volkhov 25 October 2013 11: 59
              -12 qualifying.
              The Pugachev revolt - a reaction to the ruin of Perm the Great (the remnant of Ancient Russia in the Ural Mountains) by Suvorov on the 1000th anniversary of the death of the Gods (burned up by comet explosions) and in response to such treachery tried to overthrow Catherine, but could not - after all the same ancient forces evil.
              1. Hudo
                Hudo 25 October 2013 13: 35
                +2
                Something like that.
              2. Black
                Black 25 October 2013 14: 54
                +4
                Quote: Volkhov
                and in response to such treachery, they tried to overthrow Catherine, but failed - behind her all the same ancient forces of evil.


                You joked?
              3. smile
                smile 25 October 2013 15: 20
                +6
                Volkhov
                Always with the greatest pleasure I read your stunning statements. :))) In principle, against the background of the fact that the Nazis used nuclear weapons near Sevastopol, they won in WW2 and now they control the planet from secret bases, the statement about the gods of fire victims and the forces of evil somehow does not impress ... but the forces of evil , hto?
              4. Nagaibak
                Nagaibak 25 October 2013 15: 27
                +5
                Volkhov "The Pugachev rebellion is a reaction to the devastation of Perm the Great (the remnant of Ancient Russia in the Ural Mountains) by Suvorov on the occasion of the 1000th anniversary of the death of the Gods (burned out by comets)
                Especially with comets succeeded! In general, the Chuy zaboristoe thing must be more careful ...
                1. Volkhov
                  Volkhov 25 October 2013 15: 51
                  -3
                  Suvorov - Rymnitsky, and Rymnik - the Urals, this was the main victory from their point of view.
                  Quote: smile
                  ..and the forces of evil, hto?

                  Probably those who treat their current military failures with ritual victims - you know those?
                  Quote: Hudo
                  Something like that.

                  It penetrated, it turns out ...
                  1. smile
                    smile 25 October 2013 16: 55
                    +4
                    Volkhov
                    To be honest, in relation to this article, I do not know such people. And the forces of evil are the gods that are not finished by meteorites? Their rebellious avatars? The Evil Spirit of Yambuya, or Oorfene Juice, the Fiery God of Marans? :)))
                    1. Volkhov
                      Volkhov 26 October 2013 16: 15
                      0
                      Maybe still in the Gulf of Bothnia and to the north for a personal experience?
                      And then your ideologists send sailors, and the commissars are not even in the subject, agitation lags behind reality.
                  2. Hudo
                    Hudo 25 October 2013 17: 14
                    +4
                    Quote: Volkhov
                    Suvorov - Rymnitsky, and Rymnik - the Urals, this was the main victory from their point of view.


                    The battle on the r. Rymnik 1789 It happened on September 11, 1789 between the Russian-Austrian detachment under the command of A.V. Suvorov (25 thousand people) and the Turkish army of the grand vizier Yusuf Pasha (100 thousand people) during the Russian-Turkish war of 1787 - 1791. The Turks undertook a diversionary maneuver that forced the main forces of the Russians, led by G.A. Potemkin, to move towards Ishmael. Themselves, meanwhile, decided to withdraw from the war the Austrian corps of the Prince of Coburg with the help of their main forces. Having received information from the allies about the approach of the Turks, Suvorov, at the head of a 10-thousandth detachment, swiftly and secretly moved to the site of the upcoming battle and arrived there before the Turks. Assessing the situation, he attacked the enemy with decisive blows, broke it into several large detachments and occupied the Turkish camps, putting Yusuf Pasha's army to flight. The enemy lost up to 20 thousand people, the allies - about 700 people.

                    Do not throw carbide into vodka anymore.
              5. KEKS44
                KEKS44 27 October 2013 21: 37
                -2
                Quote: Volkhov
                Volkhov

                You are go-t (fucking ------ b)!
            2. Nayhas
              Nayhas 27 October 2013 18: 52
              0
              Quote: Egoza
              Riot funded from abroad! Known memorandum of Prince Baryatinsky that Pugachev received from the Sultanate of the Ottoman Empire "a notable amount of money." A letter has been preserved that the king of France also sent emissaries and money to the rebels: “Do not spare anything to deliver a decisive blow, if there is a chance. There is no amount that the king would not provide for the implementation of our plans. " ..

              I wonder how this was done? Via webmoney or qiwi wallet?
              Quote: Egoza
              This headquarters planned the operations so competently that the "peasants" easily smashed the professional army

              And where did Pugachev "smash" the professional army? In fact, when a professional army was connected, led by Prince Suvorov, the rebel troops were defeated. You absolutely do not know the history of your country and are trying to pull the eternal "Englishwoman crap" on the Pugachev revolt.
        2. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 25 October 2013 09: 50
          13
          Hudo "Under the management, as you have deigned to express the German whore, Russia resolved the Crimean issue, firmly entrenched itself in the Black Sea and Azov regions, gained the right to play the part of the first violin in European politics, became a superpower of the then world acting in its own interests, and not looking into its mouth - what will the next Euroclown say. "
          I agree with you. And for the critics of Catherine 2 I can say the following ...
          Even with this whore, we divided Poland pushing the western limits of the empire, advancing to the Kuban, Caucasus and Transcaucasia. They mastered Alaska. From 17 million due to the annexed territories, the population increased to 37 million. Damn now, such a whore in power would be a joke ... hehe. Although if you compare the deeds of this German whore with - not whores Russian Gorbachev and Yeltsin becomes sad.
          1. Hudo
            Hudo 25 October 2013 10: 14
            +4
            Quote: Nagaibak
            for the critics of Catherine 2 I can say the following ...
            Even with this whore, we divided Poland pushing the western limits of the empire, advancing to the Kuban, Caucasus and Transcaucasia. They mastered Alaska. From 17 million due to the annexed territories, the population increased to 37 million. Damn now, such a whore in power would be a joke ... hehe. Although if you compare the deeds of this German whore with - not whores Russian Gorbachev and Yeltsin becomes sad.



            What do I care about how virtuous those in power are. Put in power now such a Catherine I, and I don’t give a damn with whom, how often and in what poses she will please her causal place if, in so doing, Russia's interests are in the first place and actions to strengthen Russia will be effective.
        3. Asketxnumx
          Asketxnumx 26 October 2013 10: 24
          +1
          What "with respect" to an outspoken boor?
        4. Nayhas
          Nayhas 27 October 2013 19: 00
          0
          Quote: Hudo
          Under the control, as you deigned to express the German whore

          The respondent is clearly mistaken. The German whore was Catherine 1, the last wife of Peter 1, that she was a convoy whore.
      2. ele1285
        ele1285 25 October 2013 09: 27
        +5
        And what ruler in Europe at that time did not care about his subjects? It’s impudent or maybe the French, will there soon be letting the krovushka (WFR) or the Germans? But how many territories she has annexed, except for John IV, give an example. And the main thing was the raids from the Crimea. Well, everyone has flaws. Let the first one to throw a stone at me is the one who is without sin.
        1. Nuar
          Nuar 25 October 2013 11: 21
          0
          Quote: ele1285
          Let the first to throw a stone at me, he who is without sin

          Well, why are you provoking me?
          Respectfully Noir First. hi
      3. Gari
        Gari 25 October 2013 09: 47
        +8
        Quote: Vadivak
        Especially under the control of a German whore, who did not care about Russian peasants slaves.

        I rarely put minuses but minus you

        Empress Catherine II formulated the tasks facing the Russian monarch:
        It is necessary to educate the nation, which should govern. It is necessary to introduce good order in the state, maintain society and force it to comply with laws.
        It is necessary to establish a good and accurate police in the state. It is necessary to contribute to the flourishing of the state and make it abundant.
        It is necessary to make the state formidable in itself and inspiring respect for neighbors.
        The policy of Catherine II was characterized by progressive, without sharp fluctuations, development. Upon her accession to the throne, she carried out a number of reforms (judicial, administrative, and others). The territory of the Russian state has increased significantly due to the accession of the fertile southern lands - Crimea, the Black Sea region, as well as the eastern part of the Commonwealth and others.
        The population increased from 23,2 million people (in 1763) to 37,4 million people (in 1796), Russia became the most populated European country (it accounted for 20% of the population of Europe).
        1. hiocraib
          hiocraib 25 October 2013 10: 46
          -4
          Quote: Gari
          Empress Catherine II formulated the tasks facing the Russian monarch:

          oh well, don’t throw beads in front of pigs.
          you still tell him that Catherine is not a German, but a little prusachka (Germany and Germans weren’t then, they appeared a century later).
          1. Gari
            Gari 25 October 2013 11: 42
            +8
            Quote: hiocraib
            you still tell him that Catherine is not a German, but a little prusachka

            Do you care only about this question?
            Bagration,
            Barclay de Toli,
            Loris-Melikov,
            Aivazovskaya
            Stalin
            Baghramyan,
            Rokossovsky
            also were not Russians by origin,
            but most importantly served faithfully in Russia, the USSR
            in my heart were Russians
            1. hiocraib
              hiocraib 25 October 2013 12: 13
              +1
              Quote: Gari
              Do you care only about this question?

              it was the first, offhand. what to expect from an expert on German sluts?

              Quote: Gari
              also were not Russians by origin,
              but most importantly served faithfully in Russia, the USSR
              in my heart were Russians

              he will never understand this.
              1. hiocraib
                hiocraib 25 October 2013 12: 49
                0
                Something I did not understand why there is minus in the first post?
                although he probably didn’t quite correctly quote, I did not want to copy the insults (all kinds of experts) of the great figures of Russia.
                1. smile
                  smile 25 October 2013 15: 25
                  0
                  hiocraib
                  Personally, I gave you a minus for disrespectful words to a colleague. This comment of a colleague about the "whore" I myself minus, and fundamentally disagree with him. But the rest of his comments make him respect for remarkable intelligence and outlook.
                  1. hiocraib
                    hiocraib 25 October 2013 15: 35
                    +3
                    Quote: smile
                    for disrespectful words to a colleague.

                    But for something, why should I respect him? for insulting great Russian figures?
                    although what am I surprised when they minus out of "respect" ... you yourself perfectly described this.
                    1. smile
                      smile 25 October 2013 17: 54
                      0
                      hiocraib
                      You can disagree, you can write a refutation, and they will support you, including me. But to compare with a pig .... for this "-". You, too, "perfectly described yourself" .... okay, I said enough, since you don't understand, we disagree, "perfectly characterized" :)))
                      1. hiocraib
                        hiocraib 25 October 2013 18: 21
                        -2
                        Quote: smile
                        But compare with a pig

                        God, what did the education reform of the Russians bring to!
                        enlighten:
                        http://otvet.mail.ru/question/4292500
                      2. smile
                        smile 25 October 2013 18: 47
                        +3
                        hiocraib
                        I am talking with you very correctly, do not force to communicate in the same language as you — and I do not want this, and it will be unpleasant for you.
                        You pretend to be so narrow-minded that you did not understand me? What for? Would you like a scandal? I don’t, therefore, please beg to stop the completely pointless discussion, okay?
                      3. hiocraib
                        hiocraib 25 October 2013 18: 51
                        0
                        Quote: smile
                        I am talking to you

                        I don’t know who you are talking to, but certainly not with me.
                        you have demonstrated the level of your "education" very clearly.

                        I hope that you will nevertheless master the cited in the link, and will no longer be dishonored in public.
                      4. smile
                        smile 25 October 2013 19: 44
                        +1
                        hiocraib
                        I’m not interested in the references of scandalous insignificance, believing that since it has mastered the primer, it has reached the limit of perfection, and all those around must acknowledge its narcissism.
                        As for the "disgrace" - it's strange to hear angry screams about cleanliness from the cesspool ... :))) Go wash yourself first, please. :)))
                        I wish you a happy childhood, and so that the walls of your kennel are finally beaten soft. :)))
            2. Horde
              Horde 25 October 2013 18: 22
              0
              Quote: smile
              Personally, I gave you a minus for disrespectful words to a colleague. This comment of a colleague about the "whore" I myself minus, and fundamentally disagree with him. But the rest of his comments make him respect for remarkable intelligence and outlook.


              to live in sin with many men, trampling on morality, religion and the laws of honor, corrupting the elite and the people - is this your "standard of ruler"?
              1. smile
                smile 25 October 2013 18: 56
                +1
                Horde
                Remember: "Who among you is without sin, let him be the first to throw a stone at her!"?

                Ittit-pound ... solid moralists all around ... presumably, you and women are only in a single legal marriage? Rather, with one single woman, with his wife, right? More with anyone and never? Yes you are unique! :))) And if your experience with women is somewhat wider, then what’s your morality ... shocking?

                And I have no standards. None. :)))
                1. Horde
                  Horde 25 October 2013 19: 10
                  +1
                  Quote: smile
                  Ittit-pound ... solid moralists all around ... presumably, you and women are only in a single legal marriage? Rather, with one single woman, with his wife, right? More with anyone and never? Yes you are unique! :))) And if your experience with women is somewhat wider, then what’s your morality ... shocking?


                  the most unacceptable in this unpleasant story is that the FACE of this woman is created as if for show
                  First successful in politics, strengthened the state
                  Well, and, secondly, she led a loose immoral lifestyle and everything got away with it.
                  as if an example for women can be done this way and that, and the ass on the jamb will still be normal. WON'T BE. It is as if they are specifically bulging out the vile way of life, as gameparades are bulging now.
                2. Horde
                  Horde 25 October 2013 19: 12
                  +1
                  We have already forgotten why we need this morality. Only observance of the laws of morality and ethics in human society can be an engine of development and progress. Sooner or later, unspiritual and consumerism will push us back.
                3. smile
                  smile 25 October 2013 19: 48
                  +3
                  Horde
                  I'm not going to poke around in the underwear of a woman who has even died long ago. I think this is immoral. And I will not discuss this topic. I'm sorry.
                4. Horde
                  Horde 25 October 2013 19: 59
                  -1
                  Quote: smile
                  I'm not going to poke around in the underwear of a woman who has even died long ago. I think this is immoral. And I will not discuss this topic. I'm sorry.

                  don’t substitute concepts. Ekaterina is not a prostitute from the red light district, but a Russian type like a queen and of course with all her foal always in sight, therefore your present bashful modesty is inappropriate.
                5. smile
                  smile 25 October 2013 21: 57
                  +5
                  Horde
                  Yes, disgusting to me, is it really not clear? Would you like to discuss such topics-find a colleague-and gossip how much you like.
                  I ... how many men she had, at least a dozen a day - if only she would successfully fulfill the duties of the head of state. With her, Russia reached one of the peaks of its power - this is enough for me to evaluate its activities. And in her underpants I pick you.
                  Calling me bashful is ridiculous enough, I am not an example of virtue in every sense, probably because I look through my fingers at other people's sins. I am just disgusted by the topic. What is incomprehensible?
                6. Horde
                  Horde 25 October 2013 22: 41
                  -3
                  Quote: smile
                  And in her underpants I pick you.

                  I’m not poking around in anyone’s underpants, but trying to talk about the opposite about spirituality or rather its absence. I thought you were smarter ...
                7. smile
                  smile 25 October 2013 22: 56
                  +2
                  Horde
                  Even an absolute religious fanatic is an absolutely complete, unspiritual person. Absolutely depraved person can lie on the embrasure for his own. a drunkard can be a model of virtue. and a woman of light behavior can be a monarch, whom you can only dream of ... just like that. as a model of spirituality and virtue on the throne can destroy and prosper .. the whole country. destitute all your people.
                  At all. people are extremely controversial creatures, do not you find? :)))
                  If you are so smart (where am I up to you), you will probably understand what I had in mind.
                8. Corsair
                  Corsair 25 October 2013 23: 41
                  +2
                  Quote: smile
                  At all. people are extremely controversial creatures, do not you find?

                  To the point.
                9. Horde
                  Horde 26 October 2013 10: 42
                  -1
                  Quote: smile
                  Even an absolute religious fanatic is an absolutely complete, unspiritual person. Absolutely depraved person can lie on the embrasure for his own. a drunkard can be a model of virtue. and a woman of light behavior can be a monarch, whom you can only dream of.


                  it's a delusion
                  -a religious fanatic and at home, too, some sort of outlaw felon, or a bully who takes a knife or a gun in his hands does not cost anything.
                  -sexual pervert will NEVER be a GOOD SOLDIER because in his soul he has long since broken up with the concepts of national pride, patriotism. His life is vile and insignificant is a broken personality. It is hard to imagine Chikatilo in the role of Matrosov.
                  - A drunkard is just a sick person, he will not find the strength to commit a highly moral act.
                  Well, a fallen woman will only think about satisfying her lust, and a high-ranking agent is the molestation of those around her.
                  AND NEVER ELSE Smile.
                  As for Catherine, 2 the truth is even worse, the fact that historians crammed us has no real background.
  • Ulan
    Ulan 25 October 2013 16: 17
    +1
    Well, not a Prussian at all, but a Princess of Anhalt-Cerbsk. There was such a dwarf German kingdom.
    They were then a dime a dozen. Hesse-Darmstadt for example or the Kingdom of Baden.
    1. hiocraib
      hiocraib 25 October 2013 16: 37
      +1
      Quote: Ulan
      Well, not a Prussian at all, but a Princess of Anhalt-Cerbsk. There was such a dwarf German kingdom.

      there was no such kingdom;)
      in Russian - duchy. although you cannot understand Nichrome with their names - the great duchies, dukes, and Fürst and Kurfürst do not say anything.
      however, the duchy was part of Prussia, served by her family of Prussia and
      she’s a janitor by nationality.

      it’s like the Russian noblemen — princes, counts and others — were Russians;)
      Quote: Ulan
      They were then a dime a dozen. Hesse-Darmstadt for example or the Kingdom of Baden.

      and nobody there called themselves Deutsche (Germans).
  • Horde
    Horde 25 October 2013 18: 58
    -2
    Quote: hiocraib
    you still tell him that Catherine is not a German, but a little prusachka (Germany and Germans weren’t then, they appeared a century later).


    you dear, when you apply such little-known statements, then reveal the essence, because, as the people here are mostly dense and 18 centuries taught by Pikul.
  • LION
    LION 25 October 2013 10: 43
    +5
    Catherine did not rule Russia alone. During her reign, such prominent generals, administrators and diplomats appeared as Suvorov Rymniksky, Potemkin Tavrichesky Rumyantsev Zadunaisky, Orlov Chesmensky, the Panin brothers, the Orlov brothers, Repnin, Stroganov, Bulgakov, Admiral Ushakov. Read at least "Favorite" or something.
    1. ivshubarin
      ivshubarin 25 October 2013 11: 50
      +2
      The right hand of Catherine - Potemkin
    2. Egoza
      Egoza 25 October 2013 11: 56
      +2
      Quote: LION
      Catherine ruled Russia not alone.

      Her merit also lies in the fact that she was able to choose talented people for serious government posts. And she was not shy to dismiss even her favorites, if she saw that things had gone wrong.
  • smile
    smile 25 October 2013 15: 13
    +3
    Vadivak
    Just kill me, I’m not interested in her personal life, but it’s worth paying attention to the fact that it was Catherine who abolished the death penalty in Russia. In those days, it was an unprecedented humanism on the Planet. German whores in Britain, for example, were much tougher regarding their subjects in later times. So. that comparison is still in her favor.
    1. Djozz
      Djozz 25 October 2013 19: 01
      +3
      As far as I know in Russia, Elizabeth 1, upon her accession to the throne, vowed not to carry out the death penalty, and kept her word!
      1. smile
        smile 25 October 2013 19: 54
        +1
        Djozz
        Perhaps you are right, in this case, thanks for the amendment. I won’t double-check myself, I take your word for it.:))) +
  • Horde
    Horde 25 October 2013 18: 20
    +1
    Quote: aszzz888
    Politics, to relocate to places of low population or not inhabited, has always been a faithful and wise policy of all levels of the highest power of our state.

    it Saratov that was an uninhabited place?
    What nonsense, the Volga region has NEVER BEEN LITTLE. The Volga, the great Russian river, is the most Russian and most populated part of Russia even under Peter. The destructive Peter's reforms changed the NATIONAL COMPOSITION OF THE RUSSIAN ELITE, Russian boyars and other old Russian clans were destroyed, to replace them the Germans came, who took their ancient surnames, and Katka had already begun to resettle the European rabble, dirty and smelly, to the Russian lands. After the so-called Pugachev revolt, a full-fledged war for the independence of Russians from the dominance of foreigners, which came from Peter, numerous areas in which the Russian population supported the so-called "Pugachev" were either exterminated, like the area around Zlatoust, or resettled, as in the Volga region, and replaced by a German began to resettle their own Germans.
  • Corsair
    Corsair 25 October 2013 08: 43
    +3
    Quote from text:
    Migrants were resettled in Mariupol county of the Azov province.

    So this is where the "Crimean" names of the Azov villages come from ...
    1. 225chay
      225chay 25 October 2013 09: 21
      +1
      Quote: Corsair
      So this is where the "Crimean" names of the Azov villages come from ...

      probably Greek ...
      1. Corsair
        Corsair 25 October 2013 23: 48
        +1
        Quote: 225chay
        probably Greek ...

        They meant "duplicate" names of the Azov settlements of the type: Yalta, Gurzuf, etc.
      2. Kubanets
        Kubanets 26 October 2013 20: 52
        0
        You are right. When the Zaporizhzhyans migrated to the Kuban it was a beautiful move.
  • Known who
    Known who 25 October 2013 09: 20
    +4
    Russia tried and successfully populated the outskirts of the empire with citizens, and the modern government is driving its population from the outskirts creating intolerable conditions for living and business!
    1. Gari
      Gari 25 October 2013 10: 03
      +2
      Quote: It is known who
      Russia tried and successfully populated the outskirts of the empire with citizens, and the modern government is driving its population from the outskirts creating intolerable conditions for living and business!

      After the Russo-Turkish war of 1768-1774, the Crimean Khanate was declared independent of Turkey under the Kuchuk – Kainardzhi peace treaty and came under the patronage of Russia. It was decided to relocate the Crimean Armenians and Greeks, who were in the hands of mainly economic and commercial levers, agricultural and industrial production of the Khanate, in the Sea of ​​Azov for two reasons - to weaken the Crimean Khanate economically and make it dependent on Russia, and secondly, to settle almost deserted the territory of southern Russia by these hardworking peoples, who have extensive experience in trade, in crafts, in cultivating land. The Armenian and Greek populations did not want this emigration. It was extremely difficult for them to leave the habitable places, to re-establish an economy in a new place. A.V. Suvorov, who was instructed to lead the resettlement of the Christian population, visiting Armenian villages and seeing orchards and vineyards, well-planned villages, landscaped estates, stone houses, a well-organized water supply promised to compensate for the cost of the lost.
      On March 9, 1778, Catherine II issued a decree in the name of Grigory Potemkin, who was appointed in 1775 the ruler of the Novorossiysk, Azov and Astrakhan provinces, in which it was ordered to relocate Crimean Armenians, Greeks and Georgians to the lands of southern Russia.
      1. Gari
        Gari 25 October 2013 10: 07
        +4
        Three caravans migrants moved north, directing their way to Russia. In addition to property, they brought with them precious books, ancient parchment manuscripts, church utensils, khachkars. The resettlement led by the young general A.V. Suvorov, despite the measures taken, was difficult: there was not enough food, many diseases were carried away. According to Suvorov’s statements, 12598 Armenians left Crimea. For eighteen months, one in three died, the graves of loved ones were left by immigrants all the way from the Crimea to the Don.
        Armenians were supposed to populate almost uninhabited areas of the Novorossiysk Territory. To develop the empty steppes and organize trade with the southern countries, they decided to settle them on the lands of the lower Don, which, however, was hindered by local authorities. On November 14, 1779, the Charter (Decree) of Empress Catherine II was issued according to which 86 thousand acres of land were allocated to immigrants near the fortress of St. Dmitry of Rostov and it was allowed to establish one city and five villages.
        Natives of the Crimean cities founded the city of Nakhichevan, while the villagers - five villages - Chaltyr, Crimea, Big Salas, Sultan Sala and Nesvetay. Thus began a new story in the life of immigrants, who became known as Don Armenians.
        Under the auspices of the mighty Russia, having acquired a new homeland under its auspices, the Armenians in the spirit of the best traditions of the Armenian people in the works of the righteous contributed to the strengthening of the power of the state, built their prosperity and not only ...
        Then the Emperors ruled Russia - Russia was an Empire that was respected, feared and considered.
        1. Djozz
          Djozz 25 October 2013 19: 03
          +1
          Armavir, by the way, too!
  • FunkschNNX
    FunkschNNX 25 October 2013 09: 26
    +2
    Now everything is simpler - it has opened borders and millions of illiterate marginals themselves (like cockroaches) will fill the entire territory, though they want to get into maskwabad more and more.
    For comparison, I recommend that you familiarize yourself with the modern "Compatriots Resettlement Program".
    1. Ptah
      Ptah 25 October 2013 21: 17
      +4
      Quote: Фкенщь13
      I recommend that you familiarize yourself with the modern "Compatriots Resettlement Program"

      I apologize, and do not consider it a rebuke. Just a wish.
      It concerns not only you, but everyone else, but I will appeal through your post, because You are not on the site for more than a month.
      For the future, to save time for members of the forum, could you leave a "proof" right away with such a recommendation. The point is not that someone does not believe you, or someone is simply too lazy to search, or lacks skills, but, you yourself understand, in the first place, there is often not enough TIME ...
      Personally, I would appreciate it all.
      Yours!

      www.fms-nso.ru/online/faq/7/

      And if you read the admins and programmers of the site. Please consider the possibility of placing direct links directly from the post, as moderators do for example
      1. FunkschNNX
        FunkschNNX 26 October 2013 23: 54
        +3
        Ok, thanks, fair reproach.
  • Hort
    Hort 25 October 2013 09: 47
    +3
    In our time, a quite reasonable idea was also expressed as an alternative to uncontrolled migration to create a program to populate the territories of Siberia and the Far East with our former compatriots and Europeans. And, given the situation with tolerance in Europe, now there would be a lot of normal people who are ready to move to our permanent residence and to accept Russian citizenship.
    In the meantime, it turned out only a program for the resettlement of compatriots working through one place ...
  • vlad0
    vlad0 25 October 2013 10: 28
    +4
    The purpose of the article is not entirely clear: just a historical one, or is it an element of the 'program for the development of tolerance' LADIES. If it is historical, then, of course, it is interesting. According to the second option, it will not work. Such an approach will not work in our time. countries (mind you, then even Jews were not taken), and people without a profession, education from third countries. And they do not go to work in sparsely populated regions, but either to trade, or to sit back, or even simply increase the criminal statistics. And they go to big cities, and they absolutely do not need an adaptation program.
    In 2006, a program of "return of compatriots" was launched in Tajikistan. It was necessary to collect a bunch of information and go through a number of instances before you get into it. So at the very first stages, small Tajik bureaucrats cut off the Russians, and, accordingly, the Rakhmonovs, Gafurovs, Mirzoevs, etc., moved to the Russian Federation. Ethnic Russians then repeatedly complained that it was impossible to break through, long standing in lines, including at the embassy, ​​did not give results. People are not heard to this day. Apparently, you can't make much money on them, that's why they are not interesting.
    Unfortunately, in our time the concept of migration is not identified with national security, but with the opportunity to have a lot of money.
  • Tyumen
    Tyumen 25 October 2013 10: 58
    -4
    The first migrant workers.
    1. hiocraib
      hiocraib 25 October 2013 12: 18
      +4
      Well, as if GastArbeiter is the one who arrived, worked and left for his homeland. It was originally a German post-war program for raising and developing the economy. and the first GastArbeiter were Italians. having worked a couple lehr in Germany, they went back home. the second wave was the Turks - they stayed to live in Germany, 3-4 generations of them have been working and living.

      here we are talking about immigrants, and even colonizers.
  • ivshubarin
    ivshubarin 25 October 2013 11: 29
    +4
    The only imperial rulers who managed to be "GREAT" are Peter-1 and Catherine-2. That says it all
    1. Poppy
      Poppy 25 October 2013 12: 03
      +5
      Ivan the 4th during his life was called the Great, and rightly so - the country increased 4 times with him
      and only subsequent historians called Grozny
    2. KEKS44
      KEKS44 25 October 2013 16: 32
      +2
      I would add Alexander the Second. After all, the abolition of serfdom is his merit.
  • makarov
    makarov 25 October 2013 12: 20
    +4
    Everyone has the right to privacy, therefore sexual drives and weaknesses should not be discussed when political matters are discussed. And Catherine, really was a GREAT POLITICIAN.
    One thing is bitter and regrettable - this is how the Soviet Power acted meanly with the settlers, this affected the Germans, and the Czechs, and the Armenians, and the Greeks, and the Scotsman, and others like that ... Some were simply killed, the rest in camps, etc. n. "Trudarmia", the property was ruined, probably only Askania Nova remained.
    1. KEKS44
      KEKS44 27 October 2013 22: 05
      -1
      NOT BY DEFENSE, AND BY REVOLUTIONARY. YES THAT THERE ARE GERMANS, RUSSIAN BULBS FELLING. REVOLUTION HOWEVER. ONE HUNDRED FEATURES IN THE ASSET OF ULIANOV, BRONSTEIN AND JUGASHVILI
  • The comment was deleted.
  • understudy
    understudy 25 October 2013 14: 34
    +2
    Yeah ... I will not argue about the role of the deceased Empress in the history of Russia, but the exaltation of her person in the formation of the Kuban Cossacks reaches the point of idiocy: in Krasnodar, in the city center, there are benches with cast-backed legs and the monogram "E". Okay, okay, in memory ... But why was it necessary to cast spittoon urns and put the same capital letter on them ??? I do not understand.
    On my own I would add, when the violent "catherineization" goes beyond all limits, the effect of rejection is triggered. That is why the overwhelming majority of the city's residents are against the renaming of Krasnodar.
    I don't remember literally, but the phrase sounds something like this: In our country, each ruler is struggling with the history of his own state, and always successfully. That is why, I thought, and I still believe, it is necessary to study the opinion of the opponents and "praises" of this or that statesman.
  • Black
    Black 25 October 2013 15: 03
    +3
    Quote: vlad0
    The purpose of the article is not entirely clear: simply historical, or is it an element of the 'program for the development of tolerance' LADIES.


    Well, I think - this is if you are biased against the article.
    The purpose of the article is adequate and topical.
    There were examples in Russia when sparsely populated places were populated with the mind and historical foresight by a people who are ready to work for the glory of the new Homeland. Enough and wisdom and will and mind !!!
  • ko88
    ko88 25 October 2013 15: 41
    +2
    thanks to her, the borders of the Russian state multiplied significantly, by the way I didn’t remember reading somewhere, it was written there if Catherine hadn’t destroyed so many Adyghe tribes (the North Caucasus), now there would probably be no Stavropol Territory, but one of the Caucasian republics up to 4 million souls. here so belay
  • Rapier
    Rapier 25 October 2013 17: 13
    0
    I think that I. Talkov, in the song "Russia", said everything quite clearly what is being discussed in the article.
    1. smile
      smile 25 October 2013 18: 06
      +3
      Rapier
      Why refer to this perestroika degenerate, they would immediately refer to Novodvorskaya - after all, her statements are closest to you, right? Or are you embarrassed to admit to the feelings of Baba Lera? :)))
      In principle, the fact that you are a Russophobe, you fairly honestly say, well, be consistent - expose us to women by Lerin’s sayings (well, you’re obviously not able to make your own), in any case it’s better than your schizophrenic rants about that all German atrocities against Soviet people are inventions of communist propaganda, and if excesses happened, then the partisans, whom you call bandits, are to blame.
  • Horde
    Horde 25 October 2013 17: 59
    0
    Quote: smile
    Personally, I gave you a minus for disrespectful words to a colleague. This comment of a colleague about the "whore" I myself minus, and fundamentally disagree with him. But the rest of his comments make him respect for remarkable intelligence and outlook.


    to live in sin with many men, trampling on morality, religion and the laws of honor, corrupting the elite and the people - is this your "standard of ruler"?
    1. Glory333
      Glory333 25 October 2013 20: 18
      +2
      And to live in sin with many women, trampling on morality, religion and the laws of honor, corrupting the elite and the people, is this your "standard of ruler"?

      Show me the European king (king, emperor) who would not have his harem? A lot of those? Russia is no exception since Prince Svyatoslav ...
      1. Horde
        Horde 25 October 2013 22: 44
        0
        Quote: Glory333
        And to live in sin with many women, trampling on morality, religion and the laws of honor, corrupting the elite and the people, is this your "standard of ruler"?

        Show me the European king (king, emperor) who would not have his harem? A lot of those? Russia is no exception since Prince Svyatoslav ...

        who are you talking about?
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Novik
    Novik 26 October 2013 02: 50
    0
    I do not presume to evaluate the historical decision of Catherine II regarding the settlement by foreigners of the uninhabited regions of Russia, but, in my opinion, the problem remains relevant at the present time.
    Somehow (over in a booze), from different people, taking into account the general concern, interpreting (in my understanding), I got, if not a picture, then a sketch - in anticipation of a cataclysm (?) And the resettlement of peoples (?), Trying at least to save something, were forced to take such measures. To populate the uninhabited regions of Russia with the closest in spirit, including primarily citizens of the states of the former USSR.
    Probably, once, representatives of various tribes - Slavic ("White Croats", "Buzhany", "Vyatichi", "Drevlyans", "Polyans", "Severyans", etc.) Finno-Ugric ("Vepsians "," Vod "," Karelians "," Mari "," Chud white-eyed ", etc.) and others and others, - did not want to be called" Russians ...
    History develops in a spiral (?).