Military Review

Improved precision NMR can invert inertial navigation

37
A team of physicists from Indiana University in Bloomington (USA) used the NMR setup of a corporation Northrop Grumman to search for NMR in polarized xenon-129 and xenon-131. Using long-term relaxation (up to twenty seconds), scientists obtained the exact ratio of the frequencies of nuclear magnetic resonance of particles insensitive to fluctuations of the magnetic field.


The scheme of the experimental setup. The size of the main camera is 2 mm. (Illustration by IU.)
The scheme of the experimental setup. The size of the main camera is 2 mm. (Illustration by IU.)


Using standard theoretical predictions to determine the contribution of the neutron spin to the angular momentum of a xenon atom, the authors were able to raise the upper limit of NMR sensitivity by two orders of magnitude less than a millimeter, while further potential for improving the technique is estimated by another two orders.

Why do we need such high accuracy? Mike Snow (IU) and his colleagues explain that this technology, for example, is suitable for creating a new type of navigation system that uses spin-polarized atomic nuclei (Xenon-129 and Xenon-131) as atomic-scale gyros, always pointing in the same direction. Due to the small size and ultra-low power consumption, even the most compact UAVs and aircraft can be equipped with such inertial navigation systems in areas where GPS is unavailable or suppressed by electronic warfare. This line of research, of course, picked up Northrop Grumman.

Micro-NMR gyroscope (micro-NMRG), developed by Northrop Grumman under a contract with the Department of Advanced Studies of the US Department of Defense (illustration Northrop Grumman).
Micro-NMR gyroscope (micro-NMRG), developed by Northrop Grumman under a contract with the Department of Advanced Studies of the US Department of Defense (illustration Northrop Grumman).
Originator:
http://compulenta.computerra.ru/veshestvo/fizika/10008885/
37 comments
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  1. Samy
    Samy 9 October 2013 07: 32 New
    +1
    Wow....
    1. mirag2
      mirag2 9 October 2013 08: 13 New
      +3
      Great! I always admire high-tech products. So much labor, brains, quality of production has been invested there.
      I really, really want these things to appear with us. I dream!
      Moreover, you don’t even need to invest crazy money there, scientists almost never get unmeasured money, they are just passionate people, you just need to give them the opportunity to do what they love, not to think about home, food and health. And what kind of car does he have Renault or Mercedes is not critical, if only it went and did not break. That would be enough for everything. Then it will work productively and will be a patriot.
      And of course, the most important thing for work is access to materials, equipment and other things. -I think that we have strained with this.
    2. fzr1000
      fzr1000 9 October 2013 09: 07 New
      +1
      But are these latest gyroscopes not susceptible to electronic warfare?
      1. afire
        afire 9 October 2013 09: 21 New
        0
        subject to ...
        1. vvvvv
          vvvvv 9 October 2013 10: 31 New
          +1
          "insensitive to magnetic field fluctuations"
          Those. e-magnet the impact has no effect. I think that on the internal node itself there can be no impact of electronic warfare, and even from an e-magnet. bombs can be shielded. EW is possible only when there is a radio link between the object and the external environment, when it can be disrupted. A shielded object with a wired shielded connection is absolutely reliably protected. Even e-magn. Momentum from a nuclear explosion shielded at all.
          1. 528Obrp
            528Obrp 9 October 2013 11: 03 New
            0
            Well, it's you in vain. How often should these fluctuations follow?
            There is a relaxation time for the precessing element, moreover, At what magnetic field strength were measurements taken? Well, and most importantly, get this gyroscope in the region of Magnitogorsk ....... the magnetic field is very difficult to shield, we need devices that will compensate it
            Quote: vvvvv (3
            Even e-magn. Momentum from a nuclear explosion shielded at all.
            But what's the point? After all, other equipment is ashes!
            1. vvvvv
              vvvvv 9 October 2013 13: 25 New
              +1
              It is difficult to create an impulse that cannot be shielded. Technology and electronics work even in conditions of a nuclear explosion ... But in space, the atmosphere in general does not protect against all possible radiation, but everything works!
              All equipment necessary for protection is shielded.
              1. 528Obrp
                528Obrp 9 October 2013 15: 30 New
                +1
                Please name the technique that works in
                Quote: vvvvv
                even in a nuclear explosion

                Quote: vvvvv
                It is difficult to create an impulse that cannot be shielded.

                vice versa.
                Have you heard about the failure of technology during magnetic storms? And this is a grain of sand in a dust storm.
                With a nuclear explosion, the screen will simply evaporate. Powerful pulses are not shielded, but are shunted (a lightning rod is also a kind of shunt). Electromagnetic energy penetrates power cables, radio frequency feeders, bolts and nuts having a different wave impedance, and finally sharp projecting parts. Protection (bypass) is possible but very expensive. Shunt elements - discharge elements, varistors and various types of surge arresters (surge arresters). The conditions for the good work of this protection are grounding, where it is not there - a powerful bus (so that it does not evaporate) of the common wire. All this is very expensive.

                The magnetic field is not shielded at all (he has such a nature), it can only be compensated. This is as an educational program.
                1. Growler
                  9 October 2013 15: 45 New
                  -2
                  Quote: 528Obrp
                  Please name the technique that works in
                  Quote: vvvvv
                  even in a nuclear explosion

                  Quote: vvvvv
                  It is difficult to create an impulse that cannot be shielded.

                  vice versa.
                  Have you heard about the failure of technology during magnetic storms? And this is a grain of sand in a dust storm.
                  With a nuclear explosion, the screen will simply evaporate. Powerful pulses are not shielded, but are shunted (a lightning rod is also a kind of shunt). Electromagnetic energy penetrates power cables, radio frequency feeders, bolts and nuts having a different wave impedance, and finally sharp projecting parts. Protection (bypass) is possible but very expensive. Shunt elements - discharge elements, varistors and various types of surge arresters (surge arresters). The conditions for the good work of this protection are grounding, where it is not there - a powerful bus (so that it does not evaporate) of the common wire. All this is very expensive.

                  The magnetic field is not shielded at all (he has such a nature), it can only be compensated. This is as an educational program.

                  If US troops get closer to our borders, we’ll detonate a 200Mt thermonuclear bomb over Russia to burn out all the enemy’s electronics ...
                  1. 528Obrp
                    528Obrp 9 October 2013 16: 00 New
                    +1
                    Quote: Growler
                    If US troops get closer to our borders, we’ll detonate a 200Mt thermonuclear bomb over Russia to burn out all of the enemy’s electronics.

                    Well yes. You at least have understood what is shown in the picture, however, I’m struggling.
                    If you understand (great luck! See the last post about a laser magnetometer)
                    If I can’t explain, it’s not difficult for a good person.
                    Only all this is the 70s of the last century, something like that.
                    1. Growler
                      9 October 2013 16: 19 New
                      0
                      Quote: 528Obrp
                      Well yes. You at least have understood what is shown in the picture, however, I’m struggling.

                      Where am I going ...
                      Quote: 528Obrp
                      If you understand (great luck!

                      laughing
                      Quote: 528Obrp
                      If I can’t explain, it’s not difficult for a good person.

                      I will be glad to read.
                      Quote: 528Obrp
                      Only all this is the 70s of the last century, something like that.

                      So in Northrop Grumman nerds work?
                      1. 528Obrp
                        528Obrp 9 October 2013 16: 26 New
                        0
                        see below.
                2. vvvvv
                  vvvvv 10 October 2013 00: 24 New
                  +2
                  You can google:
                  - "Materials for protection against magnetic fields of industrial frequency and from electromagnetic fields of the radio frequency range"
                  - "magnetic shielding"

                  Are you sure that you can somehow somehow generate a purely magnetic large field, and not an electromagnetic one ?! Refers to a considerable distance. After all, then it’s easier then to approach and smash the enemy with a hammer. And a nuclear explosion near an object, evaporating protection - is also not an appropriate example. Why talk then about e-magn. momentum, if you are going to vaporize everything with a nuclear explosion nearby ?! And nuclear weapons are not always applicable. Even the USA in the doctrine replaced it with a “global strike” with high-precision non-nuclear weapons. Those. taking into account all this and all UAVs, robots, etc., the topic of protection and attacks on electronics, etc. becomes relevant. I even read materials where the US is panicking that their electronics are not protected by shielding and that it takes a lot of money because in the explosion of certain megatons over the United States, all unprotected electronics will be cut down. Those. and from this it is clear that such protection applies.
                  And EW, after all, is also used at a distance and this is not nuclear weapons.
                  Here is a good material on the topic: K. Kopp. The electronic bomb is a weapon of electric mass destruction.
                  MORE: Faraday cage - a device for shielding equipment from external electromagnetic fields. Usually a grounded cage made of a well-conducting material.
                  The principle of operation of a Faraday cage is very simple - when a closed electrically conductive shell enters an electric field, the free shell electrons begin to move under the influence of this field. As a result, opposite sides of the cell acquire charges, the field of which compensates for the external field.
                  Faraday cage protects only from the electric field. A static magnetic field will penetrate. A changing electric field creates a changing magnetic, which, in turn, generates a changing electric. Therefore, if a changing electric field is blocked with the help of a Faraday cage, then a changing magnetic field will not be generated either.
                  However, in the high-frequency region, the action of such a screen is based on the reflection of electromagnetic waves from the surface of the screen and the attenuation of high-frequency energy in its thickness due to heat losses due to eddy currents.
                  By the way, I myself thought about eddy currents and the lack of the need for grounding - and google "protection against electromagnetic impulse eddy currents" - found about the Faraday cage, which describes the protection mechanism.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    3. alone
      alone 9 October 2013 11: 41 New
      0
      Yes. They work and know how to invest in science.

      no reform is needed. invest in science and get results
  2. nemec55
    nemec55 9 October 2013 08: 11 New
    0
    What are they talking about ??????
    1. Canep
      Canep 9 October 2013 08: 23 New
      0
      And what is NMR? Nuclear magnetic resonance or something else?
    2. bootlegger
      bootlegger 9 October 2013 08: 55 New
      +2
      The fact that traditional mechanized gyro platforms will not be needed.
      1. niksup
        niksup 9 October 2013 15: 29 New
        0
        ":)" is the only thing that comes to mind when reading such a comment. Seriously, it has been theoretically proved and confirmed by practice - with equal (equivalent) accuracy of sensitive elements (gyroscopes / TLS and accelerometers) SINS always will be rougher platform ANN. Another thing is that there are already platform ANNs a little larger than a tennis ball.
  3. niksup
    niksup 9 October 2013 08: 22 New
    +1
    Of course, a lot of research is being done in the field of "atomic" gyroscopes, including ours, but until real samples appear, with accuracy confirmed by tests, including under severe conditions of use, all these are empty words.
    And even having made such a gyroscope, the question is how much it will cost, and whether it is advisable to put it on a small UAV.
    1. Orel
      Orel 9 October 2013 08: 38 New
      +7
      And even having made such a gyroscope, the question is how much it will cost, and whether it is advisable to put it on a small UAV.


      We always have one thing. Why shoes, we will walk in boots, why modern fabrics for warm clothing, there are pea jackets. Such a position will not bring us to good. Basic research is always expensive and there is little applied in it, but progress does not stop and the acquired fundamental knowledge becomes the basis for new technologies that come into our lives, including in the army. We must not look for shortcomings, but work on new areas of knowledge, including in the military sphere ...
      1. maxvet
        maxvet 9 October 2013 09: 42 New
        0
        Quote: Orel
        We always have one thing

        In my opinion, you read only the last paragraph in niksup's comment. And about the price, he quite rightly noted
      2. niksup
        niksup 9 October 2013 15: 23 New
        -1
        Do not distort.
        Where did I write about the fact that these developments do not need to be dealt with? I just say that it is necessary to appropriately evaluate the need for the costs of developing and implementing such things. Best the enemy of the good. And what led attempts to be the first in everything - is still visible.
        Yes, accurate gyroscopes are good, but that doesn’t mean that without an additional correction we’ll get a child prodigy. If we are talking about civilian use, then the satellite is cheap, the result is in a compartment with a cheap inertial (yes even with sensors that are on any phone) - approx. If we are talking about the military, then an autonomous ANN does not allow in principle to solve the problems of the WTO.
    2. Growler
      9 October 2013 13: 43 New
      0
      Quote: niksup
      Of course, a lot of research is being done in the field of "atomic" gyroscopes, including ours, but until real samples appear, with accuracy confirmed by tests, including in severe conditions of use, all these are empty words.

      When they appear - it will be too late ...
      Quote: niksup

      And even making such a gyroscope, the question is how much will it cost, and whether it is advisable to put it on a small UAV.

      Cheaper to navigate the stars.
    3. Growler
      9 October 2013 13: 50 New
      0
      Quote: niksup
      Of course, there is a lot of research in the field of "atomic" gyroscopes, including ours

      Do not discard the link to our research? Or very secret?
      1. niksup
        niksup 9 October 2013 15: 25 New
        0
        Yes, there are comrades involved in quantum gyroscopes. But I didn’t notice a serious attitude to their research. They speak at conferences. I unfortunately do not have any links, but on the internet I think the abstracts of reports
        1. Growler
          9 October 2013 15: 53 New
          0
          Quote: niksup
          Yes, there are comrades involved in quantum gyroscopes. Only here I did not notice a serious attitude to their research. They speak at conferences. I unfortunately do not have any links, but on the internet I think the abstracts of reports

          Perhaps the direction is unpromising? Then they would write a letter to Northrop Grumman so that they would not waste time ...
          1. niksup
            niksup 9 October 2013 16: 13 New
            0
            Maybe promising. Only in such matters is it better to be pragmatic. The palm in the creation of complex devices does not mean almost anything. Prestige - yes, but its price is too high. It’s better to wait a year or two and not step on the rake. True, we noticed above that we have just started working with laser gyroscopes. First, let them pay off (their development). Anyway, 15 years will pass before the actual implementation of these gyroscopes.
      2. 528Obrp
        528Obrp 9 October 2013 16: 24 New
        +1
        This is not a link, but something abruptly
        use the so-called Zeeman effect. Atoms with a magnetic moment, when they enter a magnetic field, acquire additional energy whose radiation frequency is proportional to the total magnetic induction vector of this field at the observation point. The sensitive element of the magnetometer is a vessel in which there are pairs of cesium, rubidium or helium. As a result of a flash of monochromatic light (optical pumping method), the vapor electrons are transferred from one energy sublevel to another. Their return to the previous level after the end of pumping is accompanied by radiation of energy with a frequency proportional to the magnitude of the magnetic field.

        In this case, the magnitude of the magnetic field sets the coil, look at the figure. Developed in the late 70s (I could be wrong) introduced in the 80s
        1. Growler
          9 October 2013 16: 53 New
          0
          Quote: 528Obrp
          This is not a link, but something abruptly
          use the so-called Zeeman effect. Atoms with a magnetic moment, when they enter a magnetic field, acquire additional energy whose radiation frequency is proportional to the total magnetic induction vector of this field at the observation point. The sensitive element of the magnetometer is a vessel in which there are pairs of cesium, rubidium or helium. As a result of a flash of monochromatic light (optical pumping method), the vapor electrons are transferred from one energy sublevel to another. Their return to the previous level after the end of pumping is accompanied by radiation of energy with a frequency proportional to the magnitude of the magnetic field.

          In this case, the magnitude of the magnetic field sets the coil, look at the figure. Developed in the late 70s (I could be wrong) introduced in the 80s


          There is no marking on the device, how did you determine what is inside?
          Version of the picture in high resolution (3000X2400).
          http://media.globenewswire.com/cache/189/hires/8379.jpg

          So Northrop Grumman is cheating on people in his press releases?
          http://www.irconnect.com/noc/press/pages/news_releases.html?d=194277
          1. 528Obrp
            528Obrp 9 October 2013 17: 03 New
            +1
            What do you need this Northrop Grumman !!!!
            To talk about something you need to be in the subject!
            To get started, take a description of M33 in nete (I even found a picture by bolts)
            There even types of polarizing filters are indicated. This effect has been studied for a long time. A lot of devices have been created. From magnetometers, gyroscopes to gas chromatographs.
            There is nothing new right now. All that is presented as new is the work of designers and technologists with the transfer to a new element base. And in the States and Germany and in Russia all these things are known for their advantages and disadvantages.

            http://geo.web.ru/db/msg.html?mid=1161636&uri=page16.html прочтите
          2. 528Obrp
            528Obrp 9 October 2013 17: 19 New
            0
            Quote: Growler
            There is no marking on the device, how did you determine what is inside?

            They made a laugh. I look at the diagram above. And there I see a pump laser, polarizing filters, a coil that creates a reference magnetic field, a volume of active substance that does not work, a pump laser and a laser radiation receiver. How everything works is written below, and where is the description of NMR
            1. Growler
              10 October 2013 00: 21 New
              0
              Quote: 528Obrp
              Quote: Growler
              There is no marking on the device, how did you determine what is inside?

              They made a laugh. I look at the diagram above. And there I see a pump laser, polarizing filters, a coil that creates a reference magnetic field, a volume of active substance that does not work, a pump laser and a laser radiation receiver. How everything works is written below, and where is the description of NMR

              The diagram above shows Northrop Grumman experimental setup used to develop subatomic gyroscopes.
              If you read carefully, you would see that the top diagram is signed with the same name as I wrote above.
              1. 528Obrp
                528Obrp 10 October 2013 06: 52 New
                0
                Ufff .... give a link
                Quote: Growler
                Northrop Grumman,

                Quote: Growler
                Northrop Grumman
                . Yes uzhzh. For it is something like this:
                http://femto.com.ua/articles/part_2/4816.html

                and references
                Ital: Maleev P.I., New types of gyroscopes, L., 1971; Pomerantsev N. M., Ryzhkov V. M., Skrotsky G. V., Physical foundations of quantum magnetometry, M., 1972; Kuritski M. M., Goldstein M. S., Inertial navigation, [trans. with English.], "TIIER", 1983, v. 71, No. 10, p. 47; Woodman K. F., Franks PW, Richards MD, The nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope: a review, "J. of Navigation", 1987, v. 40, No. 3, p. 366.

                AH Shelaev.
  4. patriot2
    patriot2 9 October 2013 09: 26 New
    0
    Not bad, but what does our color of scientific thought in the defense industry think about this? It would be nice to adopt and implement ...
  5. nod739
    nod739 9 October 2013 09: 33 New
    +2
    Quote: Orel
    We always have one thing. Why shoes, we will walk in boots, why modern fabrics for warm clothing, there are pea jackets. Such a position will not bring us to good. Basic research is always expensive and there is little applied in it, but progress does not stop and the acquired fundamental knowledge becomes the basis for new technologies that come into our lives, including in the army. We must not look for shortcomings, but work on new areas of knowledge, including in the military sphere ...


    I support
    add
    and even if 9 out of 10 studies are a waste of money and effort. then just 10th can give, if not a breakthrough, then a worthy application in the national economy
    1. 528Obrp
      528Obrp 9 October 2013 15: 53 New
      0
      Quote: nod739
      and even if 9 out of 10 studies are a waste of money and effort.

      Yeah, and then Chubais to the wall. And the reason is as if real.
  6. Nayhas
    Nayhas 9 October 2013 09: 37 New
    +2
    We only began to install navigation systems on laser gyroscopes on airplanes, and they already developed NMR gyroscopes ...
  7. Averias
    Averias 9 October 2013 09: 53 New
    0
    Without going into details, we have something similar (I specify, something similar), and we have long developed it. But they use it or not, I don’t know. It seems like, on “Squalls”, such things stand. They like to boast there ahead of time. From the prototype, to the actual application often does not reach. In all countries, all good things are kept secret. And here, why. But the fact that the brain works, yes, that's great. Although, it would be interesting to voice the names of scientists. Vague doubts torment me .......
    1. 528Obrp
      528Obrp 9 October 2013 10: 41 New
      0
      NMR is nuclear magnetic resonance. On the fingers it’s very simplistic: any proton in a magnetic field behaves like an oscillating spinning top (yule) (precesses). The frequency of its precession is proportional to the magnitude of the magnetic field. The effect is open long ago. Based on this effect, tomographs, spectrometers and magnetometers work (a lot of things). The most widespread in the 80s in the USSR were magnetometers MP203 (proton).
      Around a proton-containing substance, a coil is wound around it; a variable frequency current is passed through it and a voltage is measured at the receiving coil. At the moment of resonance, this voltage changes sharply. For example, the frequency of hydrogen precession in the earth’s magnetic field is about 2.5 kHz

      A change in the polarization angle of the laser beam during the passage of metal vapor is also dependent on the magnetic field. Application - in the same 80s magnetometer M33 (quantum)

      I don’t know anything about precession of neutrons.
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