Military Review

Pavel I. 250 Hospital years ago in Moscow Pavlovsky Hospital was opened - the first public hospital in Russia

The Fourth City Clinical Hospital of the Moscow Department of Health is one of the oldest medical institutions in the capital city. September 25, 2013, the medical center, which also has another, historical The name - Pavlovsk Hospital, celebrates its anniversary - as much as 250 years since the reception of the first patients. Every year, more than thirty thousand patients undergo treatment and examination, and thousands of surgical interventions are performed in surgical departments. The origin of this institution is closely connected both with the acts of Empress Catherine II and her son Paul I, as well as with the work of many famous architects and architects. Thus, the ensemble of the Pavlovsk Hospital is, on the one hand, the leading scientific and medical center in Russia, making a huge contribution to the study of heart disease, and on the other hand, a magnificent and invaluable art monument of the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries.

In September, the young Pavel, together with his tutor Ober-gofmeister Nikita Ivanovich Panin, arrived in the Russian capital 1762 in order to take part in the coronation of his mother Catherine II. However, after living in Moscow, he suddenly became seriously ill. For the treatment of her son, the empress gathered the best medical minds. Everything, fortunately, did, Pavel Petrovich recovered, and in memory of the healing of 11 on June 1763, the Senate announced a decree to open the first hospital for the poor in Moscow. Documents stored in a special department of the State Historical Museum, namely the drafts of Catherine II, indicate the foundation of the hospital "at the request of Tsarevich Paul." However, the future emperor was only nine years old at that time, so, obviously, it was not without the participation of his mentor, Nikita Panin.

The exact order for construction was also indicated in the dubbed order: “... to establish a free hospital, to which a capable place was elected, near the Danilov Monastery, the country courtyard of the Prosecutor General and the General Crix Commissar Glebov.” Alexander Ivanovich Glebov, a prominent statesman in the past, owed the treasury more than two hundred thousand rubles. It was the land that belonged to him "with all kinds of buildings" that was supposed to "accept, transfer to the full department a secret real adviser ... to Chief Chamberlain Panin." Thus, at the beginning of 1763, between the outpost near Danilov Monastery and Bolshoy Serpukhovskaya Street, Glebov’s country “dacha” with a huge park and a number of ponds was acquired for debt. It should be noted that the place for the construction of the hospital was chosen very good - the outskirts of the city, near the river, and around the numerous gardens.

Initially, a new hospital was supposed to be created on the basis of the wooden buildings of the estate of the Prosecutor General. The dilapidated buildings were hastily repaired, a team of employees was quickly recruited (in the first year only four doctors worked here), and already on September 1 of the year, it was announced that the works were completed. The new hospital, designed for twenty-five beds, was named Pavlovskaya, as was the street that runs from the medical institution to Bolshoi Serpukhovskaya. September 1763 began receiving the first patients.

The announcement of the opening said: “... all the poor people are feminine and masculine, both with charity and medicines, linen, clothes, food and all other contents will be satisfied from their own amount, determined by His Highness, without requiring payment from them for anything both in cure and in continuation of the disease. " The number of patients admitted and treated was brought to public attention by newspaper reports. And so that people do not forget the event that became key in the history of the hospital, a medal was issued with the face of a young king and the words: "He frees himself from diseases, he thinks about the sick."

An interesting fact is that Pavlovskaya Street begins at the eastern end of Pavel Andreev Street, Mikhelson’s work plant and a prominent member of the October Revolution, who fell in an exchange of fire on Ostozhenka and was buried near the Kremlin wall.

Unfortunately, the very next year after the opening of the hospital, the old buildings became unusable, causing reasonable fears for the lives of patients and medical staff. Therefore, in the 1764 year, it was decided to build a new building. In 1766, all the old buildings were demolished, replacing them with one more spacious wooden building, which housed a church and two two-storey outbuildings for workers. In subsequent years, the hospital expanded - the number of buildings reached three, and they, in turn, gradually overgrown with new hospital and office buildings. However, in 1784-th year there was a strong fire. The main building of Pavlovsk hospital burned out clean, other buildings were also badly damaged. After that, Paul, who initially took an enormous part in all the affairs of the hospital, ordered to build a large and spacious stone building for seventy people, including living quarters for doctors, a pharmacy and a church. Implementation of the project Paul I, in those years still the heir to the throne, entrusted Vasily Bazhenov himself, with whom he was well acquainted.

Historical reviews written for the 50th anniversary of the medical institution indicated that “all the drawings were made by a renowned architect and presented to his imperial highness.” However, the building of the Bazhenov project was never built. Instead of a burnt case, and in the same place, a new, but again wooden case on a stone foundation appeared. The forgotten projects of the Pavlovsk Hospital, which belonged to Bazhenov’s pen, were found only in 1946 in the Central Military-Historical Archive of the USSR. Five completely different options are dated in the spring of 1784. One of them is labeled "B: f:", which, according to historians who have discovered these papers, means: "Bagenow fecit" - "Bazhenov did." It is curious that in one of the projects, Vasily Ivanovich, having included in the layout all the buildings that were in the hospital, suggested organizing a large urban ensemble from the entire complex of buildings.

Why the Bazhenov project was not implemented? According to one of the versions, there was no money necessary for the realization of such a monumental building as the great Russian architect saw it. However, according to other, more believable theories, the real reason was not the case. Bazhenov's work on the drawings of the hospital coincides with the construction of the Tsaritsyn ensemble 1775-1785-s. All buildings of the Pavlovsk hospital, located among the gardens on the outskirts of Moscow, Vasily Bazhenov decided to make white stone and brick, just like in Tsaritsyn. However, it is known that in the 1785 year, Empress Catherine II visited the capital and, after examining the Tsaritsyn buildings, gave an immediate order to stop all work. At the beginning of 1786, the collegiate adviser, architect Bazhenov, was removed from all the posts assigned to him, which, in fact, meant his resignation. Descendants became aware of the opinion of Catherine about the Tsaritsyn Palace from her letter to one favorite: “His vaults seemed too heavy to me, and the rooms and stairways were too narrow. The halls are dark, the boudoirs are cramped. ” Nevertheless, the cessation of construction in Tsaritsyn and the forgetting of all the projects of Pavlovsk hospital are basically connected with the empress's personal attitude to Vasily Bazhenov and have a political basis. There is plenty of evidence that Pavel knew the architect well, studied his works and showed interest in them. Back in 1765, Bazhenov received an order to develop the design of a palace for Paul on Kamenny Island, however, he was not able to build it. Later, on official business, Bazhenov repeatedly met with the future tsar in St. Petersburg, but documentary sources about what was discussed at these negotiations were not preserved. The reason for the hostility of the Empress was the architect’s involvement in Freemasonry. And, as is well known from the notes of Karamzin, Catherine II believed that the masons, having secret connections with foreign courts, wanted to throw her off the throne and put Paul on him. Bazhenov also acted as an intermediary between the masons of Moscow and Pavel, passing their printed editions to the crown prince. Maybe all this was really not limited to the transfer of books, but no evidence was left, when Paul ascended the throne, Paul destroyed many documents.

The oldest medical institution in our capital is the main military hospital named after Burdenko. It was founded by decree of Peter I in the 1732 year and became a school for the first Russian doctors. In 1896, the first laboratory in the country was created here. Up to this point in medical institutions did not take medical tests. And in the 1903 year, the first X-ray examination was performed at the hospital.

The Pavlovsk hospital and the new building were remembered for it only at the beginning of the 19th century, when Alexander I was in power. The Moscow county treasury allocated two hundred fifty thousand rubles for the construction of a stone three-story building. Its construction was begun in 1802, and completed in 1807. The construction took place according to the drawings and under the guidance of the famous architect Matvey Kazakov. Interestingly, the stone building of the hospital, designed by Kazakov, is very similar to the layout and general solution with one of the variants of the Bazhenov plan. And the facade of the building resembles the facades of the Golitsyn hospital, built by Kazakov in the 1798-1801-s. Currently, Matthew Fedorovich's album with the projects of Pavlovsky Hospital is kept in the Museum of Architecture named after Alexey Shchusev. The Historical Museum also has a document entitled “Information about the structure of Pavlovsk Hospital 1806”. He also confirms the authorship of Kazakov and reveals some ways to build a large public building in the beginning of the 19th century. For example, in this document, according to the peasant Kozma Krivenkov, he tells how “during the construction of the hospital, he performed various stone work with other peasants” (four hundred people took part in the construction). The works realized “according to the architect’s instructions” are revealed in detail: “under the entire main building ditches were dug in length along the facade and plan ..., a foundation was made inside, a stone wall was built on the sides, a basement was started, inside were brick walls ... everything was done at the direction of Mr. Kazakov ... ".

However, construction work did not always go smoothly. In particular, the records found tell you how, at the very beginning of the 1803 year, “cracks in the previously removed base” were found. And further: “Although the contractors explained to the architect (I mean Matthew Kazakov) that there were no dangers from severe frosts, the architect considered for his part the reason for the earthquake and ordered the basement and walls to be disassembled, which was done.”

The unfinished central building of Pavlovsk Hospital, which is located not far from the Danilov Monastery, has already been drawn on the plan of Courtener 1805. The territory of the old garden is divided into squares, some of which, obviously, were intended for auxiliary hospital buildings. And in the handwritten plan of Moscow, compiled in the 1810 year, you can see the alley that did not exist by that time, which passed west of the hospital in the direction of the monastery.

It should be noted that the construction of the hospital brought Matthew Fedorovich many troubles. Initially undertaking this work, he had to carry out only technical observation. However, in the 1811 year, there was a conflict about the embezzlement of public money around a certain Trojankin (or Troenkov, according to other documents), who was the "caretaker at the hospital". The Criminal Chamber of Moscow accused Kazakov of not having anything to do with the oversight, and the Senate, having considered the case, decided: “Accuse the architect and forbid further to engage in official buildings”.

However, the huge main building of the hospital - the last creation of the great architect - was nevertheless completed by him. Matvey Kazakov erected a real three-story palace. The center of the architectural composition was spectacularly highlighted by the stately Ionian portico, as well as the dome of the hospital church, towering directly behind it, illuminated in memory of the apostles Paul and Peter. When built, the architect put into practice the newest trends in architectural aesthetics - the simplicity and at the same time the monumentality of the artistic image, which later became characteristic of Russian architects of the early 19th century.

In the 1812 year, when Napoleon's troops approached Moscow, the captured Matvey Fedorovich was transported to Ryazan. Here his hearing, according to the records of the architect’s son, reached “a sad rumor about a Moscow fire ... this news inflicted a fatal defeat on him”. It is truly scary to imagine that the talented architect felt, who devoted his whole life to decorating the patronal city with majestic buildings and learned that his perennial works disappeared in an instant, turning into ashes. October 26 Matvey Kazakov passed away.

However, the fate of Pavlovsk Hospital was much happier - the hospital survived the flames. And when the capital was seized by the enemy, they continued to accept all patients, not a single doctor left his post. From reports of the superintendent Noskov it appears that already in early September the hospital, mainly the pharmacy and the personal belongings of the employees, was ransacked. However, this did not prevent Napoleon from sending his wounded officers to the infirmary in the middle of the month. It is also known that after his defeat in the hospital, the captured soldiers of the French army were treated.

From 1885 to 1903, the chief doctor of the Pavlovsk Hospital was the eminent scientist Grigory Uranossov. There is a case when he had to enter into negotiations on the sale of hospital land for the construction of the Paveletskaya railway. Agents offered the doctor "kickbacks", offering a good "warm" clinic. However, Uranossov did not want to hear anything about this and fought for every inch of land. As a result, he was able to reach prices of twelve rubles per square sazhen. Pavlovskaya hospital received over four hundred thousand rubles for its land. And Grigory Alexandrovich wrote in his diary: “I have kept my integrity and honesty”.

Years went by, the population of Moscow grew, the number of patients increased and the hospital began to require new facilities. In 1818, summer wooden hulls were built, but they were too damp (especially the lower floors), they had to be constantly rebuilt or repaired. Therefore, in the twenties, the construction of stone buildings began. In 1829-1832, famous architect Domenico Gilardi built four two-story stone outhouses. Two of them are located slightly in front of the main building and on either side of it (one for the laundry, the other for the pharmacy), in the other two buildings they organized apartments for doctors, staff, clergy and officials. Also in the Ensemble of the Pavlovsk hospital several buildings of office and economic use were added. In addition, the Swiss architect designed the front yard in the Empire style, at the same time there appeared a fence and white stone pylons crowned with sculptures of lions.

The construction of new buildings and the rebuilding of old ones continued until the end of the 19th century. There were new office space, a separate women's building, barracks for patients with infectious diseases. But the main building of the institution - a monumental building made in the style of late classicism - survived to this day almost unchanged (in the interior there were even stucco patterns and paintings). In 1866, a stone chapel with a room to open the dead and a tomb appeared on the hospital's territory, and in 1890, a church named after St. Gregory Neokesariysky was built according to designs by architect Dmitry Chichagov. In the 1888 year, a conference room was arranged in the hospital at the site of the emergency department, in which portraits of the founder of the medical institution, general managers and directors were hung.

In February, on the order of Nicholas II, in Pavlovsk Hospital, 1904 organized courses for nurses. This was the beginning of scientific and teaching activities in this institution. Today, it houses eight clinical departments of various medical schools of the capital. It should be noted that the medical-medical part of the Pavlovsk hospital has always met the requirements of medical science. In confirmation of this fact, it can be added that the head of the local medical unit was always trusted only to prominent scientists. The very first head doctor was Nikolai Leclerc. Then, over the years, this position was occupied by Friedrich Erasmus (the author of the first reference book in Russia on the midwifery art), Fyodor Haaz, Grigory Uranossov, and many others. Fedor Rhine, Evgeny Martsinovsky, Alim Damir, Alexey Vinogradov and Vladimir Negovsky worked here.

In the 1932 year, Professor Etinger, who became the first victim of the “Doctors' Case”, founded the Department of Internal Medicine Propedeutics, which determined the cardiological direction of future research. Yakov Gilyarievich was an educated man, spoke excellent German, English and French, was an expert in various fields of art and literature. He reviewed many issues related to the development of electrocardiography, treatment of rheumatism, the study of noise and heart tones, early diagnosis of myocardial infarction and heart defects. The value of the work performed by him cannot be overestimated, the data obtained now as the basis appear in textbooks and manuals in different countries of the world. In the library of the United States Congress, there is a document stating that in 1950, the luminaries of world medicine wanted to nominate Yakov Gilyarievich for the Nobel Prize "for exceptional work in the field of cardiology."

After Etinger's death, his work was continued by academician Anatoly Nesterov, who developed the diagnostic stages and measures for treating rheumatism. And from 1953 to 1972, Alim Damir worked in Pavlovsk hospital, conducting extensive studies of cardiovascular pathologies. His research has a pronounced scientific and practical value. He was one of the first to develop methods for the surgical treatment of heart defects. Together with his staff, he conducted research on hypertensive and ischemic disease, myocardial infarction, heart and aortic aneurysms, Postlert syndrome of Dressler. Damir was the first to note non-cardiac signs of heart failure, for example, fatigue of the respiratory muscles.

Within the walls of the Pavlovsk hospital, many eminent doctors of Russia worked. But I want to tell about one of them separately. Fyodor Petrovich Haaz entered the history of our country as an outstanding research physician, humanist, defender of the disadvantaged and the organizer of health care. This unique man was born in South Germany into a poor large pharmacist’s family who managed to give him an excellent education. Haas studied at Jena and Vienna universities, specializing in eye diseases. Having successfully cured a grandee from Russia in Vienna, Haaz went with him to Moscow. Here he quickly gained fame. In the 1807 year, he was appointed chief physician of the Pavlovsk hospital, and in his spare time Fyodor Petrovich treated people in shelters and poorhouses. He passionately loved Russia, calling her "my second fatherland." Private practice allowed Fyodor Petrovich after retirement to buy a house in the capital of Russia and a small estate in the suburbs with a cloth factory. He read a lot, corresponded with Schelling. In 1827, he was appointed head physician of all Moscow prisons. Haas was sure that there was a connection between misfortune, illness and crime, and therefore excessive cruelty should not be applied to the guilty. Having used all the forces, influence, experience, Fyodor Petrovich was able to alleviate the existence of prisoners in prisons and at stages, among the people he received the nickname “holy doctor”. In particular, he achieved an increase in the cost of food from fifteen to thirty kopecks a day, developed and introduced long-chain shackles, changed the design of handcuffs, equipping them with soft pads. In the Small Kazenniy Lane, the doctor opened a hospital where he helped all those in need free of charge. At that time, the saying went: "Haas has no refusal." It is known that in the 1848 year, during a raging epidemic of cholera, Haas, in the presence of gathered people, kissed the first cholera patient who came to the hospital on the lips to prove that it was impossible for everyone to become infected in this way. To the very end of his life, Fyodor Haas argued that love and compassion could resurrect all the good that remained in fierce souls. Neither the ironic attitude of the officials, nor the clerical calllessness, nor the bitter failures could stop this courageous and noble man. Towards the end of his life, he sent all his property to charity, he had to be buried at the expense of the police. On the last journey, the doctors escorted more than twenty thousand Muscovites from various classes. A few years later, a monument to Fyodor Petrovich by the famous sculptor Andreev appeared in the courtyard of the Pavlovsk Hospital. Interestingly, the prisoners also decided to perpetuate the memory of the doctor. They collected money and soon cast iron shackles appeared on the monument to Haas. The motto of the Moscow Society of Doctors is still the words of Fyodor Haas: "Hurry to do good."

Currently, Pavlovsk Hospital is the base of the Russian Medical University. In this clinic, the leading specialists of our country are developing new methods for the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, atrial fibrillation, hypertension and heart failure. Pavlovskaya Hospital or GKB No. XXUMX is the largest medical and scientific center, consisting of thirty buildings scattered over a territory of thirteen hectares. The structure of a multidisciplinary medical institution includes a district polyclinic serving about forty thousand people and a hospital for more than a thousand beds. The hospital has three surgical departments: clean surgery (surgery on the vessels of the lower limbs and abdominal organs), purulent surgery of the hand and fingers, and general purulent surgery.

Operating rooms are equipped with high-tech equipment, and surgical operations are performed in the hospital around the clock. In addition, there are special departments of the surgical service: gynecological, traumatological, complex cardiac arrhythmias and ENT department. Therapeutic care is carried out by two cardiology and two therapeutic departments, as well as the departments of gastroenterology, neurology and rheumatology. There is also a nursing care unit. The intensive care, resuscitation and cardioreanimation departments work to help patients in severe conditions. The diagnostic center of the hospital has a clinical diagnostic laboratory, X-ray and endoscopic departments, as well as radioisotope, functional and ultrasound diagnostics rooms. Three doctors and thirty-four candidates of medical sciences, two honored doctors of Russia are staff members of Pavlovsk Hospital today. The specialist certificate is available to 238 doctors (from 253), of which 128 is of the highest category. The number of nurses and nurses is 595 people, the highest category is assigned to 122.

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  1. slacker
    slacker 25 September 2013 12: 17
    I'm glad for the hospital, although I didn't quite sideways understand what has to do with the hospital and Voennoye Obozreniye.
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 25 September 2013 22: 56
      Any hospital in wartime turns into a military hospital. Described in the material, went through all the wars of the Russian Empire / Russian Republic / RSFSR / USSR / Russian Federation. And in the Russian Medical University and to this day there is a Military Department, which gives the MilitaryMed University
  2. Zhzhuk
    Zhzhuk 25 September 2013 12: 30
    The story seems to be about a hospital, but I learned a lot about the rulers of Russia, according to indirect information, in general, interesting articles on historical topics often appear on the site, thanks for the article ...
  3. Marina67
    Marina67 23 October 2013 20: 47
    In fact, this cottage belonged to Stepan Fedorovich Apraksin, the latter bought it in 1749 on March 15 from Major General Athanasius Danilovich Tatishchev.
  4. The comment was deleted.