Military Review

Soviet military orbital station

34
Many have heard of the US Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), better known as the Star Wars program, which got its name from the famous science fiction film by George Lucas. The program proposed by Reagan in 1983 for the year envisaged the creation of an anti-missile defense system with elements for locating attack weapons systems in space. Over time, the program completely discredited itself, as it demanded enormous financial expenses and posed a number of extremely complex scientific and technical problems to its creators. In turn, the USSR began to think about the use in orbit of combat manned vehicles much earlier than Americans, but today there are far fewer people who know about domestic developments.


Meanwhile, back in 1964, the USSR began work on the creation of the manned space station Almaz, which was developed by order of the Ministry of Defense. If you suddenly want to learn something detailed about the Almaz stations and start flipping through the space directories, then, to your surprise, you will find quite a few interesting things to learn enough to make a lot of effort. The fact is that “Diamond” was launched into space under the pseudonym “Salute”. Stations with this name have already flown into space, while the task of combat space exploration required increased secrecy, which the USSR coped with relatively easily.

The system, which began to be designed in 1964 year, was really unique for its time, the Americans did not have such developments even in the long term. The manned space complex "Almaz", which began to develop the Chelomey Design Bureau, included an orbiting station weighing 17,8 tons and a volume of about 100 cubic meters. meters, a high-energy transport supply ship (TKS) with the newest docking assembly and a mass of 18 tons and 2 reusable launching vehicles, each of which could take the cosmonaut 3 and 100 kg. cargo. This complex, in addition to purely scientific tasks, could also perform well-defined military functions — shoot down enemy satellites, conduct reconnaissance, and even bomb bombard targets on the surface of the planet. While the station’s full crew consisted of an 6 man, it could also be conducting combat in a completely autonomous mode without the participation of the pilots.

A sketch project of the new station, which was called “Almaz”, in 1967 was adopted by the Interdepartmental Commission, which included 70 famous scientists and heads of scientific research institutes and design offices, as well as representatives of the Ministry of Defense. In 1968, the layout of the future station was ready, and at plant No. XXUMX (now known as the Khrunichev plant), production of the buildings was started.

Soviet military orbital station


The station’s project suggested that Almaz would become a much more sophisticated space reconnaissance aircraft than unmanned automatic photo-reconnaissance vehicles of the Zenit series. A more powerful camera on Almaz used the film to ground objects only by the will of the cosmonauts themselves. At their disposal was the most powerful "space binoculars", which allowed to look at the Earth in the infrared spectrum. If the crew noticed something suspicious, he could launch a series of shots. The photographic film appeared right there on board the station, the pictures worthy of the attention of military intelligence were transmitted to Earth either through a television channel or in a special descent capsule. In addition, the station could monitor the surface of the planet using side-scan radar.

The reconnaissance function of the station required its constant orientation to the Earth with the possibility of making turns to search for and target photographic equipment at the military objects of interest. To this end, a very complex triaxial orientation system was implemented at the station, which provided high accuracy when photographing and made it possible to smoothly perform turns along the longitudinal axis at any angle. The 2 corrective rocket engine was responsible for the orientation of the station in space. Applied at the station scientific developments were advanced for its time. An electromechanical stabilization system was installed at the station, which included a spherical engine-flywheel and a ring flywheel with a large kinetic moment. At that time, a flywheel suspended in an electromagnetic field was a very original technical solution. Another exotics station was digital computers "Argon16", which controlled the station's observation equipment.

The station "Almaz" had the following dimensions: maximum length - 14,6 m., The largest diameter - 4,2 m., Habitable space - 100 cube. m., the total mass - 17,8 tons., payload - 5 tons. The station was designed for a crew of three people, and the total time of work in near-earth orbit was - 410 days. With a docked supply ship, the crew could be increased to 6 people. The power supply of the station was carried out using solar cells with an area of ​​52 square. meters, which provided power in 3,12 kW.

By construction, the station’s pressurized compartment was divided into 2-e zones, which were conventionally designated as zones of large and small diameters.

The Almaz complex: 1 - the docked Soyuz transport ship; 2 - zone of a large diameter orbital block of the OPS; 3 - solar panels; 4 - Periscope; 5 - zone of small diameter OPS; 6 - airlock with docking station;


In front of the station in the small-diameter zone (diameter 2,9, length 3,8 m.) There was a table for eating, devices for its heating, taps with hot and cold water, above the table was a control panel of the station’s life support system, communications and lighting. Two sleeping places were located here - one is stationary, the other is folding. On the sides of the household zone there were cabinets in which there were scientific and medical equipment, as well as household electrical equipment: a tape recorder, a vacuum cleaner, a radio receiver. This zone was equipped with observation windows.

The household zone was followed by a working compartment or a wide-diameter zone (diameter 4,15, length 4,1 m.). There was a station control station with an optical sight and pan-observation devices, a circular periscope, sanitary and hygienic and medical equipment, reconnaissance equipment. Thus, the optical telescope located behind the working compartment for observing the Earth’s surface took up space from the station to the ceiling.

Taking into account the fact that during the design of Almaz in the United States, work was carried out to create various kinds of space interceptors at the station, measures were taken to protect against such spacecraft. The station received the 23-mm automatic gun, designed by Nudelman, which could be aimed at the target through an optical sight - reticle, reversing the entire station. The gun was specially redesigned for firing in a vacuum and could be used not only to protect the station, but also to destroy any space targets in the area of ​​destruction. This installation received the symbol "Shield-1", later on, the same designer Nudelman developed a new system "Shield-2", which received the 2 rocket "space-cosmos".

The transport ship of the station "Almaz" was not inferior in size to the station itself was 17,5 m in length, diameter - 4,2 m., Habitable volume - 45 cube. m., the total mass is 17,5 tons and the payload in 12,6 tons. The ship was designed for a maximum crew of three people and a maximum operating time of 7 days, as part of the Almaz complex, the service life increased to 200 days. Power supply of the ship was carried out from solar panels with a total area of ​​40 square. meters that were able to provide power in 2,4 kW.

Thus, almost 20 years ago, before Reagan’s famous speech, which frightened the world of Star Wars, the USSR began the development of a dual-purpose orbital station, which in addition to performing quite peaceful scientific programs, could perform a well-defined list of military tasks.

Sources used:
www.lib.rus.ec/b/122890/read
www.warlib.ru/index.php?id=000130
www.oko-planet.su/science/sciencecosmos/page,10,17633-chetvert-veka-almazu.html
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  1. svp67
    svp67 30 March 2013 10: 03
    13
    There was a great country and her plans were great ...
    1. Vashestambid
      Vashestambid 30 March 2013 18: 30
      36 th
      Posted by article laughing

      How awesome ...

      Taking into account the fact that during the design of "Diamond" in the United States, work was carried out on the creation of various kinds of space interceptors at the station, measures were taken to protect against such spacecraft. The station received a 23-mm automatic cannon, which was designed by Nudelman, it could be aimed at the target through an optical sight - a sight, turning the entire station


      laughing The twin 23 mm gun that was driven by the Soviet drunk a soldier who sat in a satellite with all conveniences for 3 years))) laughing
      1. lelikas
        lelikas 30 March 2013 18: 36
        +6
        Quote: VashEstambid
        A paired 23 mm gun that was controlled by a Soviet drunk soldier who sat in a satellite with all the comforts of 3 of the year)))


        Moreover, even in case of a battle in outer space, even laser pistols were made -
        so the Jedi are resting.
      2. Batman
        Batman 30 March 2013 18: 53
        10
        Soviet drunk soldier


        If you drunk this does not mean that the rest are drinking.
        1. Vashestambid
          Vashestambid 30 March 2013 23: 38
          15 th
          Quote: Batman
          If you are an alcoholic, this does not mean that the rest are drinking.


          Quote: de_monSher
          No, no ... this spark was "oslobno" effective against people like you, "weak" dudes ... *))


          crying
      3. de_monSher
        de_monSher 30 March 2013 20: 00
        +6
        Vashestambid

        How awesome ...


        No, no ... this spark was "oslobenno" effective against people like you, "weak" dudes ... *)) just according to the saying - " clean field free vacuum, put our muzzle against the wall, and fire a bullet in the forehead "... *))) This is what you need! .. and it would be easier to breathe, right away ... *)
      4. Ashibokov57
        Ashibokov57 30 March 2013 20: 45
        +6
        I do not insult, I just say that you yourself are a stupid person, a Soviet soldier is not a drunk.
        1. Vashestambid
          Vashestambid 30 March 2013 23: 39
          10 th
          Quote: Ashibokov57
          I do not insult, I just say that you yourself are a stupid person, a Soviet soldier is not a drunk.


          soldier
          1. de_monSher
            de_monSher 30 March 2013 23: 54
            0
            Vashestambid

            Take off your helmet, "Shura" ... *))) there is not a single gram of gold in it ... *))))))
          2. rolik
            rolik 31 March 2013 22: 49
            +1
            Quote: VashEstambid
            Vashestambid

            Spanish fool, well, or the one who pretended to be under this flag, but still a fool, and, in my opinion, even without education)))))
      5. rolik
        rolik 31 March 2013 22: 47
        +1
        Quote: VashEstambid
        The twin 23 mm cannon that was driven by a Soviet drunk soldier

        I agree that it’s hard for a brain with a stupid type to perceive a phrase - a paired space gun.
        And what kind of flag is hanging on the wall on your wall, isn’t that the one our 38 fought for? A country that is nobody and nothing in this world, then it’s clear why it’s hard for a representative of this piece of the earth’s surface to perceive that it’s technologically advanced, because he probably didn’t keep his snags and hoes. Beggars deal with your backward economy, then give advice.
      6. YuDDP
        YuDDP 31 March 2013 23: 09
        +3
        I heard about this station in the year 1980-81 at the military department at the Moscow Aviation Institute. The major lecturer was telling, and we, with open mouth, were listening.
        He told how to distinguish Salute from Diamond: if the crew is military, then Diamond, if the military and civilians are Salute.
      7. lewerlin53rus
        lewerlin53rus April 1 2013 07: 46
        +1
        Quote: VashEstambid
        who controlled the Soviet soldier drunk

        The child of "Armageddon" has seen enough. Baby, that was fantastic in the mind of the Americans. Do not confuse it with Soviet reality.
      8. Armata
        Armata April 1 2013 08: 04
        +1
        Quote: VashEstambid
        A paired 23 mm gun that was controlled by a Soviet drunk soldier who sat in a satellite with all the comforts of 3 of the year)))
        Listen especially smart. But do you know that if you blow up a barrel of nails in orbit for about 10 years, no one will fly into space at all. So for the time being, you can sympathize with the SDI program that has been curtailed precisely for this reason.
    2. nakaz
      nakaz 31 March 2013 01: 06
      +5
      It seems to me that the stock of design ideas of the Soviet period is enough for another 100-200 years. God, how could the bastards ruin such a country?
  2. Russian
    Russian 30 March 2013 10: 09
    +3
    This is strong! Really takes pride in the country!
    Only really this project has not received further development? Until the age of 91, they should have come up with something else ...
    1. Sirocco
      Sirocco 30 March 2013 14: 14
      +4
      Quote: р_у_с_с_к_и_й
      Only really this project has not received further development?

      There is development, if not, This is the ISS, countries that did not shine in the area of ​​orbital stations became participants in this project. As a result, they did not know anything, without knowing how, without flying, they got everything. All experience went to them for free, that is, for nothing. This includes US sales of RD-180 engines. And these countries have the audacity to raise a voice on us.
      1. Raven1972
        Raven1972 April 7 2013 22: 29
        0
        And before the ISS was the WORLD, which our liberal freaks valiantly drowned am
  3. djon3volta
    djon3volta 30 March 2013 10: 30
    +4
    in the film "space cowboys" the scene is excellently shown as a Soviet orbital station with rockets is being deployed, hidden under an ordinary meteorological satellite. I can’t post a piece of video, I didn’t find it on YouTube either. In general, you can watch the whole movie, you’ll see for yourself.
    1. bagel
      bagel 31 March 2013 03: 15
      +2


      Found for you laughing
    2. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 31 March 2013 22: 05
      0
      For this station (as I understand it now), weapons were developed, but not rocket weapons, but small arms, a machine gun and a cannon. Missiles, especially in orbit, require computing power, and this time. It was necessary to solve the main problem - no return should have remained in principle, if the station started talking or started turning ... Everything was decided, alas, I do not know how. I only heard that when testing in the atmosphere the machine gun was unbearable, howled to the point of endurance.
      1. Lycan
        Lycan 4 July 2017 08: 32
        0
        Due to the fact that the machine gun is in vacuum, the heat removal problems must be solved there.
        Otherwise - fast overheating. Apparently, a solution was found. For which special thanks to Nudelman.
    3. YuDDP
      YuDDP 31 March 2013 23: 12
      0
      There are still good shots in the James Bond films ... wink
  4. Docklishin
    Docklishin 30 March 2013 11: 35
    +1
    Interesting, can we build now? what
    1. region34
      region34 30 March 2013 17: 21
      +4
      most likely yes, this shortened 6-hour throw to the ISS, do you think for the sake of speed implemented? made it clear that they could direct a manned ship to any orbital object in a matter of hours
  5. Evgeniy-111
    Evgeniy-111 30 March 2013 12: 04
    0
    On the site of Tomsk there is an interesting article about the Almaz orbital station
    http://gorod.tomsk.ru/index-1249065230.php
  6. kontrol
    kontrol 30 March 2013 12: 13
    +1
    it’s a pity that there’s no such thing now. I hope that there isn’t
    1. biglow
      biglow 30 March 2013 13: 12
      +3
      Quote: kontrol
      it’s a pity that there’s no such thing now. I hope that there isn’t

      everything in our world is developing in a spiral, including science, two steps forward, one step backward, this is quite normal. If we have already achieved something, then we will achieve even more
  7. gych
    gych 31 March 2013 12: 10
    0
    achieve even more only together!
  8. amp
    amp 31 March 2013 15: 57
    +2
    In general, orbital stations armed with nuclear weapons are cheaper and more efficient than strategic nuclear submarines, not to mention long-range aviation. All this is the last century. No radar will notice an orbital station in high orbit and missile launch will not detect. Is that a radio telescope, and then, with great difficulty. Any missile can be easily shot from a conventional quick-firing gun. Note that there is zero gravity and no air resistance, so a simple 2a42 in space will shoot hundreds of kilometers. The main thing is to have an accurate guidance system. You can use air-to-air missiles, which will also fly hundreds, if not thousands of kilometers, in space.
    The station can be controlled in automatic mode, the main communication is reliable. It is possible with the crew, no problem.
    Cost? If purely construction, it is quite comparable to the cost of nuclear submarines. If you operate in automatic mode, then the cost of operation will not be large.
    The problem is that there is an agreement with the Americans on the non-deployment of weapons in space. But if they do not comply with the ABM treaty, why should we abide by this treaty?
    In general, a couple - three combat orbital stations with nuclear weapons solve many problems.
    You can install non-nuclear warheads. This will mean that any target anywhere in the world can be attacked as soon as possible. So much for the global strike strategy. Even better than the Americans. Starting from the OS is impossible to detect.
    1. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 31 March 2013 22: 10
      0
      Any space station can be taken out of orbit with a bucket of bolts, everything falls there. Just pour them ... The object must be either very large - the whole city, no less, or covered with some shields that can’t be transported from the planet? Is it because of ice or something to freeze ... This problem has not yet been solved.
    2. kostiknet
      kostiknet April 10 2013 16: 35
      0
      Quote: amp
      The problem is that there is an agreement with the Americans on the non-deployment of weapons in space. But if they do not comply with the ABM treaty, why should we abide by this treaty?

      So that people wouldn’t talk bad about the Tsar for nothing, act strictly according to the law! I mean, act on the sly !!! lol With a purely "research" purpose (to test how many years warheads with nuclear weapons can stay in space and not "turn sour") to launch a couple of Russian stations (and not let anyone go there). In case of a conflict, there will be a surprise - "Mama do not cry" !!!
  9. sesame
    sesame 31 March 2013 17: 49
    0
    Is this an April Fool’s joke? Hot and cold water taps, vacuum cleaner, etc.
  10. Corporal
    Corporal 31 March 2013 19: 26
    +2
    Quote: amp
    In general, orbital stations armed with nuclear weapons are cheaper and more effective than strategic nuclear submarines


    Take an interest in what SOI fell asleep on.
    Any station is not displayed instantly, and hangs in orbit for long periods. Establishing supervision over it, and finding a council on it is a much cheaper event. For example, a satellite mine.

    And cosmic radiation, and meteorites?

    A shot from a cannon in zero gravity, yes, it’s a very fun attraction.
  11. Bugivugi
    Bugivugi 31 March 2013 23: 13
    +1
    Quote: nakaz
    It seems to me that the stock of design ideas of the Soviet period is enough for another 100-200 years. God, how could the bastards ruin such a country?

    not without the help of the people, unfortunately ..... who was brainwashed (
  12. washi
    washi April 2 2013 14: 19
    0
    Unfortunately, there was everything, but everyone sold it.
  13. Kir
    Kir April 2 2013 19: 51
    +1
    On the question of those who ask now, can we? I think that where they used to do it, the state has decreased, part of the territory is generally occupied, you don’t understand who, from residential buildings the territory is visible to the same house - part of the houses is commercial, but forgive me for the immodest question we have with money who? What quality raw materials? Fortunately, I had a chance to work in production, the return on the unusability of steel was decent, especially since the marking was the declared range and the one that in reality, too, say ............ So, first you need to introduce personal responsibility with the most stringent requirements. and to punish not only those who were caught but also those who were instructed, recommended. and to arrange a "merry life" for the relatives of those who have been fined. Then there is a perspective.
  14. gora1960
    gora1960 April 11 2013 12: 16
    +1
    The gun was invented by a real anti-aircraft gunner. Really funny.
  15. lilit.193
    lilit.193 April 13 2013 16: 05
    +1
    What a power was. What things did. This is now almost the limit. And then, in general, it was science fiction embodied in reality.
  16. Cosmos-1869
    Cosmos-1869 3 September 2013 16: 48
    0
    As far as I know, the piloted Almaz did not have a side-looking radar (BO radar). The first Almaz with a BO radar was launched under the name Kosmos-1870.