Military Review

Bolivar's Legacy

15
Bolivar's LegacyFull names of various countries are sometimes quite unusual. For example, Bolivia is officially called the Plurinational State of Bolivia, Mauritania and Iran emphasize that they are not simple republics, but Islamic. The Republic of Macedonia added “Former Yugoslav” to its name - so that they would not be confused with the Greek region of the same name, Mexico is in fact the Mexican United States, and the small Nepal, lost in the Himalayas between India and China, is not just democratic, but also a federal republic. As for the Republic of Venezuela, the first word in its name is the Bolivarian.


In principle, it is not surprising that at once the two South American countries immortalized in their name the memory of Simon Bolivar, who was given the unusual title of the Liberator (El Libertador) during his lifetime by the Venezuelan National Congress. After all, he really managed to become the creator of several modern states at once, which he literally wrested from the tyrannical power of the Spanish crown.

At the beginning of the 19th century, the whole of South America, with the exception of present-day Brazil, belonged to Spain and was governed by the governors of the king. The metropolis overseas led as best she could, but it didn’t work out very well for her. The real power belonged only to the white minority (while the majority of the population were descendants from mixed marriages), entrepreneurship faced numerous prohibitions, and high taxes led to the fact that they drained all the juices from the colonies.

This alone could be a significant cause for discontent, and it manifested itself, especially under the influence of the US Revolutionary War, the French Revolution and the slave uprising in San Domingo. With these examples, South Americans were personally convinced that they could successfully fight for their rights, and the royal government is not so holy and unshakable. But the immediate cause was the invasion of Napoleon Bonaparte’s troops in Spain, which followed in 1808 and led 2 to the occupation of most of the country by France.

The fact that Bolivar has become one of the leaders of the “patriots”, as independence advocates called themselves, is not surprising. Unlike many compatriots who never crossed the ocean, he personally met the life of the Old World.

Simon was born 24 July 1783, in Caracas, in a noble Creole family, was left without parents early and was raised by the famous educator Simon Rodriguez, who became for him not only a mentor, but also a friend. In 16 years, on the initiative of his relatives, he went to Madrid, where he studied law, and then traveled around Italy, Switzerland, Germany, England and France, and also visited the United States of America, who had by then freed from British power. Perhaps it was there that Bolivar first thought that South America needed to throw off the heavy yoke that the metropolis had imposed.

When uprisings began from Mexico to present-day Bolivia, the Spanish army was able to quickly suppress them. But a start was made - only the leader was missing. They turned out to be Bolivar, who took the most active part in the overthrow of Spanish rule in Venezuela, which became an independent republic in 1811. But the rebels were eventually defeated, and although in 1813, Bolivar’s troops again occupied Caracas and proclaimed the Second Venezuelan Republic, he was unable to carry out reforms that would allow him to enlist the support of the people, and was forced to flee to Jamaica.

The war for the liberation of South America continued long 16 years - until 1826-th, and if the famous San Martin led the rebel forces in the lower part of the continent, Bolivar acted in the north.

He returned to his homeland at the end of 1810 and again achieved the partial liberation of Venezuela - not least due to the promise to give his army soldiers land. Then the Spaniards were expelled from New Granada (present-day Colombia), and in 1819 Bolivar was proclaimed president of the Republic of Colombia, which included Venezuela, New Granada, and a little later - the current Ecuador. The beginning of the 20-s was marked by several loud victories over the forces of the empire, and in the middle of the 1822-th army of Bolivar and San Martin met for the first time on the territory of modern Peru. Finally, in the 1824 year, Venezuela, still in 1811-m declared its independence, was completely liberated from Spanish rule.

Bolivar, in principle, did not hide the fact that he would like to unite the former viceroy kingdoms, but on the same democratic principles. Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, La Plata, and Chile were to enter the Southern United States, but they could not insist on their idea of ​​a military leader. He was greatly respected, but local politicians, who felt a taste of independence, suspected that over time he would want to create his own empire, like Napoleon’s.

Whether he really had such thoughts is still unknown. But, be that as it may, the union of the liberated colonies was short-lived, Peru and Bolivia left it, and as a result, Bolivar had to be “content” with the territories of only modern Colombia and Venezuela. At the end of 1829, a split was also made between these countries, and at the beginning of 1830, Bolivar resigned from the presidency, and in December of that year, he died, giving up all his lands, houses, and even the state pension.

Most likely, those who believe that the power of the Spanish king Bolivar intended to replace his own dictatorship are hardly right. After all, suffice it to say that as a result of the war for independence of the South American colonies, he managed to break the bonds that hampered the economic development of the entire continent, and the local equivalent of corvee for indigenous people was abolished, and slavery was eliminated in most of the newly formed countries. In the new states a parliamentary form of government was established, constitutions were adopted. There were nations that got rid of the remnants of feudalism and received the opportunity for independent development.

Bolivar was not afraid to challenge the mighty empire, and perhaps it was no coincidence that it was his fellow countryman, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, did the same, becoming one of the few leaders of the modern world who allowed himself to harshly criticize the US - the new "world dictator". Apparently, the “vaccination of freedom”, made in the first quarter of the XIX century, turned out to be really strong ...
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  1. xetai9977
    xetai9977 1 August 2013 09: 07
    11
    I have a book from the series "The Lives of Remarkable People", dedicated to Bolivar, where he appears to be a talented man, stubbornly defending his beliefs. According to the book, at the same time he was a rather mediocre military leader. All significant victories were won by Sucre, San Martin and other talented commanders. But this does not diminish the merits of Bolivar as the inspirer of the liberation movement of the peoples of South America. He donated all his huge fortune to the cause, which he considered the main thing in his life and died like a poor man, already forgotten contemporaries. However, this is the lot of many great people.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 1 August 2013 18: 05
      +4
      Quote: xetai9977
      According to the book, at the same time he was a rather mediocre commander. All significant victories were won by Sucre, San Martin and other talented commanders. But this does not detract from the merits of Bolivar


      I agree.
      Thanks to the author.
  2. Sirius-2
    Sirius-2 1 August 2013 18: 40
    +4
    I read somewhere with Nikolai Starikov: the British were the sponsors of the national liberation war in Latin America. As a result, they got a gigantic market for their economy. Just like they sponsored the civil war in Russia and other countries.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 1 August 2013 23: 29
      +3
      Quote: Sirius-2
      Nikolai Starikov


      be careful with him, there are a lot of bullshit.
      1. Namejs
        Namejs 4 August 2013 01: 20
        +5
        that's for sure. a lot of vague facts. More personal interpretations and demogogy
      2. RoTTor
        RoTTor 5 August 2013 08: 05
        +3
        it’s an orderly paranoid without a minimum of real knowledge, which someone spins.
    2. RoTTor
      RoTTor 5 August 2013 08: 04
      +1
      the sales manager of Starikov - hatred of England, probably paid by customers, turned into sincere natural paranoia.
  3. Olegovi4
    Olegovi4 1 August 2013 23: 28
    -2
    Well, so where without these dogs ...
  4. Namejs
    Namejs 3 August 2013 00: 53
    -5
    As well as my country - Latvia - its time defied the German and Russian imperialists in 1918-1920. And as you can see, it was a success!

    sorry for my grammar
    1. Seraph
      Seraph 3 August 2013 17: 03
      +1
      And what did you manage? Destroy the health and education systems inherited from the "occupiers"? Have some of the lowest salaries in Europe and a massively emigrant population? Remain without an army and proudly show trucks with machine guns at military parades, and place all hope on NATO, that is, the children of "German imperialists"? Have dentists, psychologists and veterinarians as presidents and ministers? Build one (!) Bridge over a medium-sized river and a library for a quarter of a billion dollars?
      Great honor, you will not say anything. Freed from Russia, now you run after it - "Well, please, use our Baltic ports! Well, buy our sprats! Well, settle in Jurmala!"
      Such independence is shame, it’s better not to mention it
      1. Namejs
        Namejs 4 August 2013 01: 09
        +1
        Quote: Seraphim
        And what did you manage?

        Latvia fed the Soviet Union. Latvia's contribution to the USSR’s GDP was 1.2% and received 0.7%. It was terribly disadvantageous for us.

        Quote: Namejs
        Destroy the health and education systems inherited from the "occupiers"?

        Can any facts be more precise?
        I would even say that the health care and education system in Latvia is better than in Russia. One of my relatives from Moscow specially goes to visit our doctors, since in her opinion such specialists in Moscow are much smaller and more difficult to access.

        And education, I remember well the latest stories about how you have state examinations in schools ... Horror!

        Quote: Seraphim
        Have some of the lowest salaries in Europe

        and one of the fastest growing economies in the EU. It’s one sense to manage the euro, what are the achievements (the criteria are very strict) - and this is after the so badly experienced crisis of 2008-2010.



        Quote: Seraphim
        Remain without an army and proudly show trucks with machine guns at military parades, and place all hope on NATO, that is, the children of "German imperialists"?


        For a country with such dimensions as Latvia, the army is excellent. Our soldiers have better equipment and training than the average conscript of the Russian Armed Forces.
        and NATO is the best security solution. Since it’s too expensive to maintain a large army and there’s no need to pick it up, because no one like Naberaets.

        The parade, well, the parade is purely symbolic; more about Luxembourg and Monaco, laugh like a parade without tanks and MLRS

        Quote: Seraphim
        Have dentists, psychologists and veterinarians as presidents and ministers?


        And what is bad there? These are all people with good education and very ability.

        Quote: Seraphim
        To build one (!) Bridge through a medium-sized river and library for a quarter of a billion dollars?


        In Kaliningrad, a bridge was built at $ 1 million per meter (watch the program "Moment of Truth" by Karaulov). We found why :)

        A library is just the construction of the century by the way.

        Quote: Seraphim
        Well, please use our Baltic ports!

        Our ports are used by Kazakhs, Chinese, Belarus and Americans, etc. Russians will benefit as the ports are in a more deplorable state.
      2. Namejs
        Namejs 4 August 2013 01: 09
        +1
        Quote: Seraphim
        Well buy our sprats!

        demand hits supply- It’s in Moscow the Latvian product is filled with great demand- Look at how many buyers in the Riga courtyard in Moscow- it seems Muscovites love products from Latvia much better than the local ..

        Quote: Namejs
        Well, settle in Jurmala!

        Yes, yes :) We have a ban on the sale of land to non-EU citizens and the interest of Russians is simply huge. True, EU non-citizens can buy real estate - than actively crawl.
        Quote: Seraphim
        Such independence is shame, it’s better not to mention it

        Yes Yes. I will not mention those Russian businessmen who admire Latvia as a country without corruption, without biocracy and with a very clear tax policy.
        The Uralvagonzavod wanted to invest money in Latvia and produce 2000 cars a year, specifically in Latvia. Perhaps this is more convenient and more convenient than in Russia
        1. lexe
          lexe 5 August 2013 09: 20
          0
          Namejs in your country has already struck the bell.
          While relative comfort catches your eyes. But in a more developed Finland, politicians are already thinking about joining Russia.
          I wish Latvians one thing, boldly challenge the new imperialists with their tolerant human right to be cattle.
          After all, it was
          As well as my country - Latvia - its time defied the German and Russian imperialists in 1918-1920. And as you can see, it was a success!

          And we pass ... on an important point.
          1. Namejs
            Namejs 5 August 2013 16: 55
            +1
            Quote: Lexi
            in your country has already struck the bell.

            More specific?

            Quote: Namejs
            But in a more developed Finland, politicians are already considering joining Russia.

            And chip them? In Finland, among other things, 60% of Finns consider themselves Russophobes. In Latvia, there are also such politicians who would marry Latvia to join Russia (usually these would be politicians of Russian or Jewish nationality who came to Latvia after 1940)
            Quote: Lexi
            I wish Latvians one thing, boldly challenge the new imperialists with their tolerant human right to be cattle.
            After all, it was


            You say that Latvia should be part of Russia, but why do we need it? What can Russia offer? What values ​​to offer?
            EU and Western values ​​- democracy, human rights and so on. We strictly adhere to this line and have achieved many successes. Nobody comes to Latvia from Russia, but there are many who go from Russia to Latvia. They stand in line for a permit for a place of residence. Entrepreneurs from Russia praise Latvia as a country without biocracy and with a very predictable tax policy (We ourselves Latvians do not count as we are far from the same level as in Germany or Sweden).

            Russia in this form of cocoa, now it is exact to us asymptotic.
            1. lexe
              lexe 5 August 2013 18: 07
              0
              In Finland, among other things, 60% of Finns consider themselves Russophobes

              from where infa? laughing
              hidden imperials here they are who laughing
              And to reveal their true nature, the EU itself and Sweden, which is falling into a moral impasse, will help. 1 month of media sweeping about the prosperous Grand Duchy of Finland, I think that's enough ...
              But why do they need Finns for us? We have a man who can do wood processing. And under Tsar Nikolai, they did not drive the 2-timber round timber to Europe.
              All modern industry and science (as well as the sale of high-tech products) was given by the West of Finland in return for loyalty and separation from ties with Russia. But if the crisis is serious? Then the collapse of Finnish hi-tech. High-tech is not only in Scandinavia.
              And in the Baltic States, the creation of Baltic dragons, the West now has neither the strength nor the time. And most importantly there is no desire to develop you! Think why?
              You say that Latvia should be part of Russia, but why do we need it? What can Russia offer? What values ​​to offer?

              Did I say about joining? -No we do not need you. All that is necessary of you is to give all rights to the Russian population and not interfere with their life.
              What about ideology?

              But she was always ... only she was forgotten.
              10 commandments of Christ. And in a healthy body, a healthy mind.
              To paraphrase. With a healthy mind and body (economy) flies do not bite.
              It is a mistake to think that the advanced market is anti-Christian. Its market was made so. But this is only a means and not the meaning of life.
              The main thing to realize sin laughing (market) - repent, repent and move on with the progress - yet the human mind is inquisitive.
              1. Namejs
                Namejs 7 August 2013 11: 23
                +1
                Quote: Lexi
                from where infa?


                From the speech of Finks, the representative at the conference at the Latvian Academy of Sciences on losses and crimes, which committed Soviet militarism. Later I post his name and status.


                Quote: Lexi
                hidden imperials here they are who


                I remember how the news (about 7 years ago) was told how 4 Finnish entrepreneurs refused to sell their land (under the Nordstream) while Russia failed to return the territory.


                Quote: Namejs
                The EU and the moral impasse


                in Russia, of course, raise the moral :)

                Quote: Lexi
                But why do they need us Finns?

                Quote: Lexi
                no we don't need you


                I am glad that you rationally spread. Here, on topvar, more of these people dream of the revival of the USSR in their former borders. They even say that the independence of the Baltic states is temporary.
                Quote: Lexi
                All that is needed of you is to give all rights to the Russian population and not interfere with their lives.


                Are we bothering you?

                Quote: Lexi
                And in the Baltic States, the creation of Baltic dragons, the West now has neither the strength nor the time. And most importantly there is no desire to develop you! Think why?


                And here just do the west? Each country itself zobotitsa about its economy and about other countries is interpreted as part of the obligation (for example, assistance to Greece)

                Looks like you just don’t understand how the EU functions.
      3. The comment was deleted.
  5. KuzmichDP
    KuzmichDP 3 August 2013 19: 35
    -1
    Quote: Seraphim
    And what did you manage? Destroy the health and education systems inherited from the "occupiers"? Have some of the lowest salaries in Europe and a massively emigrant population? Remain without an army and proudly show trucks with machine guns at military parades, and place all hope on NATO, that is, the children of "German imperialists"? Have dentists, psychologists and veterinarians as presidents and ministers? Build one (!) Bridge over a medium-sized river and a library for a quarter of a billion dollars?
    Great honor, you will not say anything. Freed from Russia, now you run after it - "Well, please, use our Baltic ports! Well, buy our sprats! Well, settle in Jurmala!"
    Such independence is shame, it’s better not to mention it

    I fully support this comment: "Whose cow would bellow, but that would be silent !!!!"
    1. The comment was deleted.
  6. old rats
    old rats 4 August 2013 07: 46
    0
    Namejs What do you really think that you live in an independent country?
    Latvia is a vassal of the European Union and nothing more.
    I think it’s unpleasant for you to realize this, however, I'm sorry but that’s true.
  7. Namejs
    Namejs 4 August 2013 08: 33
    +1
    Of course Latvia is an independent country. For small countries, in principle, it has always been more difficult to defend their interests - this is indeed so.
    But let's look at Russia - in a very large part of politicians and officials, property is located and families live abroad (most often in the EU or the USA) and at any time they can be barred from entering these countries (Magnitskov list, etc.). Is Russia an independent country?
    I don’t even talk about the capital of these officials and politicians who are in Western countries.

    Quote: old rats
    Latvia is a vassal of the European Union and nothing more.

    Question- Do you know how the European Union works?
    And please explain, what does the vassal of the EU mean?
  8. old rats
    old rats 4 August 2013 09: 41
    0
    I mean, she is tolerated there only because of her geographical location, and to the peak of Russia.
    Vasal in this case, the one who occupies a subordinate position, who can be controlled and who can not be reckoned with, in which case. The EU policy is determined by several countries with a strong economy, and Latvia is not among them.


    As for the property of our officials abroad, this really has a place to be. This is a manifestation of corruption, which Russian society is very dissatisfied with, but this does not prevent an independent policy from being conducted without looking at anyone.
    as an example - the war of 08.08.08/XNUMX/XNUMX and support for Syria.
    1. Namejs
      Namejs 4 August 2013 11: 45
      +1
      Quote: old rats
      I mean, she is tolerated there only because of her geographical location, and to the peak of Russia.


      this is paranoia, everyone is everywhere sensible and think how to annoy Russia :)

      Quote: old rats
      Vasal in this case, the one who occupies a subordinate position, who can be controlled and who can not be reckoned with, in which case. The EU policy is determined by several countries with a strong economy, and Latvia is not among them.


      That's why I asked, do you know how the EU functions. Obviously you are seen by stereotype.

      Can you name any facts of the fact that in the EU they are divided into vassals and owners?


      I apologize for my grammar
  9. old rats
    old rats 4 August 2013 14: 27
    0
    Imagine a situation - Germany and France left the EU. What will happen next with the union? Even if it does not cease to exist, then its influence, significance will fall from a hundred times.
    Now imagine the situation - all three Baltic countries will leave the EU. What will change?
    And these are not stereotypes, this is reality.
    Only a beautiful-hearted idealist can think that in this situation equality is respected.

    I don’t think that everyone everywhere just thinks how to annoy Russia, but I am convinced that the West is interested so that relations between our countries remain as cool as possible. Do you think this is not so?
    1. Namejs
      Namejs 5 August 2013 02: 26
      +1
      Quote: old rats
      Imagine a situation - Germany and France left the EU. What will happen next with the union?

      this will mean the collapse of the economies of Germany and France. It is not in vain that such efforts are being made to save Greece, since if nothing is done, the financial collapse will spread throughout Europe.
      The EU is the totality of many international agreements between member countries of the EU. These agreements very clearly regulate economic relations between countries. The exit of Germany would put the German economy in a very difficult position.

      Quote: old rats
      Even if it does not cease to exist, then its influence, significance will fall from a hundred times.

      The existence of the union is among the vital interests of Germany / France, etc. With the help of the union, Germany can also protect its interests much better.

      Quote: old rats
      Now imagine the situation - all three Baltic countries will leave the EU. What will change?

      In modern times, everything is too interconnected. The appearance of a Lyubov member of a union can seriously shake the stability of the entire union. Nenado neglect the values ​​of any EU country
      Quote: old rats
      And these are not stereotypes, this is reality.

      Do you know what functions the Euro Parliament has? Do euro commissions? What distance is the leading country? Probably not enough if you say so.

      Quote: old rats
      The West is interested so that relations between our countries remain as cool as possible. Do you think this is not so?

      First, who exactly do you think under the word "west"?

      Then, the basis of bad relations is a big mistrust on the part of the Latvians towards the Kremlin and Moscow. Moscow has always broken contracts and promises when it was profitable. Well, for example, in 1920, in the Latvia-USSR peace treaty, the latter refused any claim to the sovereignty of Latvia and its people. Twenty years later, Moscow violates the treaty and, with the help of threats and the use of force, annexes Latvia again.

      Also, Moscow is trying by any means to destabilize the situation in Latvia itself - spreading propaganda and incorrect information about Latvia and its history. Well, for example, the same Latvian SS legion. She does everything to show Latvia as a country where fascism rejoices. (although until 1998 the topic of legionnaires was just not interested in Moscow). Thus, trying to embroil the Russian-speaking Latvia with the Latvians.

      And also in every possible way the energy independence of the Baltic states is attached.
      And many in Russia will talk about Latvia being a part of Russia ..

      Well, what do we do? Temboley- Moscow has never regretted anything

      What do you think of it?
      1. Leisure
        Leisure 5 August 2013 11: 35
        0
        Especially with errors (accent) write, or is it a banter like that?
        Well, what do we do? Temboley- Moscow has never regretted anything
        - to understand and to forgive.
        1. Namejs
          Namejs 5 August 2013 16: 30
          +1
          I learned Russian communicating plainly with Russian speakers. No one has learned literacy. I do not brag about it, therefore I apologize and thank you for understanding :)
  10. old rats
    old rats 5 August 2013 18: 35
    -1
    Maybe someone wants to see Latvia with Russia, but among my friends there are none.
    Why do you need us? Enough of their worries.
    The attitude is indifferent at best.
    When I read aloud your phrase about it at work, neighing the whole department.

    Moscow did not regret anything? And what to regret? I also don’t think we have anything to regret.
    I propose not to talk about fascism and scum from the SS at all, because we won’t get a conversation.

    I wonder how exactly Russia impedes the energy independence of the Baltic states?

    Well, what about the EU, your fellow countryman writes:

    http://topwar.ru/31300-to-chto-vy-ne-hoteli-znat-ob-anglii.html
    1. Namejs
      Namejs 7 August 2013 11: 48
      +1
      Quote: old rats
      Maybe someone wants to see Latvia with Russia, but among my friends there are none.
      Why do you need us? Enough of their worries.
      The attitude is indifferent at best.
      When I read aloud your phrase about it at work, neighing the whole department.

      I am glad that Russians with imperial intentions are getting smaller - in many discussions on the same site they just said so - Latvia’s independence is time- then we will put it back
      Quote: old rats
      Moscow did not regret anything? And what to regret? I also don’t think we have anything to regret.


      Have you ever wondered why Moscow is so disliked in eastern Europe? In general, where there was the power of Moscow and it was not possible to implement Russification to the full extent, they dislike Russia.
      And really, as a Latvian, why should I be a blogger? For the annexation of 1940? For the deportation of the population to Siberia and the repression of the number of people in Bolshev so simply not at all?
      It is to imagine that Germany rejected the crimes of Nazism.

      You shield that it was all normal?

      And about the notorious fascists, the situation is as follows: Immediately I advise you to read the decisions of the Nuremberg Tribunal, those who were forcibly drafted into the legion are not criminals. And the choice not to be "volunteers" was either in the army or in a concentration camp. In short, the overwhelming majority of those legionnaires fall under this category.

      And those who got dirty with crimes (police battalions) no one remembers or honors those.

      Quote: old rats
      I wonder how exactly Russia impedes the energy independence of the Baltic states?

      Latvijas gāze is by and large owned by Gazprom, and naturally, the Latvian gas (LG) will be of interest to the owner. And here’s an example- Gazprom is putting pressure on the government of Latvia to extend the term of the LH monopoly after 2014. Otherwise, gas prices will rise right now. Latvia already pays more for gas than in Germany.
      The current situation regarding the construction of a new nuclear power plant in Lithuania - Moscow is doing everything possible so that no company would like to build a nuclear power plant.
  11. old rats
    old rats 7 August 2013 18: 50
    -1
    You see, this is not your gas, this is our gas.
    And it is not surprising that they try to keep the price as high as possible. Why sell cheap if you can sell high? You still reproach that we will not give it to you for free.
    Why is Germany paying cheaper? See my previous post.
    I can’t say anything about the nuclear power plant. Not in the subject.

    The very fact that many legionnaires survived the war and even survived to this day makes statements about Soviet "atrocities" untenable. If these creatures have been spared, then what kind of repression can you talk about?
    In 1940, we would not have come, the Germans would have come, maybe that would have only pleased you, but why did we need such a gift at hand? Everything was done right at that time.
    However, now the times have changed and Latvia as a part of Russia, in my opinion, is absolutely not needed, under any sauce.
    But "racial segregation" (citizen, not citizen) is fascism today.