Military Review

The battle for the subsoil: the interests of mining corporations in Central Asia

28
The battle for the subsoil: the interests of mining corporations in Central AsiaJapan will start mining uranium in Uzbekistan. The corresponding agreement was signed by 8 of July of this year between the Japan National Corporation of Oil, Gas and Metals (JOGMEC) and the State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Geology and Mineral Resources during a tour of the Japanese economic delegation to the countries of Central Asia.


JOGMEC invests about 700 million dollars in the study of rare earth metal deposits in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Exploration work has already begun in Kyrgyzstan.

However, not only Japan shows an increased interest in the depths of the Central Asian republics. The most tasty mineral deposits in the region have long been distributed and handed over to concessions. This article focuses on who and under what conditions carries out the extraction of minerals in Central Asia, and most importantly, that the countries of the region derive from this.

The Paradox of Abundance of Central Asia

During Soviet times, Soviet geologists in Central Asia carried out large-scale geological exploration, the result of which was the discovery of huge mineral reserves. Only a small part of the resources was developed, the rest was explored “in reserve”.

After the collapse of the Union, Central Asia has become a proving ground where corporations from developed countries compete, seeking to provide themselves with raw materials at minimal cost.

The most interesting in terms of development for investors are the deposits of energy carriers - oil, gas and uranium. Kazakhstan has the largest reserves of fossil fuels. With the start of industrial production in the oil and gas field, Kashagan Kazakhstan will be among the five largest oil-producing states in the world. Also, the uranium reserves of 651 800 tons put the republic on the second line after Australia in the ranking of states with uranium ore reserves.

Turkmenistan has huge gas reserves, which allows the Turkmen elites to pursue isolationist policies, trading gas with Asian countries.

Nature was not cheated by oil and gas and Uzbekistan, which produces gas together with Gazprom. The republic contains more than 114 thousand tons of uranium ore (2,1% of global reserves), which Japan needs without access to uranium ores and nuclear fuel for its 55 nuclear reactors. In terms of gold reserves, Uzbekistan ranks fourth in the world, and in copper and tungsten it is among the top ten countries in the world.

In addition to energy, companies are interested in gold, rare and rare earth metals, as well as non-ferrous metals, in particular copper.

The leader in stocks of rare and rare earth metals in the region is China. In addition, China has the means and capabilities to independently extract these resources and have a significant impact on world prices. It was China’s policy, which raised the prices of rare-earth metals, tightened export quotas to protect its producers, and forced Japan to look for alternative suppliers of valuable minerals.

Large reserves of gold are found in Kyrgyzstan. Copper is actively mined in Mongolia, simultaneously extracting gold from the rock.

Overwhelmingly, the countries of the region are not in a position to independently extract minerals from their depths, and therefore they are given the role of raw materials for corporations from the countries of the developed world.

How to develop the subsoil

Taking advantage of the chaos, Canadian and Chinese corporations came to the region, gaining control over large deposits of gold and non-ferrous metals. Given the lack of state power, the total corruption and greed of republican elites, companies have easily established their rules for mining. The areas of mineral deposits of interest were handed over to concessions as a result of production sharing agreements (PSAs).

The essence of the PSA is to transfer the right to develop and extract mineral resources to the investor, while the state receives a certain share in the output. Characteristic features of these agreements are the enslaving conditions of distribution of products (as a rule, 70 on 30% in favor of the company), as well as an underestimation of the volume of mining and various accounting frauds.

For example, in Kyrgyzstan, Canadian Centerra Gold Inc., having imposed the PSA on the parliament and former president Askar Akayev, mines gold at the Kumtor mine.

In 2009, Centerra achieved an increase in the concession area on 4080 hectares at the expense of the Sarychat-Ertash national reserve.

The conditions of gold mining for Kyrgyzstan are enslaving, although the company itself, judging by the information on the official website, is trying to convince everyone of the opposite, assuring about large-scale investments and significant tax deductions to the budget of the republic.

At the same time, the corporation is not unreasonably accused of serious accounting frauds and an underestimation of revenue indicators in order to reduce tax deductions.

It is highly doubtful that in the Mongolian gold field Gatsuurt, whose 100% stake is also owned by Centerra, the corporation behaves differently.

Similarly, the Chinese behave in the development of foreign mineral resources. At the end of May, it became known about the initiation of a criminal case by the Kyrgyz law enforcement agencies on the fact of the illegal export of silver by the Chinese company Full Gold Mining worth over 109 thousand dollars. Another Chinese company ELKO – service in 2009 – 2010 hid almost 20 kilograms of gold from taxation.

Now Chinese corporations are trying to enter Central Asia with a new force. And the Japanese JOGMEC is not averse to press the Canadians and the British in the battle for resources and profits.

Fight for deposits

Russia in the region occupies a rather defensive position, which is why the most attractive fields, such as Kumtor and Oyu-Tolgoi, were taken over by Anglo-Saxon companies.

However, having bought Canadian Uranium One Inc., Rosatom became a monopolist for uranium mining in Kazakhstan.

Significantly, the Oyu-Tolgoi gold-copper mine, back in 2009, promised to give to Russian Railways as part of the Infrastructure Development joint venture, in which Russia promised to deposit $ 1,5 billion, and Mongolia - licenses for Oyu-Tolgoi and the world's largest coal deposit, Tavan-Tolgoi .

However, in violation of the agreements Oyu-Tolgoi was transferred to the alliance of Rio Tinto and the Canadian Turquoise Hill.

Now the alliance is developing one of the richest copper ore deposits in the world. Oyu-Tolgoi annually gives 450 corporations thousands of tons of copper and 13 tons of gold. By 2020, the profit from sales of copper mined at the mine will be 30% of Mongolian GDP, it is hard to calculate the income of Canadians, but it is obvious that they will be even higher.

China is trying to use rare earth metals as a tool of foreign policy, as well as to reduce their production on its territory. In addition, Chinese mining companies themselves are not averse to increasing their share in mining projects in Central Asia. Only in Kyrgyzstan, according to unofficial data, about 70% of licenses for the development of gold deposits belong to companies from the Middle Kingdom.

Important for the PRC is to ensure uninterrupted energy supplies from Central Asia, especially in the face of further increases in tensions with the United States, as well as a developed plan for a sea blockade of the coast of China. Trying to beat out competitors, the Chinese are suing the courts, challenging the licenses granted to Canadians.

So, in May, the Canadian Stans Energy Corp. announced that the Chinese company Hongbo Baotou is trying to challenge the right to develop the Kuttisay field in Kyrgyzstan 2, in which 1960 – 1991 mined around 80% of rare-earth metals in the USSR.

Japan entering Central Asia is also trying to provide itself with resources. And here the Japanese have two priority activities. The first is the provision of uranium, from which Japan was cut off. After the termination of the HEU-LEU program, which provides a substantial share of the US needs for nuclear fuel, it is necessary to increase uranium mining.

Canada and Australia can become the main suppliers of uranium ores, but it is extremely difficult to quickly increase production rates. Consequently, the main priority for deliveries will be secretly received by the USA. Japan, on the other hand, risks experiencing the consequences of a uranium “famine”. In addition, the Japanese industry is very dependent on the supply of rare earth metals, which receives mainly from China. Wanting to reduce the cost of raw materials and reduce dependence on China, the Japanese will try to maximize their presence in Central Asia.

Naturally, no one takes into account the interests of the peoples of the Central Asian republics.

Without sovereignty and union - no way

In fact, almost all the republics of the region, with the possible exception of Kazakhstan, do not have real sovereignty, and therefore are not able to defend their interests, controlling the activities of mining companies.

Chinese and Anglo-Saxon corporations, entrenched in the region before all, are actively working with national elites, courts and NGOs, trying to defend their interests as much as possible. Thus, foreign mining companies destabilize the republics in which they operate by buying officials of various ranks and levels.

At the same time, almost all foreign investors are engaged in fraud, because the main interest of such structures is to get super-profits. In addition, competing between themselves and the republican elites, these structures inevitably involve the masses in political struggle, sometimes creating bizarre organizations, whether they are Kyrgyz special detachments of women or Mongolian nazi defenders of nature.

And again the main enemies of the Central Asian republics are their national elites. For example, former Kyrgyz president Askar Akayev "presented" the gold-bearing Kumtor to Canadians, and his colleague Kurmanbek Bakiyev gave the Ishtamberdi deposit to the Chinese for a pittance, having underestimated the volume of gold almost four times.

The governments of the national republics are not able to independently bring order to the mining sector of their economies. Perhaps the only way out of this situation is to restore the sovereignty of the countries of the region, which is impossible without participation in Eurasian integration. Only after the restoration of the sovereignty of the republics will it be possible to terminate contracts with foreign corporations.

I believe that as the Customs Union is strengthened and the Eurasian Formation is formed, it is worth considering the possibility of creating an allied mining company, endowing it with the powers to extract minerals in the territory of the association.

Otherwise, the residents of the republics in the medium term risk finding themselves without means of subsistence, but with devastated subsoil, deep pits and immense dumps of waste rock.
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  1. Sirocco
    Sirocco 30 July 2013 05: 59 New
    +3
    And again, the main enemies of the Central Asian republics are their national elites. For example, the former Kyrgyz president Askar Akayev “presented” Canadians with a gold-bearing “Kumtor”
    So to speak, Loot the loot.))) In my personal experience, the main enemies in the face of (the Elite) are common. Living by the principle, the day has passed and fuck with it.
    1. AVV
      AVV 30 July 2013 10: 35 New
      +2
      Russia and the countries of the Customs Union, we must act more strictly in the post-Soviet space !!! On, then the Anglo-Saxons and collapsed the Soviet Union to rob the former Soviet republics !!!
  2. vitek1233
    vitek1233 30 July 2013 06: 10 New
    +3
    In any case, the bowels of the earth will be devastated unless they annihilate each other earlier in the struggle for resources
  3. andrejwz
    andrejwz 30 July 2013 06: 56 New
    +2
    How Russian should I be outraged? Now, if Russian oligarchs with Jewish surnames stuffed their pockets in Asia, then it’s the matter. Yes?
    1. stroporez
      stroporez 30 July 2013 09: 24 New
      +5
      never outraged ....... in 1989 they yelled "Urus I am your mother ........ dad ................." in short relatives. from nehay now amersky pussy will use ----- rightly .........
      1. a52333
        a52333 30 July 2013 09: 50 New
        +5
        Yes exactly. I also heard this version: go to Russia. there’s no sense in you; you don’t pick cotton.
  4. The gentleman
    The gentleman 30 July 2013 08: 56 New
    -6
    In fact, almost all the republics of the region, with the possible exception of Kazakhstan, do not have real sovereignty, and therefore are not able to defend their interests, controlling the activities of mining companies.
    Well, regarding this promise I do not agree. what is the real sovereignty? when almost the entire country belongs to the Russian Federation, when there is no control by the state. when some areas do not obey the center at all? put a minus article, because no analysis is presented. the fact that investments are going is MEO and IEP, i.e. when investors come into the country, is that bad?
    1. a52333
      a52333 30 July 2013 09: 58 New
      +4
      Investor investor discord: there is an investor who built a modern plant (factory) for the production (processing), for example, agricultural products. Yes, that's great.
      And there are (mostly) predators. Without investing money in long-term and low-paying projects, ignoring the requirements for ecology and reclamation, just like a tick, it sticks and falls off when it is full. An example of Sakhalin-1 and 2. (By the way, thank God, we kicked out such investments)
      1. The gentleman
        The gentleman 30 July 2013 12: 54 New
        +1
        Quote: a52333
        Investor investor discord: there is an investor who built a modern plant (factory) for the production (processing), for example, agricultural products. Yes, that's great.
        And there are (mostly) predators. Without investing money in long-term and low-paying projects, ignoring the requirements for ecology and reclamation, just like a tick, it sticks and falls off when it is full. An example of Sakhalin-1 and 2. (By the way, thank God, we kicked out such investments)

        all right, predators are at the core, but they have money and equipment that can at least somehow enrich the budget
    2. washi
      washi 30 July 2013 12: 46 New
      +2
      What kind of investment? If they themselves carried out exploration, built nearby cities, processing enterprises, then well done. But to come to the ready, created and explored under the USSR, and engage in robbery?
      1. The gentleman
        The gentleman 30 July 2013 12: 50 New
        0
        Quote: Vasya
        What kind of investment? If they themselves carried out exploration, built nearby cities, processing enterprises, then well done. But to come to the ready, created and explored under the USSR, and engage in robbery?

        Well, first declare, read about investments. secondly, investors do not just go that way, which means that the state itself does not have the corresponding relics for carrying out any activity.
        I agree, Everything was prepared back in the USSR, but you know where the USSR is now (do not think that I am against the unification of countries), it is not there and each country goes its own way. Yes, little depends on the majority, but those who could do it have power receive...
    3. Essenger
      Essenger 30 July 2013 13: 30 New
      +7
      Quote: Gentleman
      when almost the entire country belongs to the Russian Federation, when there is no state control. when some areas do not obey the center at all?

      Let's facts, which area does not obey the center? And what does it mean that it belongs to Russia?
      1. hommer
        hommer 30 July 2013 14: 09 New
        +3
        Quote: Gentleman
        when almost the whole country belongs to the Russian Federation, when there is no state control. when some areas do not obey the center at all?

        Quote: Essenger
        Let's facts, which area does not obey the center?


        I can’t even imagine how some region of Kazakhstan will not submit to Astana.
        Gentleman, the vertical of power is quite rigid. And the fact that you write that the country belongs to the Russian Federation is generally nonsense. Another thing is that the interests of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation very often coincide.
        But if something does not suit the Republic of Kazakhstan, then the position is upheld and a reasonable compromise is sought. No tantrums with outputs, inputs to the Collective Security Treaty Organization, etc.
  5. nerd.su
    nerd.su 30 July 2013 10: 09 New
    +2
    The governments of the national republics are not able to independently bring order to the mining sector of their economies. Perhaps the only way out of this situation is to restore the sovereignty of the countries of the region, which is impossible without participation in Eurasian integration. Only after the restoration of the sovereignty of the republics will it be possible to terminate contracts with foreign corporations.

    Enter the Customs Union and we will help you move from West China bondage to ours. Cynical, but honest. And generally correct.

    I believe that as the Customs Union is strengthened and the Eurasian Formation is formed, it is worth considering the possibility of creating an allied mining company, endowing it with the powers to extract minerals in the territory of the association.

    Here I am generally in favor, but I’m not sure that such an arrogantly expressed proposal will be accepted, the east is a delicate matter. Brides without rams can not get ...
    1. Yeraz
      Yeraz 30 July 2013 11: 21 New
      +4
      Quote: bot.su
      Enter the Customs Union and we will help you move from West China bondage to ours. Cynical, but honest. And generally correct.

      Well, actually the same Anglo-Sankson campaigns also feel comfortable in the Russian Federation and also export a lot of capital abroad. So, nothing will change.
    2. washi
      washi 30 July 2013 12: 49 New
      -2
      Sorry, but the Russians conducted geological exploration and preparatory work. And these came to everything ready.
      Again there were enterprises of union and republican significance. On what basis was the privatization of enterprises of national importance carried out?
  6. Forget
    Forget 30 July 2013 10: 25 New
    +6
    Kazakhstan would not hurt to start industrialization, it is primarily metallurgy and engineering ....
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 30 July 2013 23: 34 New
      +6
      Forget it, kage is already in full swing industrialization program. Since 2003, the first program was launched, and now a new program is underway. And quite successful. The main task is to move away from the raw material orientation, because it is no secret that the industry of the Kazakh SSR was actually a raw material, and the few enterprises of the non-raw material sector threatened the 90s.
      Today, plants open every other day (literally). You can be ironic over the Peter and Paul Biochem (which turned out to be a fraud of Russian businessmen) or over the screwdriver assembly of car factories (although keep in mind that there are programs to increase localization), but industrialization is in full swing.
      Export of industrial products is growing steadily. Of the interesting events, one can note the supply of 1 million car batteries to China, as well as contracts for the supply of Astana locomotives to Tajikistan and the Baltic states.
  7. Rainfair
    Rainfair 30 July 2013 11: 28 New
    -1
    And let them rob, they themselves chose this path leaving the USSR !!!
    1. The gentleman
      The gentleman 30 July 2013 12: 51 New
      +3
      Quote: RainFair
      And let them rob, they themselves chose this path leaving the USSR !!!

      and who left? Do you yourself understand what you’re talking about? After all, those who organized the collapse came out first, and the rest expected that everything might be okay. But it turned out not ...
    2. Yeraz
      Yeraz 30 July 2013 13: 31 New
      +4
      Quote: RainFair
      And let them rob, they themselves chose this path leaving the USSR !!!

      haha)) they left themselves)) Finally, 3 Slavic friends decided to disperse and they did not ask anyone else.
  8. Nick_1972
    Nick_1972 30 July 2013 12: 08 New
    0
    The beginning of the article is a bit unclear. Why is japam uranium? After Fukushima, they covered their nuclear plants away from sin and are actively switching to LNG. And here is direct passion for Central Asian uranium. Some kind of inconsistency.
    1. The gentleman
      The gentleman 30 July 2013 12: 53 New
      +2
      Quote: Nick_1972
      The beginning of the article is a bit unclear. Why is japam uranium? After Fukushima, they covered their nuclear plants away from sin and are actively switching to LNG. And here is direct passion for Central Asian uranium. Some kind of inconsistency.

      uranium has always been needed not only for the creation of weapons. uranium also allows other areas to be developed, and given that the japan is a developed state, we need to look for raw materials in order to continue to comply
  9. Standard Oil
    Standard Oil 30 July 2013 13: 25 New
    +1
    Well, they didn’t want to be republics, now they are colonies, soon many state-republics of the former USSR, although I would call them pseudo-states, the elite bought by mega-corporations and separately ordinary people living in poverty and completely powerless will be scattered and luxurious. Did you want sovereignty? Eat as much as you want. Do you want capitalism? Yes, pour it in now. Didn’t want to work for “damned Russia”? Well, now you will work for: USA, China, Japan, Germany, Canada, France ... whoever snaps more will not like the slave owner and at will They won’t come to persuade the Soviet police, humanely asking to disperse, no, the purchased authorities will have detachments of mercenaries who are wiped in the toilet by the conventions "On Human Rights", any rabble from all over the world, they will throw a couple of grenades into the crowd of protesters, and shoot enough to the music, and then grabbing a couple of girls, for fun, which they later shoot, they will drive away. Do not believe that this will happen?
    1. Yeraz
      Yeraz 30 July 2013 13: 36 New
      +4
      Quote: Standard Oil
      Well, they didn’t want to be republics, now they are colonies,

      Immediately 2 errors in one sentence.
      Firstly, the Soviet Union did not destroy these republics, but specifically 3 SLAVIC !!
      Secondly, why did they become all colonies ?? The same western companies are actively involved in the development of Russian deposits and are also actively exporting capital, like the Russian campaigns themselves. So, I don’t see something distinctively.
      Quote: Standard Oil
      Did you want sovereignty?

      Would you like 3 friends to remind where are they from ?? Or do you recall the results of the referendum, where all Muslim republics were against, the Armenians ignored the referendum, etc. What books did you study ??
      1. Standard Oil
        Standard Oil 30 July 2013 13: 52 New
        +1
        No, they didn’t become colonies, and they are full-fledged prosperous states, aren’t you funny yourself? From the Russian territory we will shoot them all out soon, for you should know at what time they came to Russia and who let them in. But from all sorts of n Nobody will leave the “independent” republics until they are gutted cleanly, and in some places the Chinese and fellow countrymen have squeezed them out for debts, nothing is wrong. And I studied from the textbooks that I put on the table at 95, or rather I even had to buy some. Yes, and the story is official textbook, this is not the truth, the truth is, right before your eyes.
        1. Yeraz
          Yeraz 30 July 2013 19: 48 New
          +3
          Quote: Standard Oil
          No, they did not become colonies, and they are full-fledged prosperous states, aren't you funny yourself?

          Well, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are still fine, BUT Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan are certainly not colonies.
          Quote: Standard Oil
          And the story according to the official textbook, this is not the truth, the truth is right here before your eyes.

          I know and know perfectly well that in Azerbaijan everyone was against leaving the USSR, but then the deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia began in 1987 and Moscow did not say anything, then the Karabakh people started and sang nifig and then it turned into black January and now everyone was real against the USSR.
    2. abdrah
      abdrah 31 July 2013 03: 27 New
      +1
      +, I believe. 41 years old. salvation-put the oligarchs, to analyze the stolen nationalities, to abolish the moratorium on executions, put the economy on a mobilization track, and only then can we survive and survive.
  10. Yeraz
    Yeraz 30 July 2013 13: 46 New
    +4
    A referendum on this issue was held in the RSFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Belorussian SSR, the Uzbek SSR, the Azerbaijan SSR, the Kirghiz SSR, the Tajik SSR, the Turkmen SSR, in the republics that are part of the RSFSR, the Uzbek SSR and the Azerbaijan SSR, in the Abkhaz ASSR, which is part of Georgian SSR, as well as in the districts and in the areas formed by Soviet institutions and in military units abroad.

    In the Kazakh SSR, voting at a referendum of the USSR was held on a question formulated by the Supreme Council of the Republic: "Do you consider it necessary to preserve the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as a Union of Equal Sovereign States". At the same time, the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Kazakh SSR formally requested that the voting results be included in the general results of the USSR referendum.



    In the six union republics (Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Georgia, Moldova, Armenia), which had previously declared independence or the transition to independence, an all-union referendum was not actually held. The authorities of these republics did not form the Central Election Referendum Commissions, but some of the citizens living on the territory of these republics were still able to vote. A number of local Soviets of people's deputies, labor collectives and public associations at enterprises, institutions and organizations, as well as the command of military units, guided by paragraphs 3 and 5 of the resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On the implementation of the resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the organization and measures to ensure the holding of a referendum USSR March 17, 1991, "independently formed the constituencies and districts, district and precinct commissions registered by the Central Referendum Commission of the USSR. The referendum also took place in Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Transnistria and Gagauzia.

    The Central Referendum Commission of the USSR established that the vast majority of citizens favored maintaining the union state in an updated form.

    According to the commission on the USSR Union as a whole: 185 647 355 people were included in the lists of citizens eligible to participate in the referendum of the USSR; 148 574 606 people, or 80% percent, took part in the vote. Of these, they answered: “Yes” 113 512 812 people, or 76,4%; “No” - 32 people, or 303%; Void - 977 21,7 2 ballots, or 757%.

    In the RSFSR, 105 643 364 people were included in the voting lists; 79 701 169 (75,44%) participated in the vote. Of these, “Yes” answered 56 (860% of those participating, 783% of voters), “No” - 71,34 (53,82%). 21 030 753 ballots were declared invalid.

    In the Ukrainian SSR, "Yes" answered 70,2%; in the Byelorussian SSR - 82,7%; in the Uzbek SSR - 93,7%; in the Kazakh SSR - 94,1%; in the Azerbaijan SSR - 93,3%; in the Kyrgyz SSR - 94,6%; in the Tajik SSR - 96,2%; in the Turkmen SSR - 97,9%.

    RIA Novosti http://ria.ru/history_spravki/20110315/354060265.html#ixzz2aWLdUBLq
    1. abdrah
      abdrah 31 July 2013 03: 38 New
      +1
      If the majority voted FOR, the Union must be preserved. Democratic values ​​and patterns of tolerance help us!
  11. knn54
    knn54 30 July 2013 14: 53 New
    +2
    On earth, the whole human race
    One idol worships
    He is the real king of the universe
    That idol Taurus is golden

    We are always out of phase
    People of different faiths and countries
    Fighting in frenzied ecstasy
    multiplying capital!

    Multiplying capital!
    People are dying for the metal!

    People are dying for the metal!
    For the metal!
    Satan rules the ball
    The ball rules here!

    This idol is from time immemorial
    Our souls despised
    Taunting Cheats
    He is the holy law of heaven

    For the sake of the damned gold
    Edge to edge goes war
    And human blood by the river
    On the blade flows Bulat!

    People are dying for the metal!
    People are dying for the metal!

    Satan rules the ball
    The ball rules here!
    People are dying for the metal!
    For the metal!

    People are dying for the metal!
    Satan rules the ball
  12. Kazbek
    Kazbek 30 July 2013 20: 00 New
    +4
    Quote: Standard Oil
    Well, they didn’t want to be republics, now they are colonies, soon many state-republics of the former USSR, although I would call them pseudo-states, the elite bought by mega-corporations and separately ordinary people living in poverty and completely powerless will be scattered and luxurious. Did you want sovereignty? Eat as much as you want. Do you want capitalism? Yes, pour it in now. Didn’t want to work for “damned Russia”? Well, now you will work for: USA, China, Japan, Germany, Canada, France ... whoever snaps more will not like the slave owner and at will They won’t come to persuade the Soviet police, humanely asking to disperse, no, the purchased authorities will have detachments of mercenaries who are wiped in the toilet by the conventions "On Human Rights", any rabble from all over the world, they will throw a couple of grenades into the crowd of protesters, and shoot enough to the music, and then grabbing a couple of girls, for fun, which they later shoot, they will drive away. Do not believe that this will happen?
    This is Kazakhstan a pseudo-state, but look at yourself, the mess is no less than ours.
  13. Marek Rozny
    Marek Rozny 30 July 2013 23: 39 New
    +5
    I did not understand the author’s phrase that supposedly Rosatom is a monopolist in uranium mining in Kazakhstan. Uh, what the hell is that? We are producing uranium from the state-owned company KazAtomProm with subsidiaries, some of which are joint ventures with Russians.