Military Review

Chef KGB tipping time

23
Army General Viktor Mikhailovich Chebrikov ... Today, hardly anyone from the younger generation of Russians knows who this man was and what he did for his homeland. A number of historians are inclined to think that if Mikhail Gorbachev had not replaced Viktor Chebrikov with Vladimir Kryuchkov at Lubyanka, the August events of 1991 most likely did not exist.


“GO AND DRINK AS FOLLOWS!”

Victor Chebrikov was born in 1923 in Yekaterinoslav. I managed to finish the first course of the metallurgical institute, and then the war broke out. “Of the fellow students, only two of us returned ...” - Victor Mikhailovich bitterly recalled half a century later. In the trenches, he got after accelerated courses Zhytomyr Military Infantry School. Not once looked death in the eye. He fought on the front line at Stalingrad, liberated Kharkov, participated in the battle of Kursk, crossed the Dnieper. Here, during the fighting, joined the party. The victory was met by a major, battalion commander in Czechoslovakia.

He rarely told anyone how in the middle of the war he got into a penalty. I walked around the posts, saw a trophy pistol from some of the soldiers, took inquiring what a thing was, and take the pistol and shoot it. The bullet seriously injured the officer. The culprit was convicted. “The penalty box had three ways: the first was to die, the second was to accomplish the feat, the third, the most unreal, was to survive. I chose the second path - I brought from the intelligence of the “tongue”: at night, crawled up to the enemy’s trench in the night, stunned the German. The conviction was lifted.

During the war was twice hard and once moderately wounded. Plus contusion and frostbite. The first award was the commander of the Order of Alexander Nevsky. In battles he “gained” another Order of the Red Banner and the medal “For Courage”.

After the war, he wanted to enter the Frunze Academy, but the medical board rejected it by sight. He returned to the city on the Dnieper, where he returned to college, married a classmate Zina. Chebrikov lived in a happy marriage for more than half a century. From 1950, he worked as an engineer at a metallurgical plant. Soon his business qualities and erudition were evaluated - they called in the district party committee to head the industrial department.

Working in the district committee and remaining a party organizer in his own factory, Chebrikov, within three years, together with the administration, took the company from the unprofitable to the profitable one. He did not get out of other factories, mines, construction sites. Probably, he was happy that he was involved in the visible large-scale changes that occurred in his small homeland. And when he was offered the post of first secretary of the Poltava (industrial) regional committee, he refused. After some time, they began to tempt him with the post of head of the industrial department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine. He was not deceived again. And in 1967, by the time he had been working as the second secretary of the regional committee for three years, he was suddenly summoned to Moscow. Believed, entrust any "missing" region in the expanses of a great country. But what was offered to him totally amazed him.

Secretary General Leonid Brezhnev took him closer to the night. The head of state was tense. Later Chebrikov found out that in front of him the assistants of Leonid Ilyich unsuccessfully fumbled one comrade to go to work in the KGB, but he flatly refused, and the secretary general decided to speak with another “challenger” himself.
“Here Yury,” as Brezhnev called Andropov in conversations, “was put on the KGB. Things are not so hot with us. It takes several people to strengthen the organs. "

“It’s as if I stuck to a chair,” Chebrikov recalled this conversation. - I say to the general with a parched throat: "Leonid Ilyich, excuse me, you may not be aware of, but I have never worked for the KGB." - “Did Yura ... did Comrade Andropov work?” That's it ... Nothing, you will master. You have a different experience: you fought, this is your first order — commander-in-chief! ”(He carefully studied my objective, with which I was sent to him). And then I agreed: “What kind of party will we be if the Communists refuse the instructions of the Secretary General of the Central Committee? I’ll work there! ”I see that he breathed a sigh of relief:“ Well done! ”I immediately spoke with Andropov, after which he said to me:“ Go to Andropov’s first entrance to the KGB tomorrow in 10 hours. Now go and have a good drink. ”

In the summer of 1967, the lieutenant colonel Chebrikov (he received this rank as a political worker) was again called up for service. 24 July he was given the rank of colonel, and 27 October of the same year made a major general. Subsequent higher officer ranks he received every five to six years.

Faithful Andropovets

Chebrikov had good relations with the new KGB chairman. The unpleasant incident due to the fact that Andropov misunderstood something at the beginning of their joint work happened only once, but was quickly exhausted, and more than this did not happen again.

Viktor Mikhailovich believed that Yuri Vladimirovich was a very large-scale figure, a wise man. “Not smart, but wise,” he stressed. “And well-read, very erudite: I followed all the novelties, read avidly.” He was a tough, but not directing subordinate fear, not a liberal, but a leader who believed that it was not always necessary to act with punitive methods: “Whatever they say now, but if it were not for Andropov’s firm position, people convicted by the KGB would would be much more. He wanted to work according to the law. Now you can argue what the laws were then - good or bad - but these were laws. Few people know that it was Yury Vladimirovich who broke through the resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR “On official warning” when the KGB was given the opportunity, without bringing people to justice, to lead them away from a crime. The emphasis was on prevention. ”

It was with the arrival of Andropov and the team chosen for him that the myths about the omnipotence of the KGB, total wiretaps, “Moscow’s long arm” appeared. Chebrikov also assesses that period: “I can say with confidence that the state security agencies worked without extremes. We did not take suspicion right and left. ”

“It is necessary to understand that,” he also explained, “that the decisive word in everything at that time was behind the party, the Central Committee, the Politburo, the general secretary. The KGB is credited with an independent political role that the committee in my memory has never played. When solving some issues, we listened to our opinion, while others did not. For example, after the well-known events in Poland at the beginning of the 1980s, the question arose of bringing our troops there. Representatives of the security agencies were called to Brezhnev, as they say now. At first he accepted the military, and they, as I understood from their mood at the exit from his office, managed to win over the secretary general to his side. I entered last. He presented to him the committee’s opinion on the possible disastrous consequences for our country for such a decision: the economic, political and cultural boycott, for Poland is not Afghanistan, the West’s reaction will be much harsher. Brezhnev agreed with our opinion. But, I repeat, this was not always the case. ”

Chebrikov was, let's say, a product of his time. “Whatever may be said about this work now, it was the most important direction in the confrontation of the two systems,” he believed when he was retired long ago. “Our opponents spent enormous forces and resources to take the ideological core out of the Soviet system.”

“The large number of our agents among the creative intelligentsia in those years is greatly exaggerated,” Chebrikov said. - Those who really helped us, brought real benefits: with their help, it was possible to extinguish conflicts in groups that were the pride of the country on time - in the Bolshoi Theater, for example, in creative unions. I had to spend a lot of time and delve into affairs that are not directly related to state security. ”

In the KGB, valued by Andropov, Chebrikov made a brilliant career: he quickly moved forward, became deputy, and then first deputy chairman. In 1980, he was awarded the State Prize. For what? Viktor Mikhailovich told something about this: “As deputy chairman, I was in charge of the OTU — operational and technical management, where all the necessary equipment for our divisions was created, and I myself directed the creation of some very necessary and original devices. For one of them, the team of creators was awarded the State Prize ”.

SECRET HERO

Already after the death of Andropov, in 1985, Chebrikov was awarded the title Hero of Socialist Labor (not for some of his personal jubilee, as it was then). He never went into details about the circumstances of receiving a high award, explained in an interview at the end of 1990: “It was a secret decree. As well as about awarding the State Prize. Even now, I can't tell you about it. ”

In the same year, the new Secretary General, Mikhail Gorbachev, who was elected to the highest post in the country, not without significant support from Chebrikov, proclaimed restructuring. Those who were branded yesterday as “renegades” became “national heroes”, individuals who “suffered” the arrival of a long-awaited democracy, deputies. Researchers of that period note that in the conditions of endless political improvisations and rushings generated by the Kremlin, the work of the KGB was gradually disoriented. The chairman himself could no longer deal with intelligence matters in detail; it was difficult for him to digest both information flows coming from abroad and internal ones. He did not even have time to master the wisdom and subtleties of the international situation.
Indeed, Chebrikov’s colleagues of that time recall that their boss lost confidence and from the always calm and benevolent person at times turned into a hot-tempered and irritable.

Politburo member Yegor Ligachev talked about Chebrikov of that time, commenting on some evidence that the KGB chairman looked like a man constantly sullen and gloomy: “Well, what can you do, this character. He was a bit withdrawn, at first glance a somewhat stern, but calm, reliable person, and we all believed him. He did not look into Gorbachev’s mouth. He is one of the few who could and argue with due tact, try to convince and hold their line. "

In Gorbachev, Viktor Mikhailovich was disappointed about two years after the opening of gates of publicity. Later, he seemed to be offended by the last general secretary for lying shamelessly about the fact that he, the head of state, allegedly knew nothing about the use of troops in Tbilisi in 1989. “He still continues to assert this, in his memoirs he writes that when it all began, he was abroad, and then everything happened without his knowledge,” Chebrikov said a decade later after those tragic events. - In fact, I myself called him, reported the situation and requested sanction for the use of troops. And who, besides the Supreme Commander, could have given such an order ?! ”

“The architect of perestroika” Alexander Yakovlev (they called him an agent of influence) recalled the KGB chairman: “We differed with him in describing the dissident movement, his motives and actions ...” This apparently went to some extreme, and Gorbachev asked both members of the Politburo to explain. After work, the disputants met at the KGB safe house and “exchanged views” until four in the morning. Yakovlev argued that political persecution must stop, otherwise democratic transformations are impossible. Chebrikov, however, showed Yakovlev that there are quite a few activists who receive money from foreign special services for clearly anti-Soviet activities.

By October 1988, according to researchers, Gorbachev, who suspected the KGB of concealing important information, accused the head of the committee of “political blindness” and dismissed Chebrikov from the post of KGB chairman, and a year later he sent him to retire.

Chebrikov at that time was 66 years. He accepted the invitation of the singer and State Duma deputy Iosif Kobzon to work as the head of his guard. Of course, he did not walk with a holster under his arm and did not open the doors of the cars in front of the “boss”. Only advised. And Kobzon was probably flattered: how, then, the former head of the KGB himself guards him! Chebrikov's demise, which occurred on July 1 of the year 1999, caught this “private post”. Viktor Mikhailovich was buried at the Troekurovsky cemetery in Moscow.

“Is it possible to revive a secret service of the same order as the KGB of the times of Adropov?” Asked Chebrikov's journalists. He replied: “I think there will be no KGB in the previous volume. The main thing is that, despite all the difficulties, today's security officers could find their place, bring results in their work ... State security cannot play an independent role. But, as soon as the political line of the state becomes firm, there will be success in the fight against terrorism and other anti-state phenomena. A state without a strong intelligence service is doomed to certain death. ”
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  1. SCS
    SCS 22 May 2013 08: 05
    10
    if Mikhail Gorbachev had not replaced Viktor Chebrikov with Vladimir Kryuchkov in the Lubyanka, there would most likely have been no August events in 1991.

    what would be if-it's all a waste of time! this is what happened unfortunately! and the mixture of Chebrikov is apparently a consistent spotted step that cleared its way through the collapse of the country!
    1. Hudo
      Hudo 22 May 2013 08: 18
      +3
      Quote: SCS
      Chebrikov’s confusion is apparently a consistent spotted step that cleared its way through the collapse of the country!


      Chebrikov did not actively show himself in shattering the foundations of the USSR, because from 1982 to 1988 he was the head of the KGB from the bottom for three years with bald(I doubt what to put at the end of the sentence! or?)
      1. Atlon
        Atlon 22 May 2013 09: 12
        +3
        Not so long ago there was an article on VO about the "traitor" Adropov. How he "dragged" Gorbachev into power, how he consulted and collaborated with the CIA. The article was written seriously, with "evidence" and documents. With the testimony of contemporaries ... Now here's something completely different ...
        A reasonable question: WHERE IS THE TRUTH?
        1. adg76
          adg76 22 May 2013 11: 05
          +4
          We’ll find out the truth. Everything will be done to hide it. Those who ruined the country are well aware that when the state changes its course, the old values ​​are returned, they will simply be damned and destroyed.
          1. SCS
            SCS 22 May 2013 13: 10
            +2
            Quote: adg76
            Those who ruined the country are well aware that when the state changes its course, the old values ​​are returned, they will simply be damned and destroyed.

            they have already been cursed, but not yet destroyed ...!
          2. Nitup
            Nitup 22 May 2013 14: 44
            +1
            Of course, after all, many who then participated in the collapse and plunder of the country or their relatives are now in power and business and will in every way oppose the strengthening of Russia, because they understand that they will have to answer for their actions in the past.
        2. Hudo
          Hudo 22 May 2013 14: 01
          +5
          Quote: Atlon
          A reasonable question: WHERE IS THE TRUTH?


          USSR MILITARY MILITARY
          I, a citizen of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, joining the Armed Forces, take the oath and solemnly swear to be honest, brave, disciplined, watchful soldier, strictly keep military and state secrets, unconditionally fulfill all military regulations and orders of commanders and commanders.

          I swear to conscientiously study military affairs, to protect military and national property in every possible way and to be loyal to my People, my Soviet Homeland and the Soviet Government until the last breath.

          I am always ready, by order of the Soviet Government, to defend my Motherland — the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and, as a soldier of the Armed Forces, I swear to defend it courageously, skillfully, with dignity and honor, without sparing my blood and life itself to achieve complete victory over the enemies .

          If I violate my solemn oath, then let me suffer the harsh punishment of Soviet law, the general hatred and contempt of the working people.


          Citizen Chebrikov, occupying the post of Chairman of the State Security Committee for preliminary conspiracy, having violated the USSR Military Oath, discharged himself of his duties, indulged anti-state groups and agents of influence of foreign hostile states within the country. What caused grave consequences and the deaths of millions of people. These actions qualify as a CHANGE OF THE HOME.
        3. Interface
          Interface 23 May 2013 00: 07
          -1
          This is an informational diversion. You can falsify anything, documents - print and forge antique, and then show from a distance from the camera that this is supposedly a real document. Andropov created the world's most powerful intelligence agency and a state control body inside the USSR. We managed to expel the CIA agents from the GDR, almost completely from the USSR.
          As for Gorbachev, everything is clear here. He did only one thing in his life: to rivet great utopian ideas, but he did not know how to implement them. Everyone in him noted the "wonderful", "pretty", executive ", promising" leader, but that's all he was capable of. In short, he brilliantly threw dust in his eyes. And Andropov wanted to replace Brezhnev, so he took the inexperienced, but faithful.
  2. Jurkovs
    Jurkovs 22 May 2013 08: 12
    +2
    Such figures are very difficult to discuss and condemn, since the information necessary for this will never be fully declassified. The day before yesterday they showed about Gromyk on ORT, it turned out from his words that if he and Chebrikov did not support Gorbachev at the Politburo, then according to the balance of power, another person would become General Secretary (possibly Romanov), they chose the lesser of two evils. They wanted the best, but it turned out as always.
    1. Fedya
      Fedya 14 December 2013 23: 50
      0
      Andropov called the globe to Moscow, and his authority was great and they believed him, but it was in vain.
  3. Hudo
    Hudo 22 May 2013 08: 15
    +2
    Recently. This is not the first article about Chebrikov. It is foolish to talk about merits, the person who was the head of the KGB (1982-88) if the KGB is a special service whose main responsibility is STATE SECURITY, this state has collapsed by its action and inaction, and there is no doubt that Chebrikov’s share in this collapse is without any doubt. This is the same if the unit did not fulfill the combat mission, which led to more than catastrophic consequences, then there is no reason to sing odes to the commander of this unit, and his past achievements along with the failure to fulfill the assigned task are highly leveled.
  4. Rus86
    Rus86 22 May 2013 08: 24
    +1
    current word "Motherland" should be written with a capital letter.
    the article is interesting. sorry, we lost time on all these "perestroika" and reforms. but our Motherland will be stronger and stronger! I believe and hope. (how can I help with this ??)
    1. iulai
      iulai 22 May 2013 13: 52
      0
      This will happen in 2025.
  5. vladimirZ
    vladimirZ 22 May 2013 08: 47
    +4
    Repeated article on the Chairman of the KGB Chebrikov.
    The main fault of Chebrikov and K. is that they could not resist the treacherous activity of Judas Gorbachev in the collapse of the USSR and socialism.
    No panageriki Chebrikov, no matter how good he is, will not restore his unsatisfactory work as the head of the KGB - the body ensuring state security. Article minus.
  6. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 22 May 2013 09: 29
    11
    The KGB did not fulfill its obligations to maintain the security of the USSR and now we have what we have. It’s sad ....
  7. pinecone
    pinecone 22 May 2013 10: 29
    +5
    I did not know that this "chick of Andropov's nest" went to the guards to Kobzon. I read it and felt sick. These are the ones who missed the country.
    1. omsbon
      omsbon 22 May 2013 11: 03
      +3
      Quote: pinecone
      went to the guards to Kobzon. I read, and it became sick

      I agree with you completely! Unpleasant sediment.
      1. iulai
        iulai 22 May 2013 13: 55
        0
        It turns out Kobzon decided to mock the KGB, avenged all the Zionists.
    2. Atlon
      Atlon 22 May 2013 12: 24
      +1
      Quote: pinecone
      went to the guards to Kobzon.

      At first he could not resist the Jewish conspiracy to break up the USSR, and then he was hired as a guard (as a reward?) For a not-so-powerful Jew ... An abomination ...
    3. Drosselmeyer
      Drosselmeyer 22 May 2013 12: 31
      +1
      Well that's what they called it. But in fact, he went to advise crime, to help crime with his extensive connections. I would not be surprised that the bodies were sent to such work as a curator. Here is such a rebirth of the hero of the war veteran.
  8. Drosselmeyer
    Drosselmeyer 22 May 2013 12: 27
    +2
    The author of the article does not understand that the top leadership of the KGB dragged Gorbachev and Co. to power and directly contributed to the collapse of the USSR. The KGB needed to get rid of annoying party control and take power into its own hands, burying the ideas of communism. Look who is in power in Russia now. The idea of ​​liberation from the party and rapprochement with the West was still in Yagoda's apparatus and was never strangled by Stalin.
    For example, we know that when German soldiers died in batches at Stalingrad, the Abwehr leadership had contact with Western intelligence and discussed plans for post-war Germany after its defeat. We know this because the Third Reich has been destroyed and the archives are more or less open. But who can guarantee that the KGB did not hold such meetings to discuss the future of "independent Russia" during the Soviet era?
  9. Iraclius
    Iraclius 22 May 2013 15: 16
    +2
    The more I study the materials on the leaders of the last years of the USSR, the more I understand with all the obviousness - then there simply were no people left in the law enforcement agencies who were capable of decisive steps.
    To Chebrikov, as a person, I do not feel anything negative. But, my! - He himself admits that in this work he is a complete amateur!
    There are so many nuances in the work of the office that a person without appropriate training and education, who did not work in operational positions, but who was appointed from a party post, is purely administrative! - maybe something to steer there.
    And such a situation is developing in almost every area.
    Management in every possible way got rid of initiative and energetic people.
    You look, it seems that a respectable person, dear, went through the war ... But you start to delve into and understand that he was not only not able to work in his current position, but also everyones prevented him.
    Alas, the office, which in essence should be the defender and support of the state, failed miserably with its task. Now we disentangle.
    Well, Chebrikov’s civil position after dismissal is visible to the naked eye. To exchange the post of the head of the KGB for the head of the singer’s guard is a shame for the country in the first place.
    1. Denis
      Denis 22 May 2013 21: 58
      +1
      Quote: Iraclius
      in this work he is a complete amateur!
      P. Sudoplatov was competent and experienced, just as they did with him. To see the place of the chairman is needed not an expert, but an experienced party apparatchik. An effective manager as of today
  10. knn54
    knn54 22 May 2013 19: 06
    +4
    It seems that the last PROFESSIONAL is L.P. Beria.
  11. rexby63
    rexby63 22 May 2013 21: 18
    +1
    accused the head of the committee of "political blindness"


    In-in. Here I agree with the Tagged
  12. Quartermaster
    Quartermaster 22 May 2013 23: 31
    -1
    very, very ambiguous figure.