Military Review

Myths and reality of the national astronautics

25
Myths and reality of the national astronauticsSpace development has always been the subject of special attention not only to the government of the USSR, but also to the world community in alliance with the press and other media. And after 12 on April 1961, the first flight of the Vostok satellite rocket with a man on board into outer space took place, interest in this topic grew to an extraordinary size.


Just a day after the flight of Gagarin, 14, the Presidium of the Supreme Council established one of the most honorary titles of the Soviet period, the USSR Pilot-Cosmonaut. According to archived data for all history the existence of Soviet cosmonautics, that is, until the end of 1991, the seventy-two astronauts were awarded the newly established title, the first of which, of course, was Yury Gagarin. And the latest in this glorious 10 list of October 1991 of the year, with the number 72, was Toktar Aubakirov, who flew on the Mir orbital complex.


With the advent of the first people who had the opportunity to see our Earth from outer space, fantastic legends and fictitious stories began to be born everywhere, tales, often based on completely unrelated circumstances, and sometimes simply not having any rational basis. The birth of the myths around these heroic personalities, as well as programs for the exploration of near-Earth space, was greatly facilitated by the situation of the strictest secrecy, which for obvious reasons always surrounded and surrounds the space developments and all the people involved. And the more access to the mysterious information gets humanity, the more unthinkable become stories. And once broken by experts in tatters, flimsy stories have a peculiarity to come back with time, once again disturbing the restless public, so eager for sensations.

The most popular tale widely publicized by foreign media was the version that Gagarin is far from the very first cosmonaut of our planet. The purpose of such writing during the years of “cold” confrontation was to completely blacken our space projects, which achieved tremendous success. The peak of this crazy theory was the corresponding entry in the Guinness Book of Records of the 1964 year of publication, where Vladimir Ilyushin, the son of a famous designer, was named as the first person to fly into space.

The story of the brave pilot, who in reality was not even a member of the first astronaut corps, was complemented by the horrific facts of his death. According to one version, the tragedy occurred due to a malfunction during the flight, according to another - the pilot survived and managed to land in China, where he was captured and tortured for many months, from which he died without giving out any state secrets. This extravagant version was first publicized at the beginning of April 1961 year through the mouth of the English press, and then, right up to the nineties, was overwhelmed with a lot of details and corrections. However, the fact is that in the 1959 year, Vladimir Ilyushin set a world record for a dynamic ceiling on a combat aircraft, which was about twenty-five thousand meters high. For which he subsequently received the Hero of the Soviet Union. And in China in the summer of 1960, Ilyushin was actually in a completely different reason. There he underwent treatment, restoring health after a car accident, and not at all after a space flight. And the pilot died at the age of eighty-two, in the 2010 year.

In addition to the diploma from the highest state body of our country, each "Pilot-Cosmonaut" was given a special silver badge, which the pilot should have worn on the right side of the jacket over the available honorary awards, if any. Each sign had a serial number that corresponded to the serial number of the cosmonaut himself.


Unfortunately, the myth of Vladimir Ilyushin was far from the only one among his likes. There are a number of people who, in the opinion of foreign journalists, were launched into space for certain death long before Gagarin, who remained unknown due to the failure of the ultimate goal of their mission. In the sixties, the Western press even provided detailed lists with specific names. The most incredible of them were based on data obtained in 50-s from two eccentric radio amateurs, Italians by nationality, who allegedly miraculously managed to intercept snippets of negotiations of the Soviet cosmonauts with the MCC. Quotes of these conversations received a wide response in the Italian press. Already at the end of the last century, in the heyday of the national criticism of the Soviet era and its leadership, this topic was overgrown with fresh “facts” and “evidence”. It is not necessary to load readers with a list of names indicating the dates and reasons why the fake cosmonauts suffered accidents and died. None of these proposed stories often involving, by the way, real-life people had any reliable documentary evidence. Researchers and historians have found that of the many names given, five were ordinary ground-based technicians who never flew into space, the sixth was a famous parachutist, and the seventh was a distinguished test pilot. References to the remaining astronauts, suicide bombers were not found in any database. These invisible people were never born, never studied or lived. All this suggests the idea that their personalities were simply invented.

Absolutely ordinary circumstances could have been the basis for this kind of conjecture about the dead astronauts launched into flight even before Gagarin. Members of the flight maintenance team said that during the tests that preceded the direct launch of a man into space, animals were sent to the sky, as well as human dummies made of dark rubber. Having discovered such contents of the spacesuit after landing, any person who was not privy to the details of the process, including the soldiers from the cordons around the cordon, could well have thought that they were seeing the pilot's charred body. Then this “discovery” turned into a new legend, re-told from mouth to mouth and generously supplemented by details by another narrator. Later, in order to avoid incidents, the “face” of the phantom began to attach the inscription “Layout” in order not to shock the local public, who often found the pseudo corpse first and even helped transport it to the base.

The breastplate "Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR" is made in the form of a pentagon with a convex rim. At its center is an image of our planet with the territory of the Soviet Union, highlighted in red. The satellite’s golden orbit together with the satellite itself surrounds the globe. From the asterisk denoting the capital of our Motherland, another golden orbit emerges, which is a plume from an aircraft heading into outer space. In the upper part of the sign, the inscription “Pilot-cosmonaut” was written in gold letters, and in the lower part - “USSR” and two golden laurel twigs. On the back is stamped number of the award. With the aid of the handle and the ear, the sign is connected to a plank covered with a red ribbon. On the back side of the strap there is a threaded pin and a nut for fastening the entire structure on clothes.


Other, no less crazy theories surround the mystery of the death of the first cosmonaut and his teammate Seregin 27 in March 1968, when their plane crashed after falling on the territory of the Vladimir region.

There were plenty of “amateur” versions. Some science fiction writers stubbornly asserted that this was due to the intrigues of hostile alien aliens who had eliminated an earthling dangerous to them. Another group of "researchers" put forward the assumption that the plane hit the jet of another aircraft or collided with a weather probe. According to the rescuers who visited the crash site, they found the cut-off parachute slings of one of the pilots. The parachute itself, by the way, was not originally found. Thus was born the version of sabotage, prepared by KGB officers or foreign intelligence agents. But the secret of the missing parachute was much simpler and more ordinary. The locals who had arrived at the scene of the accident before the rescue team decided that a huge piece of fabric lying in the forest would be very useful for them.

Another version that is extremely offensive to the memory of the fallen astronauts contains data on numerous celebrations and tumultuous feasts that preceded their flight and were accompanied by abundant libations. Proponents of this theory claim that Gagarin and Seregin were drunk at the time of the last flight, and therefore could not adequately react to the emergency situation that had arisen. People who are at least somewhat familiar with the “cosmic kitchen” in response to such nonsense simply shrug their shoulders, and when asked about what really happened in reality, they speak about the possibility of the existence of several options at once. Which of the problems that could lead to depressurization of the cockpit of the aircraft, took place in reality, perhaps, no one will know.

Among domestic space pilots there are not only men. The signs “Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR” were marked by Svetlana Savitskaya and Valentina Tereshkova, and the sign “Pilot-Cosmonaut of the Russian Federation” was awarded to the future deputy of the State Duma of Russia - Elena Kondakova.


Another stupid myth connected with the “cosmic” family union between Valentina Tereshkova and Andriyan Nikolayev should be noted, some of whom were considered experimental objects in a secret program on “selective mating” and the birth of children conceived in space.

Fables for couples fables travel the world from the day of their wedding, planted by the father on which he was N.S. Khrushchev. It was precisely this that apparently brought the inhabitants to the idea of ​​the secrecy and importance of this “association”. None of them could have imagined that free young people who served in the same detachment and communicated with each other every day could simply like each other without any "lofty goals."

It became even harder for astronauts after their daughter was born. Omnipresent journalists, and often simply “well-wishers”, did not allow her to pass, wanting to look at the little girl, who was credited with various supernatural abilities, physical disabilities, and even deformities. People really wanted to see her as a “cosmic child”, evidence of the upcoming new era. Small photographs depicting girls in a relaxed atmosphere did not convince the inhabitants. The circumstances of the breakup of this sensational marriage were filled with rumors. It is very boring for people to live without sensations, even if they are obvious fantasies.

By the way, confirmation of the fact that it was Yuri Alekseevich who was the first cosmonaut in the history of mankind can be given one case, told by people directly present on the launch pad before sending Gagarin into space. When a spacesuit was put on him, one of the assistants noticed that a certificate confirming his identity and that he was an astronaut of the Soviet Union was in the breast pocket of clothes under a protective suit. To get the document, if necessary, it was almost impossible. At the same time, someone remembered the incident after landing on the Soviet territory of one very famous foreign intelligence officer. Local peasants who discovered downed Francis Powers first, almost killed him in a fit of anger, rightly mistaken for an enemy spy. After that, a proposal was made to write the word “USSR” on the astronaut's helmet in large letters so that he could immediately understand who he was and what kind of blood. Before the very start, an employee of the Zvezda enterprise was manually inscribed, clearly visible from the screens of Soviet television receivers broadcasting the historic moment throughout the country. Proof of the authenticity of the story can serve as a simple comparison of the facts. When they showed the video of Gagarin's trip directly to the launch pad, everyone could see that there was no label on his helmet, whereas at the time of launch she was already present. Subsequently, on each space suit of astronauts, this abbreviation was applied in advance by industrial means.

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Law of the Russian Federation on March 20 of 1992 established a new title “Pilot-Cosmonaut of the Russian Federation” and, accordingly, a new badge on which the colors of the symbols were changed and the word “USSR” was replaced with the word “Russia”. The silhouette of the USSR red borders on the sign was replaced by the blue silhouette of the territory of Russia, and the red ribbon gave way to the three-color one in accordance with the colors of the flag of the newborn country. The astronauts who were presented to the rank began again to be designated from the first number that was assigned to 11 on August 1992 of the year only to Alexander Kaleri, who had returned from a space flight.


Over the half century that has passed since the first flight of a man to the stars, small and large, and sometimes very solid foreign publications have often resorted to slandering the achievements of Soviet cosmonautics, telling tales and stolen technologies, and about specialists who the USSR allegedly shamelessly used for their own purposes . There were stories of absolutely amazing imagination, such as the story of Spiegel magazine about Raoul Streicher, who stated that he had managed to visit near-earth orbit and make a revolution around the planet back in the distant 1945 year. In the West, he seriously claimed the laurels of the first cosmonaut. But, what else could an aging man devoid of attention come up with in his eighty-sixth year of life? Surprisingly, the German press seriously began to promote this topic, bringing it under certain historical facts.
In the cosmic domain, there are still an incredible variety of different mythical theories and fictional acts. However, most of them do not even deserve attention and are considered by historians only for the sake of establishing the authenticity of events, as well as with the goal of defending the bright memory and honor of people who have devoted their lives to space exploration and the solution of its endless secrets.

Information sources:
-http: //wiki.istmat.info/mif: gagarin_non_first_cosmonaut
-http: //nashivkosmose.ru/perviy_polet_v_kosmos.html
-http: //monetnii.ru/pzletkosmonavt.htm
-http: //www.astronet.ru/db/msg/1207758
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  1. dizelniy
    dizelniy April 14 2013 10: 04 New
    +1
    Photos posted by test pilot Mosolov.
  2. svp67
    svp67 April 14 2013 10: 36 New
    +3
    Где много тайн, там много мифов и ...желающих "примазаться"
    1. Russian
      Russian April 14 2013 12: 00 New
      +5
      But why cling to it, just then a wide information war was being waged against the USSR! In many industries, we were ahead of everyone, so they could not come to terms with it in any way, therefore they allowed all sorts of fables to denigrate our great achievements and inflated them to a universal scale. Eeeh, why only we never did that? We defend ourselves all the time, it’s time to finally go on the offensive on the information fields of war.
      This hatred towards us, they probably already have it at the genetic level, so all sorts of reboots and stuff, it's all tinsel, they do not calm down until they finally fragment us, and divide them. Therefore, you can listen to this heresy with a smile, but you always know that we have only two allies — the army and the navy.
      1. Suhov
        Suhov April 14 2013 14: 30 New
        +1
        Quote: р_у_с_с_к_и_й
        even then a wide information war was waged against the USSR!

        In those years, the Soviet Union was a powerful and well-functioning mechanism,
        sharpened by the result.
        Hence the success!
        Hence the pride!
        And the attitude to the West on the principle:
        The dog barks, the caravan is coming!
        hi
  3. vkusniikorj
    vkusniikorj April 14 2013 11: 01 New
    -9
    с детства увлекался фантастикой ,авторы соревновались в придумывании космических кораблей,моё воображение тоже от них не отставало. и вот я попадаю на выставку ВДНХ,какое меня ожидало разочарование увидев"космический корабль" "Союз".Пётр был скромнее ,ботик не назвал линкором,но флот построил.
    1. Suhov
      Suhov April 14 2013 17: 58 New
      +1
      Quote: vkusniikorj
      the authors competed in inventing spaceships,
      my imagination also lagged behind them


      Curious image,
      From which your imagination has lagged
      And what did it expect
      And why did it disappoint you?
      belay wassat

      Spring? Is the peasant triumphant?
      laughing
      1. vkusniikorj
        vkusniikorj April 15 2013 00: 52 New
        -6
        image speak? it’s just that the barrel I saw didn’t pull on the ship in any way! and if it were a boat three times, the kid who, by the will of the author flew to the Andromeda Nebulae, made the impression that makes you, the works of Oorfene Juce, minus me!
        1. El13
          El13 April 15 2013 15: 54 New
          0
          Such stupid guys who read about Oorfene Deuce and about flights to the Andromeda Fogs, but do not know what the Soviet space ship looks like in the USSR.
  4. svp67
    svp67 April 14 2013 11: 16 New
    +2
    Quote: vkusniikorj
    с детства увлекался фантастикой ,авторы соревновались в придумывании космических кораблей,моё воображение тоже от них не отставало. и вот я попадаю на выставку ВДНХ,какое меня ожидало разочарование увидев"космический корабль" "Союз".Пётр был скромнее ,ботик не назвал линкором,но флот построил.


    Вы просто увидели "спасательную шлюпку"... Хотя понять Вас можно...
  5. krokodil25
    krokodil25 April 14 2013 11: 42 New
    +4
    respectable foreign publications often resorted to denigrating the achievements of the Soviet cosmonautics, telling fables about stolen technologies and about specialists who the USSR allegedly shamelessly used for their own purposes.


    They would have looked at themselves without Von Braun. In general, hell would know when the mattresses would have flown !!!
    1. Alekseir162
      Alekseir162 April 14 2013 12: 02 New
      +3
      They would have looked at themselves without Von Braun. In general, hell would know when the mattresses would have flown !!!

      However, the first satellite was launched in the USSR and the first astronaut is also OUR, but the Americans did not somehow merge even with von Brown.
      1. krokodil25
        krokodil25 April 14 2013 12: 10 New
        0
        For Th minus then I did not understand ?!
        1. Alekseir162
          Alekseir162 April 14 2013 12: 23 New
          +1
          Sorry brother, it happened by accident.
  6. Suhov
    Suhov April 14 2013 11: 56 New
    11
    Most of the myths in the article are negative, the task of which is to denigrate the achievements of Soviet cosmonautics:

    In the half century that has passed since the first man’s flight to the stars, small and large, and sometimes very solid foreign publications often resorted to denigrating the achievements of the Soviet cosmonautics, telling tales of both stolen technologies and specialists that the USSR allegedly shamelessly used for their own purposes .


    True, there were sober people in the United States who understood that it was necessary to carefully study why the Russians were ahead of the Americans in space exploration. Someone in the United States rightly decided that the education system played a significant role in Soviet success. In the USSR, delegations of American teachers rushed to try to understand how Soviet schools work, what Soviet schoolchildren are studying.

    На обложке журнала "Лайф" были помещены две фотографии "первых учеников" двух школ - советской и американской.
    The American guy, who gained popularity in his school in sports battles, habitually smiled a broad smile at the photographer and looked like a movie star.
    Russian boy was an excellent student. He was in an unpretentious ear-flaps and, with no habit, squinted at the flash of the camera.
    From the contents of a large article, it follows that, although the young American was popular among the girls of the school, he knew only a minimum of what every Soviet schoolchildren knew, and significantly lagged behind the Soviet student of excellence shown on the cover.

    Education is the basis of any success! Never forget about it ...
    hi
  7. Klim
    Klim April 14 2013 13: 14 New
    +4
    In 1961 I was 12 years old and I remembered some kind of popular happiness and joy in those April days, everyone congratulated each other and were sure that in 10 years any Soviet person could fly into space. Since then, such pride that I was born in the USSR I wasn’t there. Maybe it’s just that childhood or something has changed in people, but since then I have never experienced such collective happiness in my life.
  8. Nayhas
    Nayhas April 14 2013 13: 31 New
    +4
    На западе, да и сейчас у нас в России существует множество "желтых изданий" регулярно пытающихся привлечь внимание читателя всяческим бредом. С наступлением эры интернета это только усилилось. Прочитайте полосу в самом низу этой страницы, тут тебе и угроза из Антарктики, и обнаружение учёными Росссии нечто неожиданного, и потрясающие факты из детства Иисуса... А по телевизору есть такой мистический канал... Стоит ли на это всё так озлобленно реагировать? Как будто вокруг американской космической программы нет подобных слухов? А сколько "открывателей" поживились на лунной программе? Зачем до этого опускаться?
  9. Jurkovs
    Jurkovs April 14 2013 13: 40 New
    +3
    Roscosmos needs to be open, then the ground for myths will disappear. And then the site of Roscosmos turned into a glossy picture, and the benefits are zero. Even a decent forum is not.
    1. TRAFFIC
      TRAFFIC April 14 2013 15: 36 New
      +1
      Especially when compared to the availability of information from NASA. sad
    2. Know-nothing
      Know-nothing April 14 2013 23: 32 New
      0
      Если интересно, у "Новостей космонавтики" хороший форум http://www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/forum/
  10. knn54
    knn54 April 14 2013 14: 04 New
    +2
    Венгерский писатель Немене, американец Джеймс Оберг "(Скрытые советские аварии"), итальянские ПРОСТЫЕ радиолюбители ( с уникальной р/аппаратурой «от ЦРУ»).поймавшие сигнал «SOS»…А то,что первый астронавт Алан Шепард во время СУБОРБИТАЛЬНОГО полета сообщил, что терпеть дольше нет сил, и пришла команда: «Делай это прямо в скафандр»… есть не миф,а реальность американской астронавтике
  11. Black
    Black April 14 2013 16: 21 New
    0
    That behind the hill was barking in our direction is nothing, we have a strong spring wind. it’s bad that almost all of this was voiced by us. AIF, MK tried very hard, and now a number of TV channels continue to sing along.
  12. kadette150
    kadette150 April 14 2013 19: 00 New
    +1
    А ещё наши уже российские кинематографисты сделали отличный фильм "Первые на луне".О том, что Советский Союз запустил человека на луну ещё до второй мировой войны, но из за неудачи программу закрыли и всё засекретили. Фильм псевдодокументальный, но так неплохо сделан, что когда его показывали на западе - там многие повелись и поверили, что фильм действительно документальный и что всё так в действительности и было. Всем очень советую найти в сети и посмотреть
    1. albert
      albert April 14 2013 22: 12 New
      0
      And the Yankees made the movie Capricorn-1 laughing fellow
  13. knn54
    knn54 April 14 2013 19: 54 New
    +7
    A student sits, takes a history exam. Suddenly he turns to a neighbor at the back desk and asks:
    - And in what year was serfdom abolished?
    The girl, busy answering her question, briefly answers:
    - In the 61st.
    The guy turns away. Thinking of something. Three minutes later, she turns back to her:
    - Wait, how is it? In the 61st, Gagarin flew into space!
    - Well yes. Probably, it was canceled in honor of this.
  14. воронов
    воронов April 14 2013 19: 55 New
    +1
    Interesting material, article +
  15. Simonov
    Simonov April 17 2013 14: 54 New
    0
    Gagarin really was the first.
    У нас в лаборатории работал дедок, которому пришлось встречать Гагарина непостредственно после полета. (!- Рассказываю все как слышал!) Выяснилась одна очень неприятная деталь, о которой никогда позже официально не рассказывали, т.к. ранее с этим не сталкивались ни на тренажерах ни на имитаторах невесомости. При старте организм космонавта испытывает невероятные перегрузки, а при выходе на орбиту внезапно наступает невесомость и содержимое кишечника оказывается в штанах. После первого такого опыта, все отправляемые в космос дважды проходят процедуру полного очищения кишечника - клизму. Изменилась и посадка космонавта - из почти вертикальной (как на авиакатапульте) стала "лежа на спине".
  16. Alex
    Alex 2 September 2013 10: 34 New
    +2
    Yes, from impotence and envy of which you can’t imagine. Interestingly, the Americans also have so many self-destructors, or is this just our phenomenon?