In the public mind there was an opinion that the Russian people underwent genocide only during the periods of the Civil War, collectivization, repression, and provoked famine. However, if we do not assume that genocide is the organized destruction of an ethnos only by physical means, by direct violence under the gun, then it turns out that the most crushing (for centuries!) Nation and state belong to the postwar period.
The following material is told that историяin which we live now. It shows how with the help of political and economic mechanisms the life of the Russian people was stifled, and with it the great state that he had prepared for death. At first glance, there is bewilderment, how could the authorities make decisions, obviously opposing the country's economic and political power? However, everything rises to “its” places if we recall the pronounced anti-Russian direction of the administrative mechanism that was created in 1917. With such a view on the problem, the only meaning of these “solutions” is easily revealed: the destruction of the assimilating potential of the Russian people, which it originally had. Then we will clearly see the former, contrary to any economy and national fortress of the state, the dominant vector: the genocide of the Russian people.
The work was written in the middle of 80-ies d. n G. I. Litvinova and was transferred to the most courageous, for those times, the only Russian magazine "Our Contemporary". However, the material was banned for publication, and the magazine did not sacrifice itself.
TO THE QUESTION OF NATIONAL POLICY
The prospects for the development of the USSR as a single multinational state require the strictest observance of the constitutional principle of equality of nations, the elimination of obstacles to the internationalization of the state and society. The privileges and benefits provided earlier to individual nations in order to ensure the priority pace of their development allowed in an unprecedentedly short period of time to solve the most important task in the field of national relations - the task of de facto equality of nations. With her decision, mainly towards the end of 30, there was no need for benefits. Their further preservation began to threaten the creation of new, actual inequalities: the previously backward peoples began to overtake the nations that were rendering them assistance. According to the results of the 1979 population census, among the nations that are distinguished by low (below the all-Union) indicators of security of the employed population with highly qualified specialists were Russians, Belarusians and the people of the Baltic States who had the highest literacy rates before the revolution. And among the peoples with the highest rates are the peoples of the Transcaucasus and Central Asia, who were distinguished by extremely low literacy rates before the revolution. The lowest indicators were in the economic regions located on the territory of the RSFSR: West Siberian, East Siberian, Ural, Volga-Vyatka, Central Black Earth, Volga.
These areas of high-industrial and fuel and energy importance are now provided by highly qualified specialists 3-5 times lower than the Georgian SSR. The national orientation of the training of scientific personnel is doubtful. In 1973, Russians and Belarusians had the lowest qualifications among Soviet scientists. They had the lowest percentage of people with advanced degrees. However, at 100 researchers there were graduate students: among Russians, 9.7 people; Belarusians - 13.4; Turkmen - 26.2; Kyrgyz - 23.8. This trend continues, reinforcing the new actual inequalities of nations.
The Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Turkmen and other peoples of the Asian part of the country, which had died out before the revolution, now have the highest natural population growth in the world, while Russians and Ukrainians, who had the highest natural population growth before the revolution, are now facing the threat of depopulation (extinction).
In all the Union republics, excluding the RSFSR, the proportion of the indigenous nation among students, postgraduates, researchers and managers, higher authorities and administration is higher than among the population, while as a rule the industrial working class is lower . The 1979 population census recorded an amazing phenomenon: the percentage of people with higher education among Tajiks living in the territory of their “own” republic is two times higher than among Tajiks living in the neighboring Uzbek SSR, although there they are also indigenous. "Second-rate" indigenous for Uzbekistan. Some other nations were in a similar position.
It seems appropriate to make changes to the budget and tax policy, as well as the procurement price policy, etc., which resulted in favorable conditions for decades for advancing rates of socio-economic development of previously backward nations in the framework of the relevant national statehood. So in 50, the incomes of the collective farmers of the Uzbek SSR were 9 times higher than in the RSFSR, and the cost of gross crop production for 1 workday at purchase prices in the Non-Chernozem zone was estimated at 10 times lower than in the Uzbek SSR and 15 times lower than in the Georgian SSR.
In 1960, the lowest natural population growth (in Estonia) differed from the highest (in Tajikistan) by 6; in 1975, this gap increased to 15, and in 1981, up to 22 times: the natural increase of the population of Latvia in 22 times less than in Tajikistan.
There has been an accelerating increase in the proportion of the population of the republics of Central Asia, Kazakhstan and the Transcaucasus as part of the population of the USSR and a drop in the proportion of the population of the Slavic and Baltic republics.
In most regions of the Non-chernozem zone of the RSFSR, the absolute population is also decreasing. Even 3-4 decades ago, the population of all the republics of Central Asia together was four times less than the population of the Ukrainian SSR. Today, this ratio has been preserved only among people of retirement age, while the younger generation (children and adolescents) have become equal in number. This means that in the next one and a half to two decades, the population of the republics of Central Asia will become equal, and then it will quickly begin to outpace the population of Ukraine, since among newborns this superiority already exists.
The population of the republics of Central Asia, which was recently inferior in terms of the number of RSFSR by more than 10 times, today maintains this gap only among pensioners, while the number of children and adolescents differs only 2.8 times. And all these huge changes occurred during the life of one generation.
It is advisable to consider the possibility of correlation of the entire policy of the Soviet state, taking into account the trends in the development of socio-demographic processes. It should be borne in mind:
1. The increase in the proportion of the population of the republics that are subsidized from the All-Union budget, or who give the smallest percentage of contributions to the All-Union budget, on the one hand, and the fall in the proportion of the population of the republics that form the main part of the All-Union budget, on the other hand (see Laws on budgets for 1924- 1984 (years) is able to increase the budgetary tension in the USSR.
2. The increase in the proportion of the population of the republics consuming food, producing them in a smaller volume than the proportion of their rural population and the fall in the proportion, as well as the absolute number of the rural population of the republics producing the bulk of food, can aggravate the food shortage and complicate the decision of the food program .
3. An increase in the share of republics with a predominantly agricultural population and a reduction in the share of the population of republics and nations, through which the industrial working class is formed, may complicate the socio-economic development of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
4. The fall in the share of nations with the greatest experience in the most complex branches of the economy and science and the increase in the share of nations with the least experience with such experience can slow down scientific and technical progress.
5. The fall in the share of nations with the greatest historical military experience may complicate the solution of military strategic tasks. Population census 1979g. confirms the forecasts of American scientists that from 2000, the Soviet Army will become predominantly Muslim (the Americans counted on religions, and not on nations).
All this indicates that the optimal development of the USSR as a single multinational state implies the solution of a whole complex of problems of an organizational, regulatory and legal, and political-practical nature.
Among the national problems of particular concern and concern is the fate of the "elder brother" - the Russian people, on whose shoulders lay the brunt of the rise in the socio-economic development of previously backward peoples.
A significant part of the gross national product and national income created by the Russian people was constantly redistributed to the previously backward national areas, providing them with faster growth rates of investment and socio-economic development.
The rates of social and economic development of the RSFSR, and within its framework of the Russian nation, of the Russian regions, remained steadily lower than all-Union, even after the problem of actual equality was resolved.
The preservation of the accelerated rates of socio-economic development of non-Russian peoples as compared with the Russians has led to the lagging of the important characteristics of its socio-economic, demographic, and cultural-political development from most other peoples, to which it has helped and continues to provide assistance. Thus, according to the 1970 population census, the security of the employed Russian population by specialists with higher education in both the city and the village turned out to be one and a half to three times lower than among the peoples of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, and Transcaucasia. Practically, Russians turned out to be on the last place among the nations with the union republics; nevertheless, the largest universities of the RSFSR still give up 25% of their places for out-of-competition enrollment of representatives of previously backward and now advanced nations, exacerbating this new de facto inequality.
Budget laws still create the most favorable budget regime for the republics of the Transcaucasus, Kazakhstan, and Central Asia. In addition to high (up to 100%) deductions to the budgets of these republics from turnover tax - the main source of budget revenues - these republics, as a rule, receive all 100% personal income tax in their budget, while the RSFSR never received more than 50%, not to mention the fact that this republic has never benefited from subsidies from the all-Union budget. Although the RSFSR has the highest load of acreage on 1 of a busy collective farmer and the largest number of man-days worked in a year, the incomes of collective farmers are relatively low, almost 2 times lower than in the Tajik SSR, where the arable land load per collective farmer is 8 times lower than in the RSFSR.
The low incomes of the rural population of the RSFSR, especially the Non-Black Earth Region, are a consequence of the low profitability of its collective and state farms. The negative aggregate profitability of agriculture of the RSFSR is explained primarily by the purchasing and retail price policy. Through this policy, the main redistribution of national income created in the republic, region is carried out.
Purchase prices for one of the main agricultural crops produced in the RSFSR — potatoes do not even compensate for the costs of its production. In farms of the Non-Chernozem Region, the cost price of a centner of potatoes is 9Rub.61cop., And it is handed over to the State in 6Rub.06cop. (including discounts on starch, non-standard, etc.). Thus, the more the farm produces potatoes, the higher the losses.
Unprofitable is also the production of flax and other agricultural products produced on the territory of the RSFSR. At the same time, the prices of cotton, rice, tea, citrus fruits, and other crops produced in the southern republics enable their producers to receive fairly high incomes. Enough of such a comparison. Potato and citrus production requires almost the same labor costs, so prices are almost the same all over the world, or differ two to three times, and only in the USSR is this difference 20-35 multiple: potatoes stand in 20 (compared to oranges) or 35 (compared to lemons) is cheaper than citrus fruits. Tax policy is still the least favorable for the RSFSR.
Although the RSFSR produces most agricultural machinery, electricity and fertilizers, the supply of mineral fertilizers per 1 hectare of arable land and the power of agriculture here is 2-4 times lower than in most other republics, which negatively affects crop yields and rural incomes. Despite the fact that the RSFSR produces more than half of meat and dairy products, the population of its regions is provided with this product in the worst way, long and constantly experiencing a deficit thereof, while other republics are in a better position. Poor security of the Russian regions with food forces them to go shopping for food in the neighboring regions of Ukraine, Belarus, and the Baltic states, where supply is better. These assaults often cause anti-Russian sentiments among the local population.
The RSFSR has the worst infrastructure development. Here, the percentage of families with no separate apartments living in hostels is higher than in other republics.
Meanwhile, the housing supply of the RSFSR should be no worse, and better than in other regions, due to the fact that more than a third of its territory is located in harsh climatic zones. Russia is poorly endowed with roads. By the length of paved roads per square kilometer of territory, it occupies the last place among the republics, slightly ahead of only the Turkmen SSR, 85% of whose territory is desert!
The Russian people have significantly limited opportunities for the realization of political rights, compared with non-Russian peoples.
Thus, in 1980 of more than half of the adult population of the country and more than 60% of the industrial working class, Russians made up only 26% of the deputies of the Supreme Soviets of the Union republics, 35% were deputies of the Supreme Soviets of the autonomous republics and 45% among the deputies of local councils. Thus, the Russians are represented in the higher authorities twice as low as in the industrial working class, which contradicts the position of the leading role of the industrial working class.
The situation with national history, science and culture is no better. The RSFSR is the only republic that does not have its own Academy of Sciences.
The demographic situation of Central Asia, where about 10% of the population of the USSR live, is studied in four republican Academies of Sciences, whereas the situation in the dying Nonchernozem zone of the RSFSR, which unites almost a quarter of the USSR population, is not in a single academic institution. The institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, naturally, do not deal with republican and regional topics. The RSFSR is now the only republic (including autonomous) that does not have its own published history. The military exploits of each of the 12 heroes of the Soviet Union - the Kirghiz are reflected in the republican scientific and fiction literature, sung in musical works, cinema, and painting. After all, little Kyrgyzstan has the Academy of Sciences with its humanitarian institutions, including the Institute of History, and the film studio, and the unions of writers, composers, artists, etc. But about the exploits 260 heroes of the Soviet Union - the natives of the Smolensk region and all 8000 Russian heroes of the Soviet Union is known much less. Our distant descendants, if they take in head to study the history of 2 World War I only from our republican editions, will be surprised: why didn’t many Russians fought against fascism in that distant era, especially since the war was on their territory. And if they fought, why did they leave no trace in the scientific literature? Among the dozens of volumes of scientific historical books, including collections of documents on the role of a people in the defeat of the German fascist troops, there is not a single one devoted to the role of the Russian people. In any republic, excluding the RSFSR, children in schools teach the history of the USSR and the history of their native land, the republic.
It brings love to the native land, to his people, to his nation. Russian schools teach only the history of the USSR.
The absence of the Academy of Sciences in the RSFSR interferes with the training of scientific personnel. In 1980, the State Committee on Science and Technology and the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences decided on the priority training of scientific personnel for the regions of the RSFSR most in need. However, the decision was stillborn.
For example, in 1981-1982. 15 out-of-competition places in the graduate school of the Institute of State and Law of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR were distributed as follows: 7 places in the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan; 4 - the republics of the Caucasus; one each by Belarus and Latvia, and one each by Bashkiria and Udmurtia. Indicators of the socio-cultural development of the Russian people are in one of the last places, and if compared with the corresponding indicators of the peoples of the RSFSR.
At the same time, every year Russians occupy lower and lower places. According to the 1979 census, by the number of persons with higher education per capita of the employed population, Russians were among the peoples of the RSFSR in the 16 place among the townspeople and in the 19 place among the villagers, yielding one and a half to two times even to the Buryats, Yakuts, Chukchi.
The artificially inhibited rates of the socio-economic and cultural-political development of the Russian people led to alarming demographic results: the Russians experienced the most dramatic drop in the birth rate. (When assessing the birth rate of the Russian population, one should make allowances for its mechanical increase due to assimilation. Up to 98% of children born in marriages mixed with Russian, especially in Russian-Tatar and Russian-Jewish families, call themselves Russians. This mechanical increase is essentially improves the demographic characteristics of the Russians and worsens them among the Jews, Tatars and other peoples with a negative assimilation balance). The nation was facing the threat of depopulation. The birth rate of Russians for a long time does not provide a simple reproduction of the population. An increasing number of families are limited to one child. The demographic degradation of the Russian people is also expressed in the fact that the life expectancy of men in Russian villages in many regions (Arkhangelsk, Kalinin, Novgorod, Pskov, etc.) fell to 54-57 years and is 5-7 years lower than in rural terrain of the USSR as a whole. The harmful effect on the health of the Russian nation is exerted by the fact that Russian women constitute the majority of people employed in physical, unskilled, harmful to the female body works, and this adversely affects the health of their children.
The small number of children in Russian villages leads to the closure of schools or to the small number of students - 10-15 students per school. In these 1-2 schools, teachers teach all subjects. Pupils finishing such schools find themselves in worse starting conditions, which hinders the possibilities of their further social advancement as compared with the children of other republics.
All this testifies to the lack of attention to the fate of the Russian people, who are in unequal with other conditions. Throughout Soviet history, the Russian people played a decisive role in the conduct of socialist transformations, in the development of the industrial working class, in the production of material goods, the formation of the all-union budget, the solution of military-strategic problems, the development of science and art. The depopulation and degradation of this people is incompatible with the social and scientific-technical progress of the entire Soviet state as a whole.
Do we need to prove the great role that 14 played by the existing republican CCs of the Communist Parties and Academies of Sciences in the development of half of the population of our state played a 50? Why not create such bodies for the other half of it - the Russian? Such bodies with such powers are needed, at a minimum, for each economic region of the RSFSR, or even for each oblast. Tyumen or Gorky regions, for example, having no less economic significance and economic potential than Kyrgyzstan or Estonia, should have authorities and administrations that have no less authority and competence. These areas should be provided with not a bad infrastructure and opportunities for its development. Requires a serious reform of the management of the territory. The current structure was good XNUMX years ago, and now it slows down the development of the material and spiritual forces of society. Each region of equal economic importance should have equal socio-economic rights and powers, as well as equal opportunities for their realization.
The economic, socio-demographic and national policy of the Soviet state should strictly obey the constitutional principle of equality of nations, equality not only of rights, but also of the possibilities of realization of these rights for a representative of any, including Russian, nation in all spheres of the material and spiritual life of society. The provision, written down in the CPSU Program, that “the party will continue to pursue a policy ensuring the actual equality of all nations and ethnic groups with full regard for their interests, paying special attention to those areas of the country that need more rapid development” has not lost its significance and relevance .
For each of the provisions set forth here, detailed argumentation and factual material can be presented. ”
On the issue of national policy. Unpublished mid 80's study
- Galina Litvinova