Military Review

Chinese cargo on the Northern Sea Route

36
Chinese cargo on the Northern Sea RouteFor several decades, the Soviet Union, and then Russia, transported part of the cargo along the Northern Sea Route. Despite the apparent complexity, this route was beneficial because of its relatively short length and therefore took a considerable percentage of all transcontinental traffic. At the same time, the Northern Sea Route was the object of envy of a number of foreign countries who wanted to have such convenient transport communications, but could not afford it. Now there are reports that in the coming months a new carrier will appear in the seas of the Arctic Ocean.


The importance of this path is due to its small length. For example, to deliver cargo from Murmansk or Arkhangelsk to Vladivostok, ships need to travel less than six thousand nautical miles. If you get to the Far East, bending around Europe and passing through the Suez Canal, you will have to go more than 12 thousand. miles The benefit is obvious. In view of such specific features, the Northern Sea Route is attractive not only for Russian shipping companies. A few days ago it became known that part of their goods would be transported by China to the northern seas.

At the recent Arctic Summit held in Norway, the topic was addressed by the Director of the Chinese Polar Research Institute, Huigen Yang. He said that his organization had completed all the necessary research and in the summer of the current 2013 of the year, Chinese merchant ships would make their first commercial voyage along the Northern Sea Route. Beijing has high hopes for this route, since it reduces the distance and, consequently, the time and cost of freight from China to Europe. In this regard, in the coming years, full-scale development of the Northern Sea Route is planned.

Last summer, the Chinese icebreaker Xuelong with an expedition led by Huigen Yang made a test trip from China to Iceland. During this voyage, scientists gathered a lot of information about the state of ice in the seas, and also made several conclusions. It was noted that the amount of ice on the route was less than expected. For this reason, the Chinese sailors changed the return route and went a little farther north than they originally intended. Thus, in the course of just one campaign, we managed to collect almost double the amount of information. Probably, this fact ultimately had a beneficial effect on the timing of the implementation of the first commercial flight.

The expectations of Chinese researchers regarding the amount of ice probably did not materialize due to the fact that in recent years there has been a slight decrease in the “cap” of the Arctic Ocean. According to various sources, over the past three years, the glaciation intensity of the southern seas of the ocean has fallen by almost a third. It is too early to predict further events, but it is already clear that China’s attention to the Northern Sea Route will not decrease, and will only increase in the future.

According to the estimates of the Polar Research Institute of China, up to 2020, the volume of cargo transportation along the Northern Sea Route should reach a level of at least 5% of the total Chinese cargo traffic associated with international trade. In addition, growth figures are called up to 15%. It is worth noting that even if only a tenth of all cargoes are transported by the Northern Sea Route, then in this case, according to some forecasts, the total turnover will exceed 500 billion euros. In addition, Huigenn Yang notes that with proper preparation, the new route will become popular among merchants. In the light of such an obvious statement, it becomes clear why in just a few years China intends to bring 10-15 to the northern seas immediately from its foreign trade traffic.

Earlier, for several decades, the only operator of the Northern Sea Route was the Soviet Union, and then Russia. Other countries have begun active efforts to master this communication only in the last few years. In this regard, the question arises: how can Russia use the Chinese plans to its advantage? First of all, it is worth remembering that at the moment China has only one icebreaker capable of working on the Northern Sea Route. Other vessels of this class are only being built and they will be commissioned in a fairly distant future. Russia has several necessary icebreakers at once, and therefore, for example, can provide services for escorting merchant ships.

A few days ago, the Russian government issued a document according to which in January of the next year a new organization will begin its work under the Federal Agency for Maritime and River Transport. The new Administration of the Northern Sea Route will organize the organization of traffic along the routes in the seas of the Arctic Ocean, monitor the ecological state of the region and solve other legal issues. Judging by the available information, the Administration is created for the purpose of organizing the movement of vessels, as well as for the possibility of providing some paid services. Thus, Russia will be able to receive money even from those carriers that do not charter Russian cargo ships.

According to the Federal Agency for Maritime and River Transport, over four million tons of cargo were transported by the Northern Sea Route in the past year, 2012, of which transit was 1,2 million. This year, a slight increase is expected at 5-6%. From Chinese plans, it follows that in the very next few years, the volume of traffic will increase significantly and, as a result, Russia's revenues from icebreaking and pilotage escorts may also increase significantly.

Unfortunately, in the matter of transcontinental transportation, Russia so far can only rely on the Northern Sea Route and things connected with it. An alternative route for cargo could be the Trans-Siberian Railway, but it has a number of problems. The lack of due attention in past years has led to the deterioration of infrastructure and, therefore, Transsib is not able to fully perform its functions. A few years ago, work was started to modernize the highway, but even in this case, it is not the railroad that is of greater interest to merchants, but the sea.

In addition to China, India and Singapore are showing interest in the Northern Sea Route. However, these countries are still limited to general statements. Probably one of the main reasons for the lack of noticeable activity in this direction is the fact that you can reach the northern countries of Europe from South or Southeast Asia not only through the northern seas, but also through the Suez Canal. Moreover, in some cases, shipping through the Red and Mediterranean Sea is faster and more convenient than through the Bering Strait and the seas of the Arctic Ocean. Thus, over the next few years, China will remain the only active participant in transportation via the Northern Sea Route besides Russia.


On the materials of the sites:
http://svpressa.ru/
http://nvo.ng.ru/
http://arctic-info.ru/
http://b-port.com/
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  1. avt
    avt 29 March 2013 11: 15 New
    11
    Keep this topic under tight control! And do not let anyone walk there without demand.
    1. Nayhas
      Nayhas 29 March 2013 11: 26 New
      -4
      It will not work, the NSR passes outside our marine zone, i.e. on international waters.
      1. avt
        avt 29 March 2013 11: 47 New
        +9
        Quote: Nayhas
        It will not work, the NSR passes outside our marine zone, i.e. on international waters.

        It would turn out, even as it would be a desire. Without coastal infrastructure to support and support the caravan transportation there is nothing to do. Yes, and no one has an icebreaker fleet powerful except us.
      2. Aleks28
        Aleks28 29 March 2013 11: 49 New
        12
        Quote: Nayhas
        It will not work, the NSR passes outside our marine zone, i.e. on international waters.

        Sit down, two. The NSR mainly takes place in the territorial waters of Russia. Ice pushes it to our borders.
        1. Nayhas
          Nayhas 29 March 2013 15: 09 New
          +5
          This is when the ice was, now the "ice cap" has decreased, and on March 12, 1997, Russia ratified the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea of ​​1982, and "As a result, the border of our country, so familiar from textbooks from the 1980s, stretching from the western part of Kola The peninsula to the North Pole and from it to the strait between Chukotka and Alaska was transformed into a narrow 12-mile strip (22,2 kilometers) along our northern shores, which means that the vast water area of ​​the Arctic Ocean, along which 30 years ago had legal the right to walk only our icebreakers is now, as it were, "no man's" waters. "
          1. hrych
            hrych 29 March 2013 21: 21 New
            +2
            Not a hat, but a hat has shrunk. For global warming, Al Gore may have received the Nobel, but this spring, the N. committee did not agree.
          2. Beck
            Beck 31 March 2013 12: 33 New
            +1
            Quote: Nayhas
            "As a result, the border of our homeland, so familiar from the textbooks of the 1980s, stretching from the western part of the Kola Peninsula to the North Pole


            Yes, this was not the border. It’s in the mind, everything is for itself, only the USSR has outlined the ice of the Arctic. No other state in the region outlined. And the ice of the Arctic Ocean has always been international.

            There is water inside, several from the coast, it seems about 10 kilometers. There are territorial waters extending 22 kilometers from the inland water line.

            "Ships of all states enjoy the right of peaceful passage through territorial waters, subject to the provisions of the Convention (the passage should not violate the safety of the coastal state, submarines can only pass in the surface, etc.)."

            Previously, other states did not use the Eastern Northern Sea Route because they did not have powerful icebreakers. Now it’s warming, the ice is weaker, therefore everyone can use both neutral and territorial waters. After all, Indians do not close the Indian Ocean.

            And then some raised a butch. Everything is within the limits of international law. And there is nothing to stir up the water and pile up the ice.
      3. Kolya
        Kolya 29 March 2013 20: 59 New
        0
        Pirates can help sort everything except ships with the Russian flag. And world business does not care morality, if only transportation were cheaper.)))
    2. Nicholas C.
      Nicholas C. 29 March 2013 11: 43 New
      +6
      The project is commercial. The Russian authorities expect to earn money on it and equip the northern coastal infrastructure to serve this route. And it’s easier and cheaper to add something necessary to the existing infrastructure, including for for defense. And the ships will sail and sail away.
      1. Alexander
        Alexander 29 March 2013 12: 37 New
        0
        And I thought that our border goes to the North Pole.
        1. Aleks28
          Aleks28 29 March 2013 12: 57 New
          +1
          Quote: Alexander
          And I thought that our border goes to the North Pole.

          No, it was printed on Soviet maps, but according to international standards, 30 miles from the coast and truncated. no
          1. ultra
            ultra 29 March 2013 18: 06 New
            +2
            Quote: Allex28
            30 miles internationally
            12 miles hi
    3. olegff68
      olegff68 29 March 2013 14: 39 New
      +2
      Quote: avt
      Keep this topic under tight control! And do not let anyone walk there without demand.

      Yes Yes !!! And it’s somehow strange to read that Japan is increasing the pace of construction of the icebreaker fleet!
    4. ultra
      ultra 29 March 2013 18: 02 New
      +1
      Quote: avt
      And do not let anyone walk there without demand.
      A person will write something that the majority will like and will be ALL IN PLUSES, but really or not it doesn’t matter anymore! THIS IS NOT TERRITORIAL WATERS OF RUSSIA! IMHO freedom of navigation! hi
      1. Ruslan67
        Ruslan67 29 March 2013 20: 26 New
        +3
        Quote: ultra
        THIS IS NOT THE TERRITORIAL WATERS OF RUSSIA! IMHO freedom of navigation! hi

        According to international law, the state has the right to declare territorial waters any water area that is able to confidently control and this can be done at any time! we’ll save our strength and move forward. Besides, you can’t render the services of escorting the ships. The icebreaking fleet is only we have nothing to do without it. wassat
  2. tronin.maxim
    tronin.maxim 29 March 2013 11: 15 New
    +5
    The Chinese got here too, we must do something!
    1. Aleks28
      Aleks28 29 March 2013 12: 17 New
      +1
      Quote: tronin.maxim
      The Chinese got here too, we must do something!

      Cool project good , chatter on it has been going on for a long time, but it doesn’t reach implementation. Only one reel of our icebreakers costs a lot of money to the Russian budget, and so the Chinese, or rather Europeans, will pay for it, because in the end the end user pays.
    2. Retx
      Retx 29 March 2013 12: 26 New
      0

      For a long time already do everything. We are like partners, together we enter the SCO, BRICS, etc.
      1. Aleks28
        Aleks28 29 March 2013 12: 42 New
        +3
        Quote: RETX

        For a long time already do everything. We are like partners, together we enter the SCO, BRICS, etc.

        With such partners, we need to arm our army at an accelerated pace, otherwise it’s not an hour .....
    3. Kolya
      Kolya 29 March 2013 21: 09 New
      +1
      Sea piracy needs to be developed. For example, where the West does not want to be highlighted by its dirty deeds - it launches its lesser brother Alkaidu to work. Only vessels with the Russian flag should sail along the Northern Sea Route!
  3. Professor
    Professor 29 March 2013 11: 17 New
    +2
    If you get to the Far East, going around Europe and passing through the Suez Canal, you will have to go over 12 thousand. miles

    Moreover, for the use of the Suez Canal there are more than $ 100 thousand.
  4. Captain Vrungel
    Captain Vrungel 29 March 2013 11: 21 New
    +9
    Given that the Chinese icebreaker, this is not a popular expeditionary vessel for Arctic navigation of the Kherson built since the collapse of the USSR and bought by China.
  5. Andrey57
    Andrey57 29 March 2013 11: 38 New
    +3
    Yes, even let the Chinese NSR go, it will make it possible to reanimate the entire infrastructure of ports, airports, weather services and everything else, in addition, you will have to normally cover the whole North with troops, and aviation, and the navy, and this will definitely not be superfluous, and this will pull for a restoration of military infrastructure. In addition, this "icebreaker" of their weather on the NSR will certainly not make the weather, and so far only our icebreaker fleet will be able to pilot vessels on heavy ice. hi
  6. itkul
    itkul 29 March 2013 11: 41 New
    +1
    No, it’s unlikely that the Chinese will carry something by the northern sea route. First, you need to build ice-class vessels with reinforced sides and a superstructure designed to stay in cabins at -40 degrees, and you have to constantly warm the fuel. Secondly, there’s nowhere to get sailing experience in ice and ice maps. Well and thirdly, Chinese container ships run on clear water along the already familiar, rolled routes at a speed of 22 knots, what is the point of barely hobbling along the icebreaker breaking ice.
    1. tronin.maxim
      tronin.maxim 29 March 2013 11: 48 New
      +1
      Quote: itkul

      No, it’s unlikely that the Chinese will drive something along the northern sea route.

      Something similar, we used to talk about the Chinese and now look! Already in 3rd place in terms of arms sales in the world!
      1. tronin.maxim
        tronin.maxim 29 March 2013 12: 04 New
        0
        And here are some more achievements of China: http: //economic-development-china.rf/The most important-scientific and technical- achievements-
        itaya-774.html
      2. hrych
        hrych 29 March 2013 21: 25 New
        +2
        So far, China has reached the top five.
    2. ABV
      ABV 30 March 2013 04: 03 New
      +1
      Perhaps, under this "mulch", the Chinas are selected for the resources there, reconnaissance is carried out ...
      1. imrek_ua
        imrek_ua 30 March 2013 05: 44 New
        0
        you can not even doubt it
  7. leon-iv
    leon-iv 29 March 2013 12: 04 New
    0
    they salmon there tuna without our icebreakers. And so mutually beneficial cooperation IMHO.
  8. koksalek
    koksalek 29 March 2013 12: 35 New
    0
    Earning money is good. Only if it doesn’t work out that we still have to stay? The perverted views of officials unfortunately sometimes get up and such
  9. ATATA
    ATATA 29 March 2013 12: 37 New
    0
    We have most of all icebreakers, but they are still few for the industrial operation of the NSR. Need at least 20 pcs.
    1. itkul
      itkul 29 March 2013 12: 48 New
      +1
      Quote: ATATA
      We have most of all icebreakers, but they are still few for the industrial operation of the NSR. Need at least 20 pcs.


      What industrial exploitation of the NSR is in your opinion, before the MMP vessels exported raw materials, nickel and rare-earth metals from Dudinka, now there is no freight, only a small northern delivery remained. Yes, and the MMP itself will not be there soon, as the remaining 30 summer ships will be sold for scrap . Icebreakers are mostly idle, so why do you need 20 pieces
      1. Aleks28
        Aleks28 29 March 2013 13: 01 New
        +1
        Quote: itkul
        Icebreakers are mostly idle, so why do you need 20 pieces

        Read the article, learn. wink
        1. itkul
          itkul 29 March 2013 16: 16 New
          +1
          Quote: Allex28
          Read the article, learn


          So I kind of explained in Russian that it is unprofitable to carry SMP cargoes. Well, the second attempt. The Chinese are pulling their containers with huge container ships like Maersk, usually from the south of China to Rotherdam. Take the globe and make sure that the distance is essentially the same. and finally, the width of Maersk is 56 meters, the width of our icebreakers is 30 meters, you can certainly drive two icebreakers, but it’s such a crap that nobody will even go for it because of the caravan of ships. Again, I’ll repeat, but the line through the Suez Canal is rolled up, and look there will be no adventures on your ass in the north, I think there is no need to explain what will happen in the event of a boat breakdown in the ice, when even a rescue tug will not always be able to approach. Read on Maersk, it’s very interesting

          http://korabley.net/news/konteinerovoz_emma_maersk_samoe_bolshoe_gruzovoe_sudno_
          v_mire / 2008-10-01-3
          1. Tatanka Yotanka
            Tatanka Yotanka 29 March 2013 19: 09 New
            0
            Quote: itkul
            So I kind of explained in Russian that it is unprofitable to carry the goods of the NSR.

            You see the truth, the question seems to be in a different place, it’s not in vain that Xi Jinping left satisfied, it’s not transportation but oil on the shelf that is needed, is it really impossible to drill yourself crying
            http://www.megapressa.ru/kitaj-budet-burit-v-barencevom-more.html
            http://barentsobserver.com/ru/energiya/2013/03/rosneft-priglashaet-v-arktiku-kit
            ay-24-03
  10. svp67
    svp67 29 March 2013 15: 20 New
    +1
    In addition to the icebreaker, transport ships of the icebreaking class are also needed, without them it will be so difficult to master those areas, but you have to ...
  11. Vrungel78
    Vrungel78 29 March 2013 15: 33 New
    +1
    On the Sino-Finnish border without incident laughing
    1. Nesvet Nezar
      Nesvet Nezar April 2 2013 11: 43 New
      0
      You are the dream of dill)) plus for humor .... Ha ha ha ha
  12. Hudo
    Hudo 29 March 2013 16: 24 New
    +5
    Last summer, the Chinese icebreaker Xuelong, with an expedition led by Huygen Yang, made a test trip from China to Iceland. During this voyage, scientists collected a lot of information about the state of ice in the seas, and also made several conclusions. It was noted that the amount of ice on the route was less than expected. For this reason, the Chinese sailors changed the return route and went a little north than they were originally going to.
    _________________________________
    I would like to recall the Arctic flight of the Earl Zeppelin airship, which took place in July 1931 under the command of Dr. Hugo Ekkener. After the flight, Dr. Ekkener refused to land in Leningrad, allegedly due to receiving an adverse weather report. And the German airship flew straight to Berlin. In any case, priceless film and photo documents were immediately taken to Germany and soon “lost” for an absolutely incredible reason. In 1932, the icebreaker Malygin twice came from Arkhangelsk to Franz Josef Land. First, in order to land in the Tikhaya Bay a shift of Soviet polar explorers led by Ivan Papanin and the German scientist Joachim Scholz. Then - the secretary of the Aeroarctic International Society, the German professor Walter Bruns, came to the archipelago, performing a special task to study the conditions for landing airships in the Arctic regions. The same flight, but already to Novaya Zemlya, delivered a joint Soviet-German expedition.
    Subsequently, during the years 1933-1937, the USSR allowed the Germans to study in detail many remote areas of the Soviet sector of the Arctic. It turned out that all the “disappeared” films and films captured during the flight of “Count Zeppelin” were found immediately after Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany, and the Luftwaffe and Kriegsmarine were used in the war against the USSR.
    1. Captain Vrungel
      Captain Vrungel 29 March 2013 17: 15 New
      +6
      With the legs an unforgettable event. The Chinese made a "heroic transition" on the Xuelong icebreaker (Snow Dragon). 20 years preparing for a heroic transition. “Xuelong” was handed over to the Chinese in 1993 by shipbuilders of Kherson, as an expeditionary vessel supplying Arctic navigation such as “Vitus Bering”. (For reference, Russia sent almost all of this type of vessel for cutting). This is not an Arctic icebreaker, this is a Chinese spy (translation of the concept of "Scientific" into an understandable language) for the Arctic basin.
      1. Hudo
        Hudo 29 March 2013 17: 49 New
        +3
        Quote: Captain Vrungel
        This is a Chinese spy (translation of the concept of "Scientific" into an understandable language) for the Arctic basin.

        Dashing trouble began, or let the goat into the garden, you can’t say anything about the Chinese voyage.
      2. itkul
        itkul 29 March 2013 18: 00 New
        +2
        Quote: Captain Vrungel
        For reference, Russia sent almost all of this type of vessel for cutting


        You are mistaken, "Ivan Papanin" still works for us, now I looked at the map in the area of ​​Cape Town

        http://www.marinetraffic.com/ais/ru/shipdetails.aspx?mmsi=273137200

        Here is a photo compared to a container ship

        http://www.fleetmon.com/ru/vessels/Ivan_Papanin_29577
  13. AleksUkr
    AleksUkr 29 March 2013 17: 15 New
    +5
    The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea establishes the sovereignty of coastal countries over the territorial sea and exclusive economic zones (EEZs). The territorial sea border is set at 12 nautical miles (1 nautical mile - 1,852 km), and the EEZ - 200 nautical miles from the coastline. The Convention also provides riparian states with the right to control the continental shelf, which is a “natural extension” of its territory.

    In its EEZ, the country has an exclusive right to extract natural resources (for example, fish and other seafood), and control over the shelf gives it the same right to develop mineral resources of the seabed. Article 76 of the convention automatically sets the boundaries of the shelf in 200 nautical miles, that is, the boundaries of the EEZ and the shelf in this case coincide.

    However, the same article contains an important clarification: the state has the right to claim a shelf extending beyond a 200-mile border. To exercise this right, a country must submit an application to a special international body, the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. If the application is deemed reasonable, then the state may expand the boundaries of the shelf. In this case, it is the continental shelf that is expanding, and not the EEZ: beyond the 200-mile zone, the coastal state has the right to regulate the extraction of mineral resources, but cannot limit the rights of third countries to fishing. - See: S. Golubchikov. Political Geology // Independent Newspaper: Newspaper. - M. 26.09.2007/XNUMX/XNUMX
  14. albert
    albert 29 March 2013 18: 18 New
    0
    It is necessary to strengthen the grouping of forces in the Arctic and as soon as possible.
    1. Nesvet Nezar
      Nesvet Nezar April 2 2013 11: 48 New
      0
      Sign up for volunteers. Because it’s not anyone to strengthen it. There are no people. Everyone sells cell phones at chichvarkin .... Ha ha ha. And giving birth is now fashionable only to Caucasians. And we are "white people" by each other's gnawing. Patam headquarters, we are civilized ....
  15. ed65b
    ed65b 29 March 2013 18: 38 New
    +1
    Icebergs with motors to impose and collect tribute)))) 0 And even better, let the Chukchi pirates be allowed and earn protection laughing
  16. slavik_gross
    slavik_gross 29 March 2013 22: 15 New
    0
    Give the Northern Sea Route !!! Modern Nuclear-powered Icebreakers are an extra plus in prestige and replenishment of the treasury ... Rosatom wants new reactors for submarine and icebreaking fleets, to refuel and forget for the entire life of the ship !!!
  17. gedzz
    gedzz 30 March 2013 10: 12 New
    0
    The most unpleasant and offensive is that China uses Soviet experience in the development of the north and the Antarctic regions. The vessel shown in the photo (the Chinese name "Snow Dragon", of course) is Soviet-built and designed specifically for swimming in the ice during the Gorbachev-Yeltsin mess bought and operated (very intensively) by the Chinese for their (it’s clear what) purposes. While Russian shipowners build and buy a cheap (in all respects) product of Chinese shipbuilding. Here it is.
  18. gedzz
    gedzz 30 March 2013 10: 17 New
    0
    That's what Captain Vrungel wrote about — this is exactly the ship in the photo!
  19. Takashi
    Takashi 31 March 2013 09: 47 New
    0
    so, now I understand - 12 miles waved and I'm behind the cordon? Interesting.
    Are they setting us up for crossing the state border?

    in general, “Vitus Bering class ships were built in Ukraine, in Kherson. The Snow Dragon was also built there in 1993, on board of which there is a helipad and an autonomous underwater vehicle equipped for sailing in the Arctic. This is the only ship in China, however, the press service of Aker Arctic Technology (research center for the development and testing of Arctic vessels) said that Finland had received an order to design a polar icebreaker for China, a contract worth 5 million euros. meters, and the crew together with scientists will reach 120. China has two research stations in the Antarctic and one on Svalbard. "@ Yandex, which will find everything.