Isabella of Castile. Childhood and youth of the famous Catholic Queen

Isabella of Castile. Childhood and youth of the famous Catholic Queen

The heroine of today's article, Queen Isabella the Catholic, is, without a doubt, one of the most prominent women. She had a huge influence on history not only of the country later called Spain, but of the whole world - after all, it was this queen who financed the famous expeditions of Christopher Columbus. The centuries-long process of the Reconquista, begun by the Asturians back in 722, was completed, and the last Arab state in Europe, the Moorish emirate of Granada, fell under the pressure of Christians. By the end of her life, Isabella was queen not only of Castile and Leon, but also of Aragon, Sicily, Valencia and Naples - although still under the rights of a personal union. The first “real” monarch of a united Spain will be her grandson, Emperor Charles V, and the complete unification of these lands will occur only in the XNUMXth century.

At the same time, Isabella’s reign is inextricably linked with the activities of Tommaso Torquemada, who was the educator and confessor of this infanta, and then her constant adviser. He even, against the will of the king, married her to the Aragonese prince Fernando (known in Russia as Ferdinand). By order of the Catholic kings, an Inquisition court independent from Rome was founded in the territories under their control, and Jews and Moors were expelled from the country. And therefore Spain during the reign of the Catholic kings is often presented as a real “kingdom of horror”, about which Henry Wattsworth Longfellow wrote:

In Spain, from fear of numbness,
Ferdinand and Isabella reigned
But ruled with an iron hand
The great inquisitor over the country.
He was cruel as the lord of hell
The Grand Inquisitor of Torquemada.

The 1992 historical film 1492: The Conquest of Paradise begins with this statement:

“In the 15th century, Spain was a gloomy place where it was forbidden to dream. The king and the Inquisition hunted dissidents and burned them at the stake.”

"Typical Spaniard" in an engraving by the Calvinist artist Theodore de Bry, 1598. The explanation for this drawing reads: “The Spaniards kill women and children and feed their remains to dogs.”

However, one must understand that such views on Spain and the history of this country began to take shape in the 16th century in Protestant countries hostile to Spain. In the 20th century, this system of false propaganda ideas was called “Black Spanish legend" The times were harsh, the rule of the Catholic kings was harsh, but in other European countries - France, England or the German principalities - the level of atrocity was at least no less than in Spain under Isabella and Ferdinand. The same Jews were expelled from France in 1080, 1147, 1306, 1394 and 1591, from England in 1188, 1198, 1290 and 1510, from Hungary in 1360, from Poland in 1407. Religious wars shook France from 1562 to 1598, they reached their highest point on the night of August 24, 1572 (the eve of St. Bartholomew's Day), but the killings of Protestants in various cities then continued for about six weeks, up to 30 thousand people were killed, 200 thousand fled the country. And it was precisely at this time that the “Spanish Black Legend” began to take shape in the Netherlands and England. But we will talk about the Spanish Inquisition in another article. Let’s just say for now that in those days, Spain, already divided into separate kingdoms, was also torn to pieces by local feudal lords. Jews and Moors (Mudejars) who did not want to be baptized lived in separate communities with their own laws, often not paying attention to the decrees of the authorities. Yes, and baptized Marrano Jews and Morisco Muslims too. The same Jews participated in the financial operations of the state and in its management with pleasure and great benefit for themselves, but in every possible way resisted the interference of royal officials in the affairs of their communities. Isabella and Ferdinand had to be tough and cruel rulers. Already in the second half of the XNUMXth century, under much calmer and more favorable conditions, Bismarck declared:

“The great questions of the time are decided not by speeches and parliamentary resolutions - that was the mistake of 1848-1849 - but by iron and blood.”

And further:

“Issues of state law are resolved with bayonets.”

F. Tyutchev responded to this in 1870:

"Unity," announced the oracle of our day, "
It may be soldered with iron and blood only ... "

Isabella and Ferdinand were in a much more difficult situation. The Jew Hernando del Pulgar, Isabella's secretary, who converted to Christianity but fell into disgrace for criticizing the Inquisition, writes in the Chronicle of Catholic Kings:

"Isabella was very inclined to justice - so much so that she seemed to follow more the path of severity than the path of mercy, and did this to correct the great number of crimes which she discovered in the Kingdom when she inherited the throne."

And the chronicler Sebastian de Olmedo, a contemporary of Isabella, gives the following description of her confessor, mentor and educator, Torquemada:

"Hammer of heretics, light of Spain, savior of his country, honor of his order (Dominicans)."

Many researchers believe that Queen Isabella I of Castile la Catolica had a decisive influence on the functions of the chess queen. As is known, Europeans learned about chess from the Arabs. The figure standing next to the king and called “advisor” (mantri) in India, “commander” (farzin) in Persia, “vizier” (wazir) in Arab countries, was almost the weakest, since it had the right to walk only one square diagonally. However, in Europe, many decided that farzin was a woman. Some believe that the king's wife or favorite (lady of the heart) was immediately meant, but others believe that the queen was originally associated with the Virgin Mary, whose cult was widespread in Catholic countries and especially among the Crusaders. In Spain and Italy, the queen began to be called by the same word as the Mother of God - “Dama” and “Donna”, respectively. In some other countries - “Vierge” (this is the Latin word for “Virgo”). And still in many countries the queen is called “Lady” - no longer associating her with the Virgin Mary. In other states, this figure is directly called the queen (unofficially - in Russia), using different words - queen, reine, regina, vasilissa, queen, kralitsa, etc. Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Hungary, Poland and Turkey chose The male version of the name of this figure is queen, hetman, vizier. The Estonians “distinguished themselves” by calling the queen a “flag.”

This map of the distribution of various variants of the name of this chess piece can be found on the Internet

But we are interested in the “female hypostasis” of the queen. It is believed that two real queens were assigned in turn to this chess piece. The first of them is the famous Alienor (1124-1204), Duchess of Aquitaine, Queen of France, England, and also of all knights and troubadours. Mother of Richard the Lionheart and John (John) Lackland.

Eleanor of Aquitaine and her first husband Louis VII. Miniature from the Chronicles of Saint-Denis, XIII century:

And this is her with her second husband, Henry II Plantagenet. Fresco of the chapel of Saint Radegonde, Chinon:

Alienora became a participant in the Second Crusade. Her first husband, the French king Louis VII, was forced to agree, because the knights of Aquitaine were ready to go to Palestine only with their beloved duchess. And a contemporary of those events, the Byzantine chronicler Niketas Choniates, wrote with surprise about the army of the French crusaders:

“There were also women in their troops, riding like warriors, wearing men's clothes, armed, like men, with spears and dressed in armor; they had a warlike appearance, they seemed even more courageous than the Amazons.

And one of the European chronicles says:

“Moving ahead of the army, Eleanor met the attacks of the enemy more than once, and once she was surrounded with the king and was saved only by a desperate attack of her fellow Aquitanians.”

The second woman who influenced the formation of the image of the queen figure was the fanatical Catholic Isabella of Castile (1474-1504), the heroine of our article, who was completely different from Alienora (“the queen of courtly love”). She also took part in military campaigns, and took her children with her, because she believed that she should personally be involved in their upbringing (especially religious).

Isabella I of Castile in a portrait by an unknown artist

They say that it was in Spain and precisely during the reign of Isabella the Catholic that the queen, identified with the queen, became the most powerful piece of the chessboard, gaining the right to move to an unlimited number of squares and in any direction. And the game of chess at that time began to symbolize the struggle of Christian states with the Saracens.

To many, this statue of Isabella I in Toledo seems like a white queen chess piece

Infanta Isabella

The heroine of the article was born on April 22, 1451 in the Castilian monastery of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Her father was King Juan II of Castile and Leon, her mother was the second wife of this monarch, Isabella, granddaughter of King Juan I of Portugal.

Jose Maria Rodriguez de Losada. Juan II de Castilla

Isabella of Portugal in a portrait by an unknown artist

At the time of the wedding, Juan was 42 years old, the Portuguese princess was 19. The main reason for this marriage, concluded in 1447, is said to be the lack of children of the king’s only son, Enrique (son of Maria of Aragon), who by that time had been married for 7 years. This prince, and then King Enrique IV, even received the nickname el Impotente - “The Powerless One”.

Enrique IV el Impotente

And the husband of the mother of the heroine of the article, although he did not suffer from sexual impotence, was a very weak-willed person, and the country was actually ruled by the Constable of Castile and the Grand Master of the Order of the Sword of St. Iago of Campostela Alvaro de Luna, who, by the way, chose a new wife for his monarch. Isabella of Portugal did not appreciate his efforts and in 1453 convinced her husband to arrest and then execute the “benefactor.”

Statue of Alvaro de Luna in Conquence

In 1451, the new queen gave birth to a daughter, who was also named Isabella. The birth was very difficult, after which signs of mental illness appeared and began to rapidly progress: attacks of hysteria alternated with periods of severe depression. In 1453 she gave birth to a son, Alfonso, and a year later her husband died. The above-mentioned Enrique IV the Powerless ascended the throne, who sent the young stepmother and her children to Arevalo Castle. Here her mental state completely deteriorated, and at times she did not recognize her own children.

Pelegrin Clavet. “The Madness of Isabella of Portugal”: the queen does not recognize her children hugging her - Isabella and Alfonso

Let us note, by the way, that the second daughter of Isabella I the Catholic, Queen of Castile and wife of Philip the Fair, went down in history under the name Juana the Mad.

The widow queen and her three-year-old daughter regularly made pilgrimages to the Monastery of the Holy Cross (in the city of Segovia), where they met its abbot, Tommaso Torquemada. Soon he began to visit them - for this he had to walk and barefoot about 30 miles. Who then was this man, whose name in all countries became synonymous with the “Grand Inquisitor”?

Tommaso de Torquemada

Tommaso de torquemada

You may be surprised, but the man who organized large-scale persecution of Jews and Moors was a descendant of baptized Jews. However, at the same time, 4 Castilian bishops came from the families of “conversos” (“converts”). Among the descendants of the Castilian "conversos" we can also mention the chancellor Luis de Santanel, the chief treasurer Gabriel Sanchez, Isabella's valet Juan Cabrero and the above-mentioned Fernando del Pulgara. And also Saint Teresa of Avila, classified as a Doctor of the Church, whose grandfather was imposed penance in 1485 (under the Grand Inquisitor Tommaso Torquemada) for secretly observing Jewish rites.

Statue of St. Theresa of Avila, San Juan Capistrano Monastery, California

In Aragon, during the reign of the Catholic kings, the descendants of the “new Christians” were the chief secretary of the high court, Felipe de Clemente, the royal secretary, Luis Gonzalez, the chief treasurer, Gabriel Sanchez, and the vice-chancellor, Don Alfonso de la Cavaleria.

Tommaso Torquemada was born on October 14, 1420 into a very pious family and was the nephew of Cardinal Juan de Torquemada, and his father took part in the Council of Constance, at which Jan Hus was convicted and sentenced to be burned at the stake. Until the age of 12, Tommaso was educated at home, and then at a monastery school. Already at the age of 14, he found himself in the Dominican monastery of St. Paul in the city of Valladolid, where he became an assistant cook. Young Tommaso traveled a lot around Castile, walking barefoot, wearing a hair shirt, not eating meat, and sleeping on bare boards. Only in 1451 (at the age of 31) did he become a full member of the Order of Friars Preachers (this is the official name of the Dominican monastic Order). A year later we see him as abbot of the Dominican monastery of the Holy Cross (Convento de Santa Cruz la Real) in Segovia, which at that time was one of the most important cities in Castile and even its former capital.

Monastery of Santa Cruz la Real, Segovia. The monastery building was rebuilt in the Plateresque style in the 1474th century. Until XNUMX its abbot was Tommaso de Torquemada

Here is the grotto in which Christ and Saint Dominic appeared to Teresa of Avila on September 30, 1574, promising help in reforming the Carmelite Order and creating its branch, the Discalced Carmelites. The building now belongs to the university.

Ecstasy of St. Theresa in the cave of St. Dominic. Painting by an unknown artist of the XNUMXth century

Segovia has a very favorable geographical position - between Madrid and Valladolid, a little to the side is the small town of Arevalo, where, as we remember, the widowed Queen Isabella of Portugal and her children - the heroine of the article and her younger brother Alfonso - were in secret exile.

Infanta Isabella was only three years old when she met Torquemada, and the Dominican became Isabella’s confessor, her educator and teacher. Later it turned out that Isabella was much more educated than her husband, Ferdinand of Aragon. Raised in a monastery, Isabella became the patroness of artists and poets; during her reign, the first collections of ballads and the first popular prints were published - for the illiterate.

About Torquemada's influence on Isabella, Bishop Valentin Fléchier wrote in 1693:

“Torquemada was Isabella’s confessor from her very birth, and he inspired her that God would one day place her on the throne, that her main business would be the punishment and destruction of heretics, that the purity and simplicity of the Christian Faith were the basis of government, that the means of establishing peace in the kingdom should be be Religion and Justice."

And here is what the French Dominican Antoine Touron (1686–1775) wrote in “History of Famous People of the Dominican Order”:

“In all the difficulties that often caused her (Isabella) pain and annoyance, she needed consolation; and after God, she found him most in the advice of her confessor: she appreciated his knowledge, his honesty, zeal and affection, confirmation of which he gave constantly and in any circumstances.”

Marlon Brando as Torquemada and Rachel Ward as Isabella, the film Christopher Columbus. Conquest of America

The strength of Torquemada’s personality was such that Isabella’s husband, Ferdinand of Aragon, later came under his influence.

Ferdinand of Aragon, portrait by the Master of the Magdalene legend

In the next article we will continue the story about the Catholic Queen. Let's talk about how Infanta Isabella, against the will of the king, was given by Torquemada in marriage to the Aragonese prince Ferdinand. How she became Queen of Castile and Leon, and then Queen of Aragon, Valencia and Sicily, as well as Countess of Barcelona. About the family life of Queen Isabella I and her children.
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  1. +4
    5 March 2024 05: 28
    Thank you! I especially liked the chess retreat!!!
    Have a fruitful day, success and prosperity!
    1. 0
      5 March 2024 19: 35
      Namesake, good health. Valery pleased me with interesting work.
      I knew something about Isabella Kvstilskaya, but still read with interest
  2. -1
    5 March 2024 05: 37
    Isabella the Catholic is without a doubt one of the most outstanding women
    Isabella is known only for the fact that she gave birth to heirs to the crown and lived during the time of Columbus. Well, thanks to her marriage to Ferdinand, she stood at the origins of modern Spain. That's all her "outstanding" merits. And if it weren’t for Columbus and the unification of the two Iberian kingdoms into a single state, then only historians would know about Isabella wink
    1. VLR
      5 March 2024 05: 50
      Perhaps, if not for Isabella, no one would have known Ferdinand. And America would have been discovered by the Portuguese or someone else - after all, Ferdinand rejected Columbus’s offer, but Isabella accepted it. And therefore, at first, the Aragonese were forbidden to have any connections with the new colonies - these were Castilian possessions. But this and much more will be discussed later.
      1. 0
        5 March 2024 06: 03
        Quote: VlR
        Perhaps, if not for Isabella, no one would have known Ferdinand
        Aragon was at the very height of its heyday, he owned southern Italy and the islands in the Mediterranean Sea, so Ferdinand was a well-known man.
        Quote: VlR
        Ferdinand rejected Columbus's offer, but Isabella accepted
        I rejected it only because I was busy with the Reconquista. As soon as we took Granada, I immediately received permission for the expedition. We must not forget that behind all this there were merchants who pushed the monarchs to equip the expedition. Everyone already knew about the successes of the Portuguese in the development of West Africa and the flow of gold that poured into Portugal. The Spaniards need to grab something too wink
        Quote: VlR
        And therefore, at first, the Aragonese were forbidden to have any connections with the new colonies
        I've never heard of this. More? I know that the Pinson brothers, the captains and owners of the ships, were Aragonese
        1. VLR
          5 March 2024 06: 27
          At first, under the pretext of the war in Granada, Columbus was refused by both monarchs. But then Ferdinand again refused him, and Isabella said contemptuously: if the King of Aragon lacks the intelligence and imagination to evaluate this proposal, the Queen of Castile and Leon will accept it. And when America was discovered, she said that the Aragonese had nothing to do there - their place was the Mediterranean Sea. Well, ship captains are “people of the world”; Columbus was generally a Genoese who proposed his expedition plan to both the Portuguese and the British. But only Isabella appreciated his plan. The spouses, in general, were worth each other, but according to many sources, Isabella was the ideologist. Moreover, her teacher Torquemada quickly subjugated her husband, but clearly considered Isabella the main one in the family.
        2. +1
          6 March 2024 23: 58
          Another Dutch lie - they were Andalusians. The Pinzon brothers were Andalusians.
          1. 0
            7 March 2024 04: 23
            Quote from Carlos Sala
            The Pinzon brothers were Andalusians

            Andalusia was part of the Kingdom of Aragon
            1. +2
              7 March 2024 09: 24
              Who says these outrageous things? It was part of the crown of Castile. It was conquered from the Moors by the kingdoms of Leon and Castile.
              1. VLR
                7 March 2024 10: 27
                Yes, the borders of the Emirate of Granada, conquered by Isabella and Ferdinand, roughly coincide with the borders of Andalusia.
              2. +1
                7 March 2024 11: 12
                Quote from Carlos Sala
                It was part of the crown of Castile
                Sorry, I'm confused about geography wink
    2. 0
      6 March 2024 23: 56
      You Dutch and British pirates are always making up all kinds of nonsense.
  3. +3
    5 March 2024 07: 09
    the Moors (Mudejars) who did not want to be baptized lived in separate communities with their own laws
    I especially liked “the Moors who did not want to be baptized.” And after the reconquista, there were many who wanted to be baptized? Yes, according to the terms of the Treaty of Granada, the Muslim population was allowed to remain in their homes, the trial was carried out according to their own laws, and most importantly, the Moors were not obliged to convert to Christianity However, there was strong pressure on the Moors to convert them to the Christian faith, which caused discontent among the Moors and led to an uprising in 1499 in the city of Granada, and subsequently to uprisings in the Alpujarra, which were suppressed with particular cruelty. The expulsion of the Moriscos continued until until 1614. The expulsion of the Moors, later the Moriscos, caused the collapse of the economy, given that the Moriscos were its main engine. In addition, many fields remained uncultivated; during the fighting, gardens and workshops were destroyed. And the Spanish governments faced the problem of repopulating empty territories, which was solved over the course of decades. And it was not the English and the Dutch who came up with this; the classic of Spanish literature, Calderon de la Barca, dedicated his historical play “Love after Death,” which he wrote in 1659, to one of these uprisings.
    1. VLR
      5 March 2024 08: 58
      A well-known and widespread opinion. In the same way, some decline in agriculture was noted in Crimea during the resettlement of the Crimean Tatars - and, just like in Spain, it was quickly overcome. A holy place is never empty, and very soon everything was restored - there was not enough land in Spain, there were more than enough people willing to get a new one. This negative aspect of the eviction of the Moors was noticed and extremely exaggerated within the framework of the “black legend” - much later than that time - by Protestant historians. But the contemporaries of the Catholic kings and their successors did not see anything terrible. They saw a dynamically developing powerful and wealthy state. The decline began later and was not associated with the expulsion of the Jews and Moors.
      1. +2
        5 March 2024 09: 08
        The Moriscos were evicted for almost 100 years. What resettlement of the Tatars do you mean? In 1944?
        Well-known and widespread opinion
        And of course not true? Yes? The uprising in the Alpujarra was suppressed by an army of 80 thousand people, led by Isabella’s husband, this was essentially the second conquest of Granada. Or was something wrong again? Was it pacified by a very limited contingent of 800 people and the word of God? Anglo-Dutch propaganda? Journalists of that time invented everything? In the first comment he wrote that settlement took several decades. And the new settlers had a hard time, essentially rebuilding everything anew.
        1. VLR
          5 March 2024 09: 20
          Naturally, the Moors wanted to live in Spain, but at the same time according to their own laws and in their own emirate. Just as the Arabs of the Maghreb now want to live in France. And in France it ended in the tragedy of Algeria - not a colony, but a full-fledged and full-fledged department of France. The flight of more than a million “Blackfoots”, hundreds of thousands of loyalist Arabs (evolves), tens of thousands of Jews and over 42 thousand Muslim soldiers (Harki) loyal to de Gaulle to France, where no one was waiting for them. In total, about 1 people left Algeria at that time. De Gaulle stated in May 380:
          “France should not bear any responsibility in maintaining order... If someone is killed, it is the business of the new government.”

          220 thousand Europeans and 110 thousand Arabs lived in Oran, Algeria. .On the very first day of independence, three thousand children, women and old people were killed. De Gaulle abandoned these people and the evacuation of the Orange Blackfoot was carried out by the Spanish government.
          And in total in Algeria at that time, according to “rough” estimates, about 150 thousand people were killed (“rough” - because only men were taken into account, while women and children from their families were often exterminated along with them).
          In 1993, the Islamic Salvation Front declared a “war against foreigners” in Algeria, during which, for example, 19 Catholic priests and monks were killed (all their heads were cut off).
          Currently, Algeria is included in the list of the 10 most dangerous countries to visit in the world.
          Is this the kind of future you would like for Spain and for the Christians of the Muslim provinces of Spain?
          1. +3
            5 March 2024 12: 09
            For the Kazan Khanate, its conquest did not end in tragedy, and Tatarstan exists as an equal subject and as an integral part of the Russian Federation. You jump from era to era. You dragged in Algeria, ignoring the Spanish violation of the terms of the Granada Agreement, which took place in the 15th century. In other words, you justify genocide and the forced Christianization of the Moors. Yes, when the Moors conquered the Iberian Peninsula, they did not engage in genocide of the local population and forced Islamization. They needed a taxpayer, and a living one, and they acted using economic methods. “The infidel” paid high taxes, converted to Islam, and paid the same taxes as other Muslims. Yes, Christians and Jews did not have equal rights with Muslims - this would go to at odds with the teachings of Islam - but they were rarely required to do anything beyond the outward signs of submission. From this a radical concept was born: convivencia - or the joint life and work of people of different faiths. Jews and even Christians began to play a significant role in the government of the country as scribes and clerks, soldiers, diplomats and advisers, and one refined, learned and pious Jew became an unofficial but all-powerful foreign minister, and one of the ambassadors to his reign was a Christian bishop. But this phenomenon was alien to the Spaniards, the joint life and work of people of different religions. And think about the fact that the reconquista went on for several hundred years, and the Arabs conquered the Iberian Peninsula in 5 years and with small forces.
            1. -1
              5 March 2024 19: 45
              Lyosha, greetings. You probably noticed about the Moors and Spaniards.
              In general, the topic of interethnic and interreligious relations is very delicate
    2. +3
      5 March 2024 09: 44
      So the Arabs, the newcomer population there, are conquerors who managed to recapture their land from the Spaniards. hi
      1. +2
        5 March 2024 12: 12
        Before the Arab conquest, the Iberian Peninsula was home to a diverse population. They were headed by all the Visigoths, who, shortly before the events described, had gained the upper hand over the locals. But they did not seek to assimilate with the defeated people, and therefore did not adopt their language and customs and remained, in fact, a military elite that imposed their rules on everyone else. hi
        1. +1
          5 March 2024 12: 31
          Quote: parusnik
          But they did not seek to assimilate with the defeated people, and therefore did not adopt their language and customs and remained, in fact, a military elite that imposed their rules on everyone else.

          They were Christians and the Arabs were Muslims. Yes
          1. +1
            5 March 2024 16: 41
            The Reconquista lasted for several hundred years, in five years the Arabs conquered the Iberian Peninsula. With small forces, can you explain why? The hint is in my first comment to you.
            1. 0
              5 March 2024 16: 46
              Of course I can - since on the then Iberian Peninsula there were small feudal states.
              1. 0
                5 March 2024 17: 00
                On the Iberian Peninsula, there were small feudal states.
                And how many of them were there? Do you understand that the local population of the Ibero-Romans did not support the ruling elite of the Visigoths, who did not know their language, did not spare assimilation, the Jews generally welcomed the Arabs, hoping to gain some kind of rights, there were three kingdoms, two Visigothic and The Basques. The Arabs simply could not defeat the Basques, the smallest state at that time, because the elite and the people were united. And then after the conquest, a convivension arose - or the joint life and work of people of different religions. Jews and even Christians began to play a significant role in governing the country. Although they had fewer rights than Muslims, nevertheless. No one was evicted or persecuted for religious views. Therefore, the Reconquista went on for several hundred years.
                1. 0
                  5 March 2024 18: 00
                  Quote: parusnik
                  That’s why the Reconquista went on for several hundred years.

                  Or because feudal strife continued unabated.
                2. -1
                  7 March 2024 00: 02
                  What a disgrace! The Visigoths and Suevas had lived on the peninsula for 300 years when the Moors arrived, and had already assimilated and mixed with the Celto-Roman population. On the other hand, it was not the Basques who resisted the Moors, but the Asturians, who created the kingdom of Asturias, from which later came the kingdoms of Galicia, Portugal, Leon and Castile.
  4. +3
    5 March 2024 07: 45
    Thanks to the Author, it is written in a lively and interesting manner; I did not know some of the details.

    There is an excellent digression about the queen, worthy of a separate article.

    PS Probably, the theme of the upcoming holiday inspired the Author to write such an article.
    1. VLR
      5 March 2024 08: 31
      You know, not without it. smile
      I planned to write a “women’s” article by March 8, but it turned out to be 4 articles. Moreover, what follows will not be in chronological order - each new article is devoted to different “incarnations” of Isabella - wife and mother, conquering queen, “employee of Torquemada.”
      1. +4
        5 March 2024 09: 46
        Thank you, we will wait. This makes it easier for us men to get through these difficult days... :)
  5. +1
    5 March 2024 08: 07
    In Spain and Italy, the queen began to be called by the same word as the Mother of God - “Dama” and “Donna”, respectively. In some other countries - "Vierge"

    These are just the names of the figures and nothing more. Our elephant in English-language literature is called bishop, horse - a knight, and the rook - lock. I don’t remember in what language, our elephant is even called standard bearer...
  6. VLR
    5 March 2024 10: 42
    The typo will be corrected shortly:
    Juana the Mad - second daughter (and third child) of Isabella and Ferdinand
  7. +4
    5 March 2024 10: 47
    “Dogs of Paradise” is the story of two brilliant youths united by an all-consuming passion - the Catholic kings Ferdinand and Isabella. They are the center of an adventure in which the main role was played by the frantic discoverer of new lands, Christopher Columbus. Jew and Catholic, hero and slave trader, prophet and greedy gold seeker, he embodies all the contradictions inherent in Western man. (Abel Posse)
    A novel on the topic, I recommend it to everyone good
  8. 0
    5 March 2024 13: 04
    Enrique IV even received the nickname el Impotente

    To go down in history with the nickname “Impotent” is no longer to go down, but to “get into trouble” laughing
    1. +1
      5 March 2024 21: 43
      Quote: vet
      Go down in history with the nickname "Impotent"

      Kings have their own specifics. For example, a king with few children was a serious benefit for the then typical society and state - after all, any “unaccounted for” descendant is the seed of a future destructive civil war. In eastern despotism, they generally practiced the most strict version of resolving this issue.
  9. +1
    5 March 2024 16: 05
    An interesting article, but I see some confusion with the naming of the heroine of the article.
    This is facilitated by the illustration at the beginning, which is supposed to depict it.
    However, on the pedestal of the monument there is a date - 1504, which most likely refers to the mother of the heroine. It is only clear that both mother and daughter were called “Catholic.”
    1. VLR
      5 March 2024 17: 20
      No, if a Spaniard hears “Isabella the Catholic” (La Catolica) - for him this is only Isabella I, the heroine of the article, and he will not confuse her with anyone. Like Ferdinand the Catholic - only one, the heroine’s husband. This is an abbreviation of the official titles "Catholic Queen" and "Catholic King", which they received from the Pope. Although, of course, all the monarchs of Spain were Catholics. But the Catholic kings are Isabella and Ferdinand.
      1504 on the pedestal - the date of death of Isabella I.
      1. +1
        5 March 2024 18: 34
        Valery, I have long been interested in the question: did the French have the title “His Catholic Majesty”, but the Spaniards or Italians did not have such a title? Although these countries were completely Catholic.
        1. +3
          5 March 2024 20: 16
          Quote from lisikat2
          The French had the title "His Catholic Majesty", but the Spaniards or Italians did not have such a title?

          On the contrary.
          This is a title specifically given to Spanish kings by Pope Alexander Borgia. The French did not have this, and the Kingdom of Naples was under the Spaniards
      2. +2
        5 March 2024 19: 04
        Quote: VlR

        1504 on the pedestal - the date of death of Isabella I.

        Yes, thank you, I just got it mixed up - I see 1504, but read 1405 feel
  10. +2
    5 March 2024 18: 25
    “I got surrounded with the king*, they were probably riding, if not in front of everyone, then in the first rows. Otherwise, I can’t imagine: how did they get surrounded?
    If I were my subjects, I would honor my queen.
    Agree, not every monarch or president (although they didn’t exist yet) goes on the attack ahead of his army
    1. 0
      5 March 2024 20: 22
      “goes ahead” and not so: on the one hand, it’s commendable. Personal courage and all that stuff.
      On the other hand, it's a stupid risk. If the commander dies, there will be some kind of hitch in the troops, but if the head of state dies, it is much more complicated. So it’s difficult to unequivocally assess their courage
      1. +1
        6 March 2024 15: 07
        Perhaps you are right. But I remain unconvinced: there are few queens who would attack the enemy
        1. +1
          7 March 2024 10: 32
          These were knightly times, and Eleanor’s son Richard the Lionheart was always in the forefront. But Alienora’s behavior is, of course, exceptional.
  11. +1
    5 March 2024 18: 43
    Valery, colleagues, good evening.. Circumstances turned out that I didn’t have time to “sit on the site” and I somehow got out of the habit. So, in the “Chapaev style,” I dropped in, but not seriously
    Now, I decided: I need to find time and visit the site more often
  12. +2
    5 March 2024 19: 21
    Isabella of Portugal probably had a predisposition to mental illness. This could be hereditary, or it could be a severe head injury. In childhood this is not noticeable, but then the slightest shake is enough and... I had a classmate, we studied together until the 5th grade. Before school, he fell from the 2nd floor, seemingly safely, but after 30 it started: insomnia, memory loss, glitches. It’s interesting that Isabella of Castile’s head was normal, but her daughter showed insanity
    In general, human psychology is a very complex “tool”.
  13. 0
    5 March 2024 20: 17
    F. Tyutchev responded to this in 1870:

    "Unity," announced the oracle of our day, "
    It may be soldered with iron and blood only ... "

    "...And we'll try to solder it with love
    And then we’ll see which is stronger” (quote from memory)
    In my opinion, Tyutchev’s quatrain makes sense only in its finished form. Why did you cut it?
    1. +1
      5 March 2024 20: 43
      “why did I cut it” is the author’s will: I turn it the way I want
    2. VLR
      6 March 2024 06: 29
      The second part is not needed in this case: this is Tyutchev’s “gag”. And we are talking about Bismarck and his famous statement, which Tyutchev, as a diplomat, could not help but comment on. But “soldering with love” is his personal opinion. Still, as a poet he, of course, surpassed Bismarck, but not as a politician and diplomat.
      1. 0
        6 March 2024 19: 40
        The second part is not needed in this case

        You are the author, you know better.
        But to me, as a reader, the meaning of the mention in the article of a couplet taken out of context still remains unclear. Bismarck's quote is known even outside of Tyutchev's poem, and certainly not thanks to him. Its mention in the poems of the Russian poet in itself does not add either weight or significance to the phrase of the German chancellor.
    3. +3
      6 March 2024 11: 03
      we'll try to solder it with love
      And then we'll see what's stronger

      Considering that Germany, which lost major wars twice, is united, and the Soviet Union, which won World War 2, collapsed, we can conclude: Bismarck’s methods are much more effective and efficient than the Soviet path of “love”, pandering to nationalist elites and appeasing the outskirts to the detriment of Russian regions
      1. +1
        6 March 2024 14: 59
        Due to my age, I didn’t live in the Union, but I read a lot and watched films.
        I agree with you: indulgence and cajoling backfired on the USSR. + Excessive assistance to “brotherly peoples”, but the Papuan remained a Papuan
        I talked to
        senior colleagues who traveled to “brotherly countries” they talked so much about the “gratitude” of these peoples. An open enemy, better than such "brothers"!
        1. 0
          6 March 2024 19: 34
          Stories from senior colleagues and their personal impressions are, of course, good. But please do not forget that narrative sources are the most unreliable sources of historical knowledge and you should listen to them very, very carefully. The same goes for literature and films created during the era of the dominance of the elite, directly interested in conservation and the absence of doubts among society about the correctness of decisions (including foreign policy) implemented at the turn of the 90s of the last century.
          But look, on whose international assistance and support does our country rely today? China, Iran, Cuba, North Korea, countries of the African continent... Are these not the same countries that were once given “excessive assistance”?
          1. +1
            12 March 2024 19: 28
            I agree in some ways, but I can argue.
            1) To listen to you, you can’t trust the stories of your elders, but who should you trust?
            2) my husband is a defense engineer and he tells me something: North Korea does not share package technologies, they themselves are interested. This was mentioned on the website and in the media.
            Cuba does not provide military assistance, see: TV "Zvezda" Iran in the 80s was an enemy of the USSR, I read Garayev's memoirs, Soviet newspapers of that time...
            Only China remains, but due to my age I did not witness the events in Damascus, and you should know better
      2. -1
        6 March 2024 19: 15
        Well, firstly, Tyutchev’s poems and the path he glorifies have little to do with the Soviet period of state building.
        Secondly, the methods of Bismarck (or rather, his followers) led not only to defeat in both world wars, but also to the disintegration of the country, which was overcome only after almost half a century, and the separation from it of part of the most important territories, none of which has yet been returned , the occupation of the country by American troops, which essentially continues to this day, and the loss of political and economic sovereignty that is also observed to this day. In Russia, thank God, despite the enormity of our losses after the collapse of the USSR, there are no NATO bases and the original Russian lands have not been taken away. And the path to returning the territorial, political and economic unity of the peoples of the USSR is not yet closed for us.
        As for “indulging the nationalist elites and appeasing the outskirts to the detriment of the Russian regions” in the USSR, this is such a crude primitivization of the description of reality, which has very little in common with reality, that I don’t even want to discuss it seriously.
        1. +1
          7 March 2024 10: 00
          Here, rather, there is a departure from the precepts of Bismarck, who precisely advocated a union in Russia. And the strange behavior of Nicholas 2, who suddenly abandoned the traditional alliance with Prussia, which had become the head of the German Empire, since the Napoleonic Wars. This departure from the traditional alliance has come at a cost to our countries.
  14. +1
    6 March 2024 23: 48
    Of course, the anti-Spanish “Black Legend” was created by English and Dutch pirates. “The centuries-old process of the Reconquista, begun by the Asturians in 722, ended, and the last Arab state in Europe, the Arab emirate of Granada, fell under the onslaught of Christians.” Of course, if it were not for the Asturians, there would now be another Turkey.
  15. 0
    20 March 2024 17: 01
    At 7 hi from Argentina
    Pedro Alfonso, siglo XI: " alguien se te junta en un lleva lanza, vete a la derecha, y si lleva espada, a la izquierda...
    Something like this: "....if someone joins you on a journey..... if he has a spear, go on his right side, if he has a sword, go on his left side..."
    Pedro Alfonso is a baptized Jew.