Journey to the ancestors. Russians in Egypt

54
Journey to the ancestors. Russians in Egypt
The Polish film “Pharaoh” (1965) can rightfully be considered one of the best films about Ancient Egypt...


O glorious and wise Egypt,
A mystery at all times
Your shine will be drunk by the pharaohs,
The treasury was destroyed by enemies.
Culture, and that too was stolen,
The centuries-old works were burned,
The leading people were exterminated,
And they couldn’t calm down the anger.
Mikhail Galkin "To the Vanished People"

History and people. Who among us has not heard about “Walking across Three Seas” by Afanasy Nikitin, the first explorer and traveler, the author of wonderful notes. But we also had other explorers who visited not India and Persia, but Egypt, and they also wrote their own “Walks...” about this.



The history of the great Egyptian civilization, which dates back 27 centuries, is one of the mysteries that always interests our readers. Although there is probably no more meaningless topic if we look at it from the point of view of common sense. However... it's interesting.

And if people are interested in something, it means it is needed, it is in demand. Here is today's story, we will again dedicate it to Egypt, and we will report on how the inhabitants of Russia in distant, distant times became acquainted with its culture, how they learned about it, and which Russian was the first to visit this country. And, of course, we will also talk about what written works he left us as a legacy...

The embassy of Ivan the Terrible goes to the East


The first of the Russian tsars to send a special embassy to the East was Tsar Ivan the Terrible. Why he needed this is difficult to say. Perhaps simple curiosity, or maybe some kind of state interest.

The important thing is that the envoys included a merchant from Smolensk, whose name was Vasily Poznyakov. The mission of the embassy was to represent the royal personage in overseas lands and “to write down the customs in those countries.”

The result of that journey was the book: “The Walk of the Merchant Vasily Poznyakov” - the first book in Russia that told Russian people about Egypt.


Faience amulet of Ra-Horakti, only 2,8 cm high. 664–630. BC e. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The embassy left Moscow “in the summer of 7066” (“from the creation of the world,” that is, in 1558 according to our account) and moved in a roundabout way through Lithuania “to Constantinople,” and from there to Alexandria, and it got there only a year later!

But the ambassadors were in Cairo for only four days. After this they returned to Alexandria and then went to the Sinai Peninsula.


The goddess Tauret, who was the patroness of women in labor. Height 5 cm. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Poznyakov spent very little time in Egypt, but this was enough for him to be able to talk about the conquest of Egypt by the Turks, its cities and nature in “Walking”:

“And the city was made of stone and fell apart, only one gate stands intact...”


Alabaster bowl. Dynasty II, c. 2750–2649 BC e. Saqqara, tomb 2322: Egyptian Antiquities Service/Kybella excavations, 1910–1911. Material: travertine (Egyptian alabaster). Height 9,4 cm; diameter 23,6 cm. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

"Bestseller of the XNUMXth century"


In Russia, for some reason, Poznyakov’s book began to be attributed to the merchant Trifon Korobeinikov, who also visited Egypt, but 25 years after Poznyakov. He simply added several of his chapters to Pozdnyakov’s book.

It has come down to us in more than two hundred (!) handwritten copies, and in another forty printed books. Which once again speaks of the great interest the Russians of that time showed in Egypt and its antiquities!


Another vessel made of alabaster. New Kingdom, XVIII Dynasty, c. 1550–1458 BC e. Upper Egypt, Thebes, courtyard CC 41, pit 3, burial B 4, between coffin head and wall, MMA excavations, 1915–1916. Dimensions: height 13,6 cm; diameter 11,6 cm. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Only 300 years later it was possible to find out that “Korobeinikov’s Travels” is nothing more than Poznyakov’s work with Korobeinikov’s additions. Moreover, six handwritten copies of his “Walkings” have been preserved, so you can easily compare who exactly wrote what. Korobeinikov was also the first to describe the African ostrich to the Russians, and he found very funny comparisons for this.


Sarcophagus of the mummy of Iineferti. New kingdom. XIX dynasty. The era of the reign of Ramesses II. OK. 1279–1213 BC e. The sarcophagus was closed with a wooden lid (“mummy board”), on which a figure of the deceased or deceased was carved, and it was carved and painted so as to show the deceased in a long white dress with folds. Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Medina, Tomb of Sennejem, Egyptian Antiquities Service/Maspero excavations, 1885–1886. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Then the Kazan merchant Vasily Yakovlev, nicknamed “Loon,” went to Egypt and stayed there for 14 weeks. Apparently, that’s why he wrote more than his predecessors.


Upper part of the lid of the sarcophagus of Iineferti's mummy. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Travel of Vasily Yakovlev


In 1634, he began his journey, going from Kazan to Astrakhan, and then to Tiflis, and then to Erzurum, Jerusalem, and in this indirect way finally reached Egypt. As we walked, I wrote down everything I saw. For example, he was the first to describe the obelisk from Heliopolis, “12 fathoms” high (about 25 meters high), indicating that it had “the name of the pharaoh.”

It’s funny that the not-so-educated merchant clearly indicated that the signs on the obelisk were writing. Whereas the German professor Witte, more than a hundred years later, argued that Egyptian obelisks are nothing more than “creations of nature,” but the inscriptions on them were allegedly “carved” by special snails!


In the tomb of Ineferti they found such a figurine of ushabti. The word ushebti can be translated as “I am here!” That is, this is a figurine that is a substitute for its owner, which came to life in the next world and, by order of the gods, had to work together with him. And if you had 365 ushabti available, then you didn’t have to worry about anything else! It is made from Nile silt and then dried in the sun. But even today, modern Egyptians make the same ushabti from Nile silt in the same way and sell them to tourists, not without profit. It’s just that their molds are made of vixint. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Gagara also reached the pyramids in Giza, and they made a very strong impression on him. He also saw a crocodile on the Nile, about which he spoke as follows:

“...and his head is like that of a catfish, and his legs are like those of a man, and the same in nature, and the tail of that beast is like that of a catfish, and in appearance that beast is like a malicious serpent... If it overtakes a person, it devours to death. The skin on it is like fish scales, and the size of a crocodile is two fathoms.”

Interestingly, this is the very first description of a crocodile in our literature!


Sarcophagus of Khonsu. New kingdom. XIX dynasty. The era of the reign of Ramesses II. OK. 1279–1213 BC e. Height 188 cm. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Alexey Mikhailovich the Quietest sends his embassy...


Once again, an embassy to the eastern countries “according to the sovereign Tsarev and Grand Duke Alexei Mikhailovich of All Rus'’s decree” was sent on June 10, 1649. Among those sent was a certain Arseny Sukhanov - one of the poor small-scale nobles, impoverished and so busy “dragging between the courtyard on Tula.” But he was extremely literate and not only understood literacy, but also knew Greek, both ancient and living, spoken. He knew Polish and even understood a little Latin. He was on the road for ten years on various diplomatic affairs, visiting Georgia, Moldova, Asia Minor, as well as Mesopotamia and Palestine, Greece and Egypt.


Hieroglyphic inscription on the sarcophagus of Khonsu. New kingdom. XIX dynasty. The era of the reign of Ramesses II. OK. 1279–1213 BC e. Height 188 cm. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

It is interesting that he had considerable sums with him, entrusted to him for the purchase of all sorts of Greek books... drawing sheets from different lands.


Leaving for the East, Sukhanov submitted a petition to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich on May 9, 1649, asking him to give him money for the trip. Illustration from the book by N. Petrovsky and A. Belov. Country of Big Hapi. Leningrad. Detlit. 1955, p. 21.

Sukhanov stayed on the banks of the Nile for a month and a half and described in great detail everything he saw.


Interior of Raemkaya's mastaba. Ancient kingdom. V Dynasty. OK. 2446–2389 BC e. Saqqara. The mastaba itself is located north of the Pyramid of Djoser, Egyptian Antiquities Service/Cybella Excavations, 1907–1908. Raemkai's Mastaba was originally built and decorated for an official named Neferiretnes, whose name and titles can still be seen on the false door. Either Neferiretnes fell out of favor, or his entire family died, so there was no one to ensure that he was buried “as it should be.” And note that the use of this tomb for Raemkai could not be a squatter. It was probably carried out by decree of the pharaoh around 2381 BC. e. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


And these are the bas-reliefs of its northern wall. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Sukhanov wrote that “before this, no one from Moscow had been here, but only under Tsar Ivan Vasilyevich there was an ambassador,” that is, he knew about Poznyakov’s embassy. But he most likely knew nothing about Vasily Gagara’s journey, because he traveled at his own peril and risk.


Painted figures on a bas-relief from the Raemkai mastaba. The inscriptions call Raemkai (the name means “the sun is my life force”) “the bodily son of the pharaoh,” so he may indeed have been the pharaoh’s son (bastard) and prince. True, we do not know exactly which pharaoh was his father. One title indicates his connection with coronation ceremonies, meaning Raemkaya was sometimes quite close to the personality of the pharaoh. The tomb is decorated with many beautiful reliefs with scenes of catching birds, cutting meat, baking bread and brewing beer, as well as hunting in the steppe with a lasso and dogs. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

He wrote about the pyramids in the vicinity of Cairo:

“The graves of the ancient pharaohs, worthy of a great marvel... are very large, like mountains, wide at the bottom, and pointed at the top.”

True, he named only three pyramids, in Giza, but he simply did not know that there were more than 118 pyramids in Egypt!

Sukhanov's trip to Egypt turned out to be very useful, both for the state and for the traveler himself, because after him Sukhanov was put in charge of the Moscow Printing House, and this position was both prestigious and responsible.
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  1. +15
    February 11 2024
    Gagara was not the first to describe crocodiles in Rus'.
    Pskov Chronicle 1582
    "In the summer of 7090 (1582)... the lurid beasts came out of the river and closed the way; they ate many people. And people were terrified and prayed to God throughout the whole earth. And again she hid, and beat them up."
    You better learn the materiel!
    1. +3
      February 11 2024
      Quote: ee2100
      Pskov Chronicle 1582

      There is an opinion that they were brought to Rus' by some Arab or Persian merchants. And these crocodiles somehow escaped from them wink
      1. +5
        February 11 2024
        That's not right. We brought crocodiles there. Or they migrated there themselves.
      2. +3
        February 11 2024
        Quote: Dutchman Michel
        Quote: ee2100
        Pskov Chronicle 1582

        There is an opinion that they were brought to Rus' by some Arab or Persian merchants. And these crocodiles somehow escaped from them wink

        Do you remember this:
        Buy the best ostrich eggs in Africa! The most recent!

        Is it ever heard of selling crocodile eggs as ostrich eggs? wassat
        1. +2
          February 11 2024
          Quote from Kojote21
          Is it ever heard of selling crocodile eggs as ostrich eggs?

          For a captain with such a euphonious surname, this is forgivable wink
          1. +3
            February 11 2024
            Quote: Dutchman Michel
            Quote from Kojote21
            Is it ever heard of selling crocodile eggs as ostrich eggs?

            For a captain with such a euphonious surname, this is forgivable wink

            It was not he who sold it, but Julico Bandito and Voro de la Gangsterito! wink Vrungel only bought them, and it was Lom’s idea to buy the eggs; the captain himself was wary of them! wink
            1. +3
              February 11 2024
              Quote from Kojote21
              That's not how he sold it

              I remember that the quote is from "Captain Vrungel", but I forgot the plot wink
    2. 0
      February 11 2024
      Thanks Alexander, clarified...
      Well, now it’s clear who brought the Cherekha endemic “crocodiles of the fierce beast” to Egypt!!!
      Good day everyone, thanks to Vyacheslav and Alexander, otherwise all the cats are cats!!!! tongue but no - the main thing is “crogodility Pskov poganus”!!!!!!!
      R.s. It’s a pity that I have to get ready for work, otherwise I would have turned around with all my heart….
      1. +5
        February 11 2024
        Good morning!
        "The Fate of the Russian Crocodile"
        https://topwar.ru/204299-sudba-russkogo-krokodila.html
        1. +10
          February 11 2024
          Very interesting material, I agree. BUT this is still at the level of hypotheses. There was a scarecrow, but it disappeared. There are no skeletal remains. Reminds me of the monster of Loch Ness - everyone has seen it, but there are no traces.
          1. +6
            February 11 2024
            Quote: kalibr
            Reminds me of the monster of Loch Ness - everyone has seen it, but there are no traces

            Why does it have to be a crocodile? After all, he was in Russian folk tales The Dragon, whose interface was very similar to a crocodile. Noble knights from Western European epics also bravely fight dragons. Such reptiles were not spared from the Christian scriptures, where they are called Leviathans. It is possible that the crocodiles mentioned here are nothing more than miraculously preserved reptiles from the Jurassic or Cretaceous era. The same can be said about Western European and Chinese dragons, and about the elusive Scottish monster from Loch Ness. Well, our consciousness simply transformed this reptile to a crocodile - more understandable to modern man...
            1. +4
              February 11 2024
              Quote: Luminman
              Well, our consciousness simply transformed this reptile to a crocodile - more understandable to modern man...

              This is all true and I agree with this. But... where are the skulls, bones and everything else? So far, there is no confidence in this.
              1. +2
                February 11 2024
                Quote: kalibr
                But... where are the skulls, bones and everything else?

                A lot of this goodness is found. Including on the territory of our country. I mean the remains of dinosaurs. Of course, they do not resemble the descriptions of medieval eyewitnesses, but in the minds of that person they could well be dragons and Gorynych Snakes. Do not forget that some of the properties of these reptiles can be drawn by the heated consciousness of an eyewitness, and then over the centuries they can also acquire myths... For example, you can recall the flying chariot of the biblical Ezekiel, whose wheels were all strewn with eyes - this is also eyewitness description...
            2. +5
              February 11 2024
              Good morning, Nikolai! hi

              Quote: Luminman
              Serpent Gorynych, whose interface very much resembled a crocodile.


              As for me, they don’t look alike in terms of interface! sad
              1. +4
                February 11 2024
                Quote from Kojote21
                As for me, they are not very similar to each other in terms of interface!

                How can they not be similar? An elongated mouth dotted with sharp teeth, an evil crocodile look and a green head... Well, wings and spewing fire are already fiction. Or do you need a photographic likeness? Greetings!
                1. +2
                  February 11 2024
                  Quote: Luminman
                  Quote from Kojote21
                  As for me, they are not very similar to each other in terms of interface!

                  How can they not be similar? An elongated mouth dotted with sharp teeth, an evil crocodile look and a green head... Well, wings and spewing fire are already fiction. Or do you need a photographic likeness? Greetings!

                  Then yes, but, as for me, Zmey Gorynych will be larger than a crocodile! wink
                  1. +4
                    February 11 2024
                    Quote from Kojote21
                    Serpent Gorynych will be larger than a crocodile!

                    But no larger than some dinosaur. We should not forget about the chronicler’s fevered imagination...
                    1. +3
                      February 11 2024
                      Quote: Luminman
                      Quote from Kojote21
                      Serpent Gorynych will be larger than a crocodile!

                      But no larger than some dinosaur. We should not forget about the chronicler’s fevered imagination...

                      This is yes.
            3. +4
              February 11 2024
              Zmey Gorynych is a pure tornado. If you look at how it begins, it’s just like in the fairy tale about the Snake. He might even have three heads.
          2. +1
            February 11 2024
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, thank you very much for the article, good afternoon comrades! hi
          3. +8
            February 11 2024
            Quote: kalibr
            Reminds me of the monster of Loch Ness - everyone has seen it, but there are no traces

            An American visiting Loch Ness asks the receptionist:
            - What time does your monster usually appear?
            - As a rule, after the fifth glass of whiskey, sir!
    3. +5
      February 11 2024
      Quote: ee2100
      You better learn the materiel!

      For what? Here is your opportunity to show off your erudition and at the same time bring up an interesting fact. Only... if you are such an expert on materiel, then tell us where the crocodiles came from in Pskov in 1582. And by the way, where is the promised article on the tower? Will we wait three years?
    4. +3
      February 11 2024
      Good afternoon, Alexander! hi

      You said golden words that apply to all VO authors: it’s better to learn materiel! ! drinks
  2. +3
    February 11 2024
    Am I the only one who is confused by the fact that everything was exported to the USA (judging by the signatures of the museums)?
    1. +6
      February 11 2024
      Quote: pettabyte
      Am I the only one who is confused by the fact that everything was exported to the USA (judging by the signatures of the museums)?

      Not all. The Cairo Museum is very rich. But he is difficult to work with.
    2. +4
      February 11 2024
      Why everything?? The British and French took no less...
      1. +5
        February 11 2024
        Quote: BelkaGrandf
        The British and French took no less...

        And the Germans!!!
        1. +4
          February 11 2024
          Quote: kalibr
          And the Germans!!!

          And the Germans were plundered by American liberators after the war wink
          1. +2
            February 11 2024
            Quote: Dutchman Michel
            Quote: kalibr
            And the Germans!!!

            And the Germans were plundered by American liberators after the war wink

            Well, they didn’t take away the main treasures of German museums!
        2. +2
          February 11 2024
          Quote: kalibr
          Quote: BelkaGrandf
          The British and French took no less...

          And the Germans!!!

          And the Italians??
          1. +2
            February 11 2024
            Quote from Kojote21
            And the Italians??

            I don't know about them.
            1. +2
              February 11 2024
              Quote: kalibr
              Quote from Kojote21
              And the Italians??

              I don't know about them.

              It is a pity.

              Good evening, Vyacheslav Olegovich! hi
              1. +4
                February 11 2024
                Quote from Kojote21
                Quote: kalibr
                Quote from Kojote21
                And the Italians??

                I don't know about them.

                It is a pity.

                Good evening, Vyacheslav Olegovich! hi

                Good evening, Artem! The most valuable exhibits are preserved on the museum island in Berlin: the Ishtar Gate from Babylon, the Pergamon Altar and... a bust of Nefertiti. I only had time to look at it, I couldn’t take a photo, the battery ran out. But I still remember this face, her one eye. It is impossible to forget this beauty. Then I ran and almost missed the bus... I can recommend to you a very interesting book by Mary Chubb, “Nefertiti Lived Here.” You won't regret reading it.
                1. +2
                  February 11 2024
                  Quote: kalibr
                  Quote from Kojote21
                  Quote: kalibr
                  Quote from Kojote21
                  And the Italians??

                  I don't know about them.

                  It is a pity.

                  Good evening, Vyacheslav Olegovich! hi

                  Good evening, Artem! The most valuable exhibits are preserved on the museum island in Berlin: the Ishtar Gate from Babylon, the Pergamon Altar and... a bust of Nefertiti. I only had time to look at it, I couldn’t take a photo, the battery ran out. But I still remember this face, her one eye. It is impossible to forget this beauty. Then I ran and almost missed the bus... I can recommend to you a very interesting book by Mary Chubb, “Nefertiti Lived Here.” You won't regret reading it.

                  Thank you for the book, Vyacheslav Olegovich! hi It's a pity that the battery died... crying Did it work too much before or did you forget to charge it? Or both combined?
                  1. +3
                    February 11 2024
                    Quote from Kojote21
                    Did it work too much before or did you forget to charge it? Or both combined?

                    I was on a tourist bus and filmed a lot. And I didn’t know how much they would bring us to Museum Island. But they brought it earlier and I had time to go to the museum for free and quickly. But... where to charge is the time. If you fall behind the group, then look for it around Berlin. Therefore, when I discovered that the camera was not working, it was too late. My wife called: “Where are you, we’re leaving now...” Well, that’s all.
          2. +3
            February 11 2024
            And the Italians??
            The Italians, as Romans, stole a lot from Egypt; there are more standing Egyptian obelisks in Italy than in Egypt.
          3. +3
            February 11 2024
            Quote from Kojote21
            And the Italians??

            They themselves were robbed. It seems that there were still Brazilians there as part of the joint forces, and there were a lot of complaints about them
  3. +4
    February 11 2024
    The famous mystical writer Algernon Blackwood has a story “The Wings of Horus”, just on the topic - Russians in Egypt. Very interesting hi
  4. +4
    February 11 2024
    The first of the Russian tsars to send a special embassy to the East was Tsar Ivan the Terrible. Why he needed this is difficult to say. Perhaps simple curiosity, or maybe some kind of state interest

    There is nothing difficult here. Sinai monks first turned to Moscow for alms back in 1517. From that time on, the Russian state acted as the patron of the Orthodox East and provided significant financial assistance to co-religionists in the Balkans and Palestine.
    In January 1558, another Sinai embassy arrived in Moscow with requests for alms and with letters from Patriarch Joachim I and Archbishop Macarius of Sinai. Ivan the Terrible sent Archdeacon Gennady and Vasily Poznyakov to the Orthodox East to give alms to monasteries and patriarchs. Moreover, the “alms” of furs, money and church utensils were very significant.
  5. +4
    February 11 2024
    Here is today's story, we will again dedicate it to Egypt, and we will report on how the inhabitants of Russia in distant, distant times became acquainted with its culture, how they learned about it, and which Russian was the first to visit this country.

    Just to answer the question
    who was the first Russian to visit this country?
    The author never answered, because Russians had been to Egypt before Ivan the Terrible’s embassy.
    Presumably the first Russian traveler to visit Egypt around 1370 was Archimandrite Agrephenius. It was definitely in Egypt, but it is speculative that it was the first. He compiled a description of his journey “The Walking of Archimandrite Agrefenya”, which came down in 2 copies - the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, containing a brief description of Cairo, Alexandria, and the geographical features of the places he visited.
    There is also a mention in the Nikon Chronicle about the embassy to “overseas countries” of Prince Vladimir. But whether there was such an embassy and whether it was in Egypt - there is no evidence.
    1. +3
      February 11 2024
      Quote: Dekabrist
      Presumably the first Russian traveler to visit Egypt around 1370 was Archimandrite Agrephenius. It was definitely in Egypt, but it is speculative that it was the first. He compiled a description of his journey “The Walking of Archimandrite Agrefenya”, which came down in 2 copies - the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, containing a brief description of Cairo, Alexandria, and the geographical features of the places he visited.

      This was not in my source. Minus for Egyptologist Petrovsky and academician Struve...Although perhaps this was found out after them? In any case, thank you very much!
      1. +4
        February 11 2024
        This was not in my source. Minus for Egyptologist Petrovsky and Academician Struve...

        Petrovsky could simply not be interested in this point, since he was studying the grammar of the Egyptian language. But V.V. Struve could not have known this question by definition - he was a member of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society, which was engaged in promoting Orthodox pilgrimage to the Holy Land, scientific Palestinian studies and oriental studies.
        1. +2
          February 11 2024
          The book I used, “On the Shores of the Great Khapi,” was published under his editorship.
  6. +8
    February 11 2024
    Tsar Ivan the Terrible. Why he needed this is difficult to say.

    Nevertheless, Ivan Vasilyevich was a deeply religious man and not alien to enlightenment. And Egypt, whatever one may say, is the land mentioned in the Bible.
  7. +5
    February 11 2024
    It’s interesting - at the very first embassy, ​​was there an exchange of gifts, an official reception, etc.? What did the first embassy achieve?
    1. +4
      February 11 2024
      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
      What did the first embassy achieve?

      Perhaps history is silent about this!
    2. +7
      February 11 2024
      It’s interesting - at the very first embassy, ​​was there an exchange of gifts, an official reception, etc.? What did the first embassy achieve?

      The task of the first embassy was to deliver “alms” in the form of furs, money and gold church utensils, which Patriarch Joachim I and Archbishop Macarius of Sinai tearfully requested, sending “walkers” to fellow believers in Moscow in 1556. The “wake” was delivered, despite the fact that the head of the mission, Archdeacon Gennady, died on the way.
  8. +1
    February 11 2024
    Colleagues, good afternoon. There are so many events today: great materials from Valery and Vyacheslav Olegovich.
    The son recognized the baby as his sister.
    In the morning, my friend and I went to “deal” with my neighbor. Only, I asked that it be done without the “two hundredths”.
    Now, I called that the neighbor will henceforth respect the "St. George" ribbon
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, when I read about the merchants: Pozdnyakov and Korobeinikov. I remembered Pushkin: “Ruslan and Lyudmila.”
    Is it good across the sea, or is it bad?
    There were merchants: scouts and diplomats.
    And very risky people
    1. +3
      February 11 2024
      [quote=Astra wild2]I’m very glad, dear Astra, that everything is fine with you. Let it continue like this.
    2. +2
      February 12 2024
      And they didn’t disdain smuggling hi
      Moreover, what’s strange is that they admit it completely freely.
      "The wind blows across the sea
      And the boat drives;
      He runs himself in the waves
      On full sails
      Past the steep island,
      Past the big city;
      Guns from the pier scorching
      The ship is ordered to land.
      Guests arrive at the outpost.
      Prince Guidon invites them to visit,
      He feeds and waters them
      And he orders me to keep the answer:
      “What are you, guests, bargaining with?
      And where are you swimming now? ”
      Ship owners in return:
      “We traveled all over the world,
      We traded for a reason
      Unspecified product;
      And we have a long way to go:
      Come back to the east
      Past Buyan Island,
      To the kingdom of the glorious Saltan."
      The prince said to them then:
      “Good luck to you, gentlemen,
      By sea along Ociyan
      To the glorious I give to Saltan"

      Therefore, there may be another option.
      Guests were required to supply the lands subject to Tsar Saltan the specified goods, and most likely at a fixed price. But in addition they could trade unspecified. On which they made money. After all, they openly say that this time
      We traded for a reason
      Unspecified product;
      hi
  9. +3
    February 12 2024
    Pozdnyakov’s description of Cairo is interesting.
    “And the patriarch ordered us to go with him to Cairo. And Cairo is three miles away. And we came to Cairo with the patriarch. In Cairo there is a large church of the Holy Passion-Bearer George, a nunnery. And in the church on the left side, behind the copper bars, there is an image written George the Wonderworker. Many signs and healings happen from this image; and it heals not only Christians, but also Turks, Arabs, and Latins. And another church of the Most Pure Mother of God. And there were also Christian churches in Cairo: the holy martyrs Sergius and Bacchus, yes The Dormition of the Most Pure Mother of God, and the Holy Martyr Barbara. And now those churches are owned by heretics - Copts. And in their churches they have icons and an altar. But they don’t have baptism, they are circumcised according to the old law. And Cairo is now empty, few old Egyptians live in it , gypsies; but Turks and Christians do not live. And the city was made of stone, but it fell apart, only one gate stands intact; through those gates the Mother of God entered from Jerusalem with Christ and Joseph.
    We stayed with the patriarch for four days in Cairo. And from there they went to the monastery of St. Arseny, who taught literacy to the royal children Arkady and Honorius; and to that monastery seven miles. The monastery stands on a high stone mountain, and in that mountain there are stone caves in which hermit elders live. The monastery was very beautiful, the cells were lined with stone. And now it is devastated by the Arabs.
    And from there they came to Egypt. And the patriarch himself served the Divine Liturgy at St. Nicholas with the entire cathedral. And after the dismissal, he did not order a single person to go out. And he sat down at the royal doors on the right, facing the people, in full vestment. And he began to tell them that he was going to Sinai to pray to God for the sovereign king. The people all bowed to him to the ground and began to beg him: “Master, do not leave us, come to us from Mount Sinai, do not stay there.” He gave his word.
    And we went with him to Mount Sinai on Saturday, Demetrius Day."

    First. What should Pozdnyakov have noticed in Cairo, but didn’t?
    The second is a little detail: Copts are heretics, they do not have baptism, but they do have circumcision.
  10. 0
    February 12 2024
    Quote: Seal
    The second is a little detail: Copts are heretics, they do not have baptism, but they do have circumcision.


    So Copts are heretics for any post-Chalcedonian denomination.
    Even worse than Catholics.
  11. 0
    February 12 2024
    Quote: deddem
    So Copts are heretics for any post-Chalcedonian denomination.
    Even worse than Catholics.
    The point is not that they are heretics and worse than Catholics. But what they supposedly or really have no baptism. But there is circumcision. .
  12. 0
    February 12 2024
    Quote: Dekabrist
    Presumably the first Russian traveler to visit Egypt around 1370 was Archimandrite Agrephenius. He was definitely in Egypt
    Could you post at least a small scan of that part of the text of the Walk of this Archimandrite Agrephenius, which would allow everyone to be convinced that he was definitely in Egypt hi

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