The moment from which Western Europe began to take shape

31
The moment from which Western Europe began to take shape
Louis the Pious


In the ninth century, three brothers who fought for the empire made peace and divided Western and Central Europe among themselves. As a result of this division, the territories of France, Germany and Italy appeared.



Charlemagne and Louis the Pious


First let's dive into history, so that it is easier for us to understand the situation. And let's start with a brief description of the grandfather of these three brothers who divided the empire.

Charlemagne is the king of the Franks, the king of the Lombards and simply the father of Europe. He is also called the Emperor of the West. This man had leadership qualities and was the first among the first in those difficult and dark times. His goal was to revive the Roman Empire. During his almost half-century reign, he united almost all of central and western Europe, and the new state began to be called the Carolingian Empire. Gaul, part of Spain, and Italian lands submitted to Charles; he crushed the Saxons and suppressed the Bavarians. True, he did not have enough resources to hold such a large territory.

Charlemagne had three sons, among whom he divided his territory. The Carolingians followed the traditions of the Franks - if you have several sons, then you divide your possessions between them. Power was not completely inherited by the eldest son. However, the two eldest sons die, and the entire empire goes to the last one - Louis. In 813, he was crowned by his father himself, a year before his death.

According to the chronicles that have reached us, Louis was a good man, pious. But he was clearly not the one who could rule such a large empire. For his piety and concessions to the church, he received the nickname Pious. He was also called Carefree for his simple character and good nature.

The beginning of Louis's reign was not remembered for anything special. The emperor had three sons - Lothair, Pepin and Louis. He began to involve the first in politics three years after ascending the throne. Lothair became co-ruler of the Carolingian Empire, Pepin received Aquitaine, Gascony, Louis received Bavaria, Carinthia.

But the younger brothers still, according to the decree, remained under the general suzerainty of the elder. If one of them died, then his possessions were divided between the remaining brothers, and not passed on by inheritance. The brothers were satisfied with the situation; it seemed that the empire was under control and was not in danger. But, as often happens, love changed everything.

Prerequisites for war


A year after the division of possessions, the wife of Louis the Pious died. After the death of Irmengard, the emperor fell into depression and wanted to go into a monastery, leaving the throne.
However, he was persuaded to stay, and they found him a second wife, Judith. The Emperor loved her very much, and in 823 she gave birth to his son Charles. Louis was easy to manage, he yielded to his wife, and she insisted that he also allocate lands to their son, like his older brothers. The husband succumbed and signed Charles Alemmania and a couple of other areas in 829.

Karl Baldy
Karl Baldy

Of course, this did not suit the older sons. In addition, at the palace there were many dissatisfied with Judith, who weaved her intrigues and removed many dignitaries from power. Lothair was among them, he felt that the empire could slip out of his hands. Therefore, he teamed up with Pepin against his father.

Louis the Pious was easily overthrown. However, Pepin realized that his brother now had complete power. He turned to his mother's younger brother Louis, and they brought his father back at a meeting of the Diet, where there were no Lothair supporters. The eldest son accepted this decision and retreated, afraid to start a war.

Mosaic depicting Lothair
Mosaic depicting Lothair

The father forgives his children, but takes away part of their lands in favor of the youngest Charles. Pepin refused to obey the emperor, avoided meeting him, was taken into custody, and escaped. The year 831 turned out to be eventful for him. In 832, Pepin was deprived of Aquitaine, recaptured, he again ran away and rebelled against his father.

In 833, Lothair joined his brother, followed by his third son Louis, and they began to seize power. The Field of Lies is a clash of two armies. Louis the Pious met his three eldest sons in a field in Alsace. A battle was expected the next day, but at night most of the emperor’s army fled to the rebel sons. Louis disbanded the rest of his army and surrendered himself.

A humiliating procedure awaited the former emperor. First he was imprisoned in a monastery. Then he was handed a list of charges, with which he was forced to agree. But the environment considered such humiliation undeserved and biased.

A few months later, the second and third sons sided with their father. And at the end of winter 834, they decided to put Louis the Pious back on the throne, and he made peace with them. Lothair opposed it; at first his army won skirmishes against his father’s supporters, but in the summer of that year it was defeated. They forgave Lothair, left Italy behind him, but deprived him of co-ownership of the Carolingian empire.

War of the Three Brothers


Pepin died in 838, and Louis the Pious himself died in 840.

Who should sit on the throne of the empire?

None of the three remaining brothers was going to back down. They were also joined by Pepin's son, Pepin II. He teamed up with his uncle Lothair against Louis and Charles. The last two swore in front of the troops that they would definitely stop Lothair and end the civil war. The oath was in two languages ​​- Romance (a prototype of French) and Germanic (common in the east of the Carolingian Empire). The text of the oath of 842 has survived to this day and became the first document in the history of Germany and France.

The following year, the two warring parties met in Verdun and signed a treaty. According to him, the empire was divided between three brothers. Lothair remained emperor. True, this title had a formal meaning, since the younger brothers did not obey the older brother. So, he got the central part of the empire from the North to the Mediterranean Sea. This is the north of Italy, Holland, Lorraine, which he named after himself, Alsace, Burgundy, Switzerland. Lands that were not connected to each other, and pretty soon they fell apart into separate parts.


Louis the German

Louis inherited the east of the empire - most of what is now Germany. Louis received the nickname the German and is considered the founder of the German nation. The younger brother Charles the Bald received the western part of the empire - almost the entire territory of present-day France.

Division of territories according to the Treaty of Verdun. The gray part is the territory of Charles the Bald, yellow – Lothair, blue – Louis the German
Division of territories according to the Treaty of Verdun. The gray part is the territory of Charles the Bald, yellow – Lothair, blue – Louis the German

After 37 years, the territory of the deceased Lothar will be divided by brothers and nephews, which will finally destroy the huge Carolingian empire, which Charlemagne had so hard to assemble.

The modern political map of Europe owes its appearance to the Treaty of Verdun. This document outlined the territories of France, Germany, Italy and became the impetus for their development and global influence on world history.
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  1. 0
    13 January 2024 03: 58
    It all started with Constantine Equal to the Apostles. Without mentioning it and the division of the church, you can simply tear out pieces of history...
    1. +1
      13 January 2024 06: 20
      Quote: Anarchist
      It all started with Constantine Equal to the Apostles

      Constantine lived five hundred years earlier, and the division of the Church occurred two hundred later. Did you get the dates wrong? wink
  2. 0
    13 January 2024 05: 55
    Thanks to the author for a useful article for readers.

    The role of the church in the process of formation of the European world is interesting. It is surprising that the Euro-church was not an appendage of the state apparatus and a specific politician. This probably became the basis, as they now say, of the “brace” of Western European civilization.
    1. +3
      13 January 2024 11: 55
      the euro-church was not an appendage of the state apparatus and a specific politician

      Before the Carolingians, it was still the same. Under the Merovingians, bishops, abbots and other church officials were appointed by the king. Without asking anyone in particular. The authority of Rome and the Pope was, of course, recognized, but only formally. The Frankish church ruled its internal affairs by order of the king..

      And only Pepin the Short, who was in dire need of at least some grounds for taking the throne, turned to the pope for help. He did not refuse, but he still had to pay for the anointing... Then he had to pay the pope, Charlemagne, for the imperial crown. So gradually the Church of the West came under the rule of Rome.
  3. 0
    13 January 2024 06: 14
    The moment from which Western Europe began to take shape

    How predictable everything is... A herd of sheep went to slaughter for the whim of some “self-appointed” rulers.
    1. +7
      13 January 2024 11: 30
      Quote: ROSS 42
      A herd of sheep went to slaughter at the whim of some “self-appointed” rulers.
      No: this is feudalism, they went to slaughter for the sake of the land, their fiefs. Later, those who fought for money were added - mercenaries. And “rams for slaughter” is already a recruiting exercise, a new time. Easily determined by the lack of armor (yes, the armor was not destroyed by gunfire, but by the fact that the fighters were less valuable than money. Naturally, neither knights nor mercenaries saved on themselves).
      1. 0
        15 January 2024 08: 32
        Not always and not entirely. In modern times, armies became numerous and expensive, so soldiers were still saved and, in the event of the loss of an army, there was often no money to recruit a second one. In addition, do not forget that the generals also went without armor.

        Of course, there were countries with a large population, for example, Russia or France, where recruitment after recruitment could be carried out. This was not the case in small countries, and Europe consisted mainly of small countries.
        1. -1
          15 January 2024 19: 56
          Quote: S.Z.
          in the event of the loss of an army, there was often nothing to recruit a second one
          Remember, Lomonosov was simply captured in one of the German principalities and taken into the grenadiers (although he escaped). It is not expensive.
          Quote: S.Z.
          In addition, do not forget that the generals also went without armor.
          In the rear and under guard.
          Quote: S.Z.
          here it was possible to carry out set after set.
          A mass army is Napoleon; before him, “set by set” did not work.
          1. 0
            16 January 2024 07: 41
            1. The story with Lomonosov confirms the existence of a problem.
            2. Generals often died and were wounded, read history - Turenne, Eugene, Conde, Marlborough, Suvorov, Bagration, finally, and officers died even more often. In those days, there were no rear lines as such, the commander personally observed the battle and often participated in it, and the generals often led columns in front of the line.
            3. Read the history of the War of Spanish Succession and the history of the Northern War. No one led such huge armies as under Napoleon at one time; the economy did not allow it, but losses were made up for by recruiting. And the losses were sometimes terrible, take Malplac for example.

            IMHO, in the 16th - 19th centuries, with the massive introduction of cheap muskets, the balance of shield and sword was distorted towards the sword, there was practically no protection. The lines stood opposite each other at 30 - 60 paces and exterminated each other with musket fire, and riflemen with rifled weapons shot at the officers. It was simply mutual extermination.
  4. +2
    13 January 2024 06: 17
    Quote: Zotov Sergey
    Louis received the nickname German and is considered the founder of the German nation

    I read it and fell under my chair! wink
  5. +7
    13 January 2024 07: 50
    Now we will know the moment from which Western Europe began to take shape. True, it was described in Soviet history textbooks for 6th grades. And in more detail in the History Reader for 6th grades. The anthology was three times larger in volume than the textbook.
  6. +4
    13 January 2024 08: 39
    In the ninth century, three brothers who fought for the empire made peace and divided Western and Central Europe among themselves. As a result of this division, the territories of France, Germany and Italy appeared.

    If the term “territory” means space on Earth, then the territories of France, Germany and Italy appeared approximately 250 million years ago, when the continent of Pangea was formed at the beginning of the Mesozoic era as a result of various geological processes. This territory acquired its modern shape approximately three million years ago, at the end of the Neogene period.
    If the “territory of the state” is meant, then the territories of the kingdoms formed as a result of the “division,” as the author writes, correspond to the territories of France, Germany and Italy formed in the future very conditionally.
    1. +4
      13 January 2024 08: 46
      as the author writes
      Well, well... the author knows better... smile
      1. +6
        13 January 2024 08: 58
        Well, well... the author knows better...

        According to the "conclusion"
        The modern political map of Europe owes its appearance to the Treaty of Verdun.

        The author has not yet read the subsequent history of Europe.
        Otherwise, he would have been surprised to learn that there were only five treaties according to which the Carolingian Empire was divided, and the final “division” took place in 880 under the Treaty of Ribemont between Louis III the Younger and his cousins ​​Louis III and Carloman II.
        Although even after this, the “modern political map” was still very far away.
        1. -1
          13 January 2024 13: 34
          I read the story. And I know about these divisions, I just mentioned the last one at the end of the article. After 37 years, this will be the year 880. The subsequent fragmentation after 843 was not the purpose of the article, but the Treaty of Verdun became the impetus for everything. And I know that it was oh so far from the modern look back then. But the preconditions were born there.
      2. +5
        13 January 2024 09: 42
        The funny thing (or not funny?) is that this poor presentation, judging by the downvotes, has its own ardent fans here.
        1. +6
          13 January 2024 11: 06
          has its own ardent fans here
          This is understandable and explainable, they just didn’t study history in educational institutions. And now, they study it using materials from the Internet. And from all sorts of pseudo-historical literature with big names.
        2. 0
          13 January 2024 13: 04
          An excellent summary of history to give an overview of the Carolingians.
  7. +9
    13 January 2024 09: 16
    The brothers were happy with the situation

    Come on - the Franks have had this song since the time of the Merovingians... For the same number of generations - the father divides his possessions between his sons, and they immediately begin to massacre each other. He remains alone, and again divides the newly united possessions between his sons.. Hell and Israel..

    Just read the history of the relationship between the Frankish queens Fredegonda and Brünnhilde - Game of Thrones just nervously smokes on the sidelines!! But they had this in almost every iteration.. They were quite entertaining..
  8. +3
    13 January 2024 09: 19
    Quote: Dutchman Michel
    Quote: Anarchist
    It all started with Constantine Equal to the Apostles

    Constantine lived five hundred years earlier, and the division of the Church occurred two hundred later. Did you get the dates wrong? wink


    Not to mention that the first news of the division of churches came under Heraclius and the Isaurian dynasty, when Western (and African) bishoprics were hostile to the imperial decisions to accept the Monothelite and Iconoclastic heresies (respectively).
    1. -1
      13 January 2024 11: 59
      No, as always, they just divided the money. And church disagreements were just a convenient excuse...
  9. +5
    13 January 2024 10: 29
    Charlemagne had three sons

    The eldest smart was a kid,
    The average was this way and that,
    Jr....................
    The emperor had three sons - Lothair, Pepin and Louis

    The eldest smart was a kid,
    The average was this way and that,
    Jr.................... laughing
    Three brothers sit down to dinner,
    Senior (dissatisfied): Hmm-hmm-hmm!
    Medium: That would be nice...
    Junior (getting up): So I'm driving away? drinks
  10. -1
    13 January 2024 12: 58
    Politics in the Middle Ages is not politics at all; it is dynastic disputes about who should own the lands and who should occupy the throne.
  11. +4
    13 January 2024 23: 55
    Once upon a time there lived all sorts of Lombards, Belgians and Burgundians, Alemanni, Bavarians and Gauls...
    And suddenly we realized that we were living wrong!
    And they turned to Karl, the beasts knew that he was the Great: “Our land is great and abundant, but there is no order... Come and rule us!”
    And he came, and brought order, and took possession... and gave the Pope some money for poverty (he did not spare the entire treasury of the former Huns, who milked the Eastern Roman Empire for 300 years, for this matter).
    But the Moors and Saracens with the Basques didn’t want him to take over - he didn’t take over, because he respected other people’s opinions, especially how the Lyuli Dali and Count Roland’s favorite were taken away, even though he was playing loudly all sorts of ringtones... but the subscriber was unavailable.
    1. +1
      14 January 2024 09: 49
      Good style of presenting history) Write an article urgently, it’s good for us and good for you)))))
      1. +1
        14 January 2024 12: 33
        Yes, he slightly transformed the actions of Charles into the pen of the chronicler Nestor.
        And the result was a blissful and murky picture, absolutely unclear in its motivations and real political interests. What we have in Russian history of that time. As close to the truth as my tale to the deeds of Karl. It seems to be about him, but he himself would hardly have recognized his reign in such a “description.”
        But he was luckier; his life story was written by a competent, highly educated and intelligent chronicler who copied the best Roman traditions of writing the lives of Emperors. Of course, the chronicles are not written biasedly or differently, but nevertheless they are very detailed, consistent and accurate. Thanks to this, much of that time is illuminated much better than a hundred years earlier, or two hundred later.
  12. ada
    -2
    15 January 2024 05: 17
    No, it's not mine. You need to go drink a magical ale, look at the symbolism of antiquity and try to feel the predestination and inevitability of the split of Eurasia, Europe finding its unique path of pathamushta, it is always better than Asia, and not tectonics here, what kind of constructivism and forced termenology of languages ​​under the influence of environmental factors, troubles and troubles . Not! Fact - the girl received a library from the early Atlantean aliens. One thing I don’t understand is how did you learn to read without Asia? Did Africa help? Exactly! The dark continent gave birth to the gloomy West in isolation and its children still cannot wait for them. Elya, me, Elya...
    Or maybe it was aliens? Necromongers! So epic-technological, all on a dark relijon, gone into the sunset, but with the resurrection, the cross, a father and his son and some mother, a detachment with a traitor and a currency provocation, but not on their own earth - it’s nearby and it’s convenient and for sale ok, they even foisted it on us. Come on! They gave their Europeanness to the pale Arabs, and they beat and persecute them for it to this day - such a hobbit. This sought-after Western moment seemed to come from a mudslide, no less.
    Oh, ale to me, ale...
  13. +4
    15 January 2024 09: 58
    A presentation of a story and a conclusion that does not correspond to the previous presentation or title.

    Germany was formed in the 19th century, before which its territory was fragmented. The Holy Roman Empire - yes, it just occupied about two out of three painted fragments.

    Italy had no influence on politics at all, since it itself was divided and one can talk about Venice, for example, but certainly not about Italy, which was precisely the object of division for several centuries.

    France alone will more or less fall within these borders, and only partially.

    It is difficult to imagine Western Europe without Britain or Spain.

    IMHO, the very posing of the question of the beginning of the formation of Western Europe is perhaps inappropriate without indicating what exactly the Author calls Western Europe.

    IMHO, if we talk about the historical beginning of what is considered Western Civilization in the modern view, I would say that this beginning lies where and when the Roman legions crossed the Alps.
  14. 0
    16 January 2024 23: 19
    interesting article
    It’s good that the brothers didn’t kill each other and could come to an agreement after discord and wars
  15. +1
    25 January 2024 23: 13
    This is how you make such frivolous statements
    The text of the oath of 842 has survived to this day and became the first document in the history of Germany and France.
    Based on the context, it follows that a certain document has indeed been preserved, on which there are someone’s signatures. But this is not tact. A little digging into the topic shows that there is no document. It is stated that
    The text was preserved as part of the Latin-language work of the historian Nitgard “On the discord of the sons of Louis the Pious.” Nitgard was contemporary with the events described and wrote shortly after them
    So, at this stage we see that the text of the oath was “preserved” not in the form of a document, but in the form in which a certain Nitgard wrote it down. I don’t know how it is for anyone, but I already associate this with the anecdote in which Abram tells Isaac that Chaliapin sings poorly and out of tune.
    But that's not all. If anyone thinks that the original manuscript of this Nitgard reached the times of historical materialism, then he is mistaken. It is stated that
    Nithard's work has come down to us in a single 10th-century manuscript, originating from the library of the Abbey of Saint-Médard in Soissons
    Oh, how can this be, because at the same time it is stated that Nitgard died back in the 9th century, in 844. And here is a manuscript from the XNUMXth century. How so ?
    By the way, we still need to figure out when this manuscript, which after all of the above, being of sound mind and solid memory, of course cannot be called either a document or a manuscript of Nitgard, but should be called a “manuscript of an unknown author”, ended up in the library of the Abbey of Saint-Médard in Soissons.
    After all, it is claimed that this is an abbey
    However, the abbey also had to endure a number of disasters. Around 884 it was sacked by the Normans[2]; in 886 it was attacked by the Vikings and later by the Hungarians. Paris gradually became the center of royal power, and Soissons, and with it the abbey, faded into the background. The monastery experienced new prosperity in the 12th century: it is being rebuilt, a new temple is being consecrated in it. Construction continues in the 13th century
    That is, when the library appeared in the abbey is unknown, but according to the official version of history, no earlier than the 13th century.
    But, I repeat, for some reason what is written everywhere is what the author rewrote, namely
    The text of the oath of 842 has survived to this day and became the first document in the history of Germany and France.

    As Stanislav E. Lec said If you remove all the lies from history, this does not mean at all that only the truth will remain - as a result, there may be nothing left at all.
  16. 0
    26 January 2024 08: 50
    Quote: Dekabrist
    Otherwise, he would have been surprised to learn that there were only five treaties according to which the Carolingian Empire was divided, and the final “division” took place in 880 under the Treaty of Ribemont between Louis III the Younger and his cousins ​​Louis III and Carloman II.
    I just wonder if any of the real people said or wrote that he saw, much less held in his hands, the original of at least one of the “agreements” you mentioned?