About the monument to Kotovsky in Chisinau and not only

55
About the monument to Kotovsky in Chisinau and not only

In a recent article by V. Ryzhov “Who walks wounded under the red banner”, published by Military Review on October 22, 2023, also spoke about the sad fate of the equestrian monument to Nikolai Shchors, which is located in Kyiv.

The current Ukrainian authorities are, as they say, in awe of such heroes. As part of “decommunization,” they would have demolished this monument long ago, but it is on the State Register of “immovable” monuments of national significance in Ukraine.



As a result, the Minister of Culture of Square A. Tkachenko announced that only the sculpture of a horse is of artistic value, which “recognized by all art critics as an outstanding artistic horse" And he suggested that Shchors be removed and the horse left behind.

It is difficult to say how this tragicomic situation will be resolved. In the meantime, this sculpture is bashfully closed in a box of “yellow-black” color and, they say, was badly damaged by vandals.


Meanwhile, a similar monument to another hero of the civil war is located in Chisinau. In the 20th century, it was even recognized as one of the best equestrian statues in Europe. And the horse (separate from the rider) was also one of the three most successful sculptures in Europe. We are talking about the monument to Grigory Ivanovich Kotovsky.


Monument to Kotovsky in Chisinau. Soviet era postcard (1980s)

Monument to Kotovsky


Recognized as one of the best equestrian statues in Europe, as is the horse separately from the rider.

Despite this, at the opening of the monument to Kotovsky, Marshal Budyonny swore without hesitation, at the top of his voice. Being an excellent rider, organizer and commander of the cavalry of the Red Army, Semyon Mikhailovich had an excellent understanding of horses. He immediately noticed that the sculptor had placed the rider on the “wrong” horse.

There was a pacer under Grigory Ivanovich, but the brigade commander didn’t ride one like that. They didn’t take pacers into the army: they were too expensive, and they quickly fell out of action. Even Arab sheikhs preferred pacers mainly for ceremonial rides.


Therefore, Budyonny was publicly indignant and demanded to restore historical the truth, placing Kotovsky as befits his status - on a war horse. However, for objective reasons, the composition was preserved in its original form. It was unsafe to replace the horse: the law of universal gravitation interfered! It turns out that mounting a massive statue of a brigade commander on an ordinary war horse was almost impossible. And the pacer, who had not yet managed to take a full step, stood firmly on three points of support.


Central square of Chisinau, 1939/1940s. Monument to Ferdinand I (King of Romania) in front of the Victory Arch and the Cathedral. Later, instead of Ferdinand, a monument to Lenin will be erected

The monument to G.I. Kotovsky was the result of an All-Union competition. We considered several projects by different authors. So, in 1947, they considered the project of the sculptor Muravin and the architect Karakis (see photo). Then the project of Muravin and Lysenko.


Project of a monument to Kotovsky. Gypsum. 1947 Author: Muravin Lev Davidovich


Project of a monument to Kotovsky. Author: Muravin Lev Davidovich, Lysenko Mikhail Grigorievich

But preference was given to another project. The author of the realized statue of Kotovsky is Lazar Dubinovsky, and the horse belongs to the hand of the animal sculptor Anatoly Posyado.

The creative team included sculptor Ivan Gavrilovich Pershudchev, battle painter Konstantin Demyanovich Kitayka and chief architect of Chisinau Fyodor Petrovich Naumov.


Final project with authors

Initially, it was planned to erect a monument to Kotovsky on the main square of Chisinau, opposite the Victory Arch. There was just an empty pedestal on which the monument to Ferdinand I had previously stood.

In 1940, a sign was first attached to it, which announced that a monument to the hero of the Civil War would be erected here. Then, before the start of the war, they managed to erect a temporary monument to Kotovsky.


Soviet Chisinau. Pedestal of the monument to Ferdinand with a portrait of Kotovsky, 1940


Also 1940, a temporary monument to Kotovsky has already been erected

In 1941, the Romanian-German authorities dismantled it. After the war, the location was reconsidered and chosen not far from the railway station (the disappeared Gutsulyovka district). There, one-story houses were just being demolished and the future Negruzzi Avenue was being laid.


1941, main square. The monument to Kotovsky was dismantled. The pedestal is decorated with Romanian flags and flowers

As an animal sculptor, Anatoly Posyado, of course, had an excellent understanding of horses, so he could accurately distinguish a war horse from a pacer. But in order to make the statue of the Civil War hero stable, we had to resort to forgery. After all, the saber alone weighs 95 kilograms, and the entire sculpture weighs about 20 tons!

The grand opening of the Kotovsky monument took place on February 23, 1954. It was timed not only to the Soviet Army Day, but also to the 10th anniversary of the liberation of Bessarabia (Iasi-Chisinau operation). The meeting was attended by many military and civilians, both ordinary and high-ranking.


Rally at the opening of the monument to Kotovsky (February 23, 1954)

The monument to Kotovsky stands in the same place to this day.

Over the past seven decades, he has seen much better times. If in Soviet times the monument was one of the symbols of Chisinau, then during the times of independence everything happened to it...

There was also a declaration of love to the girl, written in white paint all over the pedestal. And there was also a couple of young homeless people living in a hut at the foot of the monument. They hung their washed clothes on boxwood bushes to dry. The media mentioned that they were both drug addicts, and at the time of her arrest by the police, the girl was also pregnant.

Nevertheless, the monument to Kotovsky in Chisinau was not desecrated by vandals and was not hidden from the eyes of passers-by. Unlike the monument to Shchors in Kyiv.

Below are old archival photos and a series of recent photographs of the monument in good quality. The author thanks Valery Ryzhov for his support.


Excerpt from the magazine "Ogonyok" dated September 30, 1940. Below is a photo of the opening of the monument to Kotovsky in the homeland of the division commander (village of Gincheshty / city of Kotovsk / Hincheshty)




Portrait of Kotovsky. Artist K. D. Kitayka. 1948




The building of the MSSR Academy of Sciences rises on the hill. A boulevard will be laid to it, apartment buildings, an institute, and a clinic will be built.


Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Budyonny at an inspection in the MSSR (1949)


Several panoramic photos of the surrounding area






Behind the monument are old houses in the Gutsulevka district. They will be demolished, 9-story panel buildings will be built, and an avenue will be laid


Construction of the Cosmos Hotel on the site of the private sector































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55 comments
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  1. +15
    5 November 2023 05: 08
    This is what I love!!!
    Mikhail, thank you very much for the gorgeous “alaverdi” for Valery’s work!
    Good morning to everyone, success and prosperity, with sincere respect to Kote!
    R.s. No, maybe a person with Kotov’s last name can sit on a bad horse - I’m being sarcastic... fellow
    1. +6
      5 November 2023 11: 12
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      Thanks Mikhail

      hi
      You are welcome!
  2. +3
    5 November 2023 05: 24
    I still don’t understand why you can’t change the horse. Or does the war horse not stand on at least three points of support? lol
    1. +4
      5 November 2023 06: 15
      As an animal sculptor, Anatoly Posyado, of course, had an excellent understanding of horses, so he could accurately distinguish a war horse from a pacer. But in order to make the statue of the Civil War hero stable, we had to resort to forgery. After all, the saber alone weighs 95 kilograms, and the entire sculpture weighs about 20 tons!

      The author skillfully avoided the material of the monument, indicating only the weight. So what are they made of, since they weigh so much?
      1. +6
        5 November 2023 11: 55
        Quote: Starover_Z
        So what are they made of if they weigh so much?

        The sculpture is made of bronze
      2. +16
        5 November 2023 12: 55
        Or the war horse does not stand on at least three points of support

        ,,, yes, everything is possible.

        Thanks to the author hi interesting.
    2. +7
      5 November 2023 07: 09
      Costs. Only if you look at the projection of the support points, the triangle will have a smaller area and, accordingly, less stability.
      And the most important thing will be a violation of the transmission of movement in the sculpture.
      Since during a trotting gait the horse simultaneously raises two legs (and the monument will properly rest on two points), the hind leg is delayed when ambling.
      1. +3
        5 November 2023 07: 29
        Quote: Arkadich
        Costs. Only if you look at the projection of the support points, the triangle will have a smaller area and, accordingly, less stability.
        And the most important thing will be a violation of the transmission of movement in the sculpture.
        Since during a trotting gait the horse simultaneously raises two legs (and the monument will properly rest on two points), the hind leg is delayed when ambling.

        Marshal Zhukov in Yekaterinburg.
        1. +2
          5 November 2023 11: 49
          If this is a critical question, then I’ll honestly say I don’t know. I'm not an architect. I can't say anything about weight distribution. request . The image of Peter I immediately came to mind. The answer was about horses.
          There are, of course, options why the architect made this particular decision; at least, this was the technical task.
          1. +5
            5 November 2023 13: 33
            Quote: Arkadich
            why did the architect make this decision?

            Moldova (and Ukraine) are located in seismic zones.
            Therefore, both buildings and monuments need to be built with a large margin of safety.

            In Chisinau, the Monument to Soldiers-Liberators collapsed without an earthquake.
            It happened in 1968 year.
            And this is not an equestrian statue.



            Later, another monument was designed, which still stands today.
            1. +2
              5 November 2023 15: 20
              Moldova (and Ukraine) are located in seismic zones.

              I didn't even think about that.
          2. 0
            8 November 2023 21: 56
            The Bronze Horseman actually has 3 points of support. The snake that the horse tramples is also a fulcrum. But the monument to Nicholas I in St. Petersburg has 2 support points, and this is rare
  3. +8
    5 November 2023 05: 53

    If it weren't for the enemy colors, it would look a lot like a mausoleum on holidays.
    1. +8
      5 November 2023 06: 43
      Quote: Amateur
      If not for the enemy colors

      What did Kotovsky do to annoy the Moldovans?
      1. +10
        5 November 2023 12: 13
        Quote: Dutchman Michel
        What did Kotovsky do to annoy the Moldovans?

        It is related to the Soviet period.
        This is enough for the pro-European authorities.
      2. 0
        8 November 2023 21: 57
        There was a case where he robbed Moldovan landowners laughing
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. +1
      6 November 2023 18: 19
      Zelya will be buried under this Shchors.
      1. +2
        6 November 2023 18: 45
        Sltshkom. A lot of honor. Pour concrete into the reconstruction body of the Kakhovskaya hydroelectric station
  4. +7
    5 November 2023 07: 21
    Forgive me author, in the article I was interested in how to distinguish a pacer from a war horse.
    1. +9
      5 November 2023 07: 39
      The rhythm of the step is different, respectively, when attacking in a horse formation, the pacer breaks this formation.
      1. +4
        5 November 2023 11: 51
        I’ll correct it a little in the formation, it breaks, in the attack there it doesn’t matter what gait the horse is going at.
    2. +7
      5 November 2023 08: 33
      how to distinguish a pacer from a war horse
      The pacer simultaneously steps with his right and then his left legs, swaying strongly. And an ordinary horse walks with its legs located diagonally. This is if he walks.
      1. +5
        5 November 2023 15: 52
        And an ordinary horse walks with its legs located diagonally
        A cow is an animal with four legs at the corners. laughing
        1. +4
          5 November 2023 16: 01
          In May, in spring dope
          Spinning in the air is amazing
          The whole herd of cows! They wouldn't scare me off!
          Beauty! And the residents rejoice
          Like a cow wedge goes over the field.
          And the flat cakes fly dry into the dust,
          Fertilizing the earth in captivity.
          Let the May thunder not scare away those flying!
          And by sunset, stunned by May,
          The whole herd will moo and scream,
          Smoothly flying over the collective farm.
          (C)
  5. The comment was deleted.
    1. +7
      5 November 2023 08: 02
      It’s even interesting, am I the only one who found your question strange? The comparison is very appropriate. Two republics of the USSR, each of which had its own heroes of the Soviet era. Which they were proud of. And what a different attitude towards one’s history after gaining independence. Some have a desire to forget or denigrate. And others show that you can live without tearing out or burning pages from your biography. We need to write about this.
    2. +2
      5 November 2023 09: 32
      Kotovsky is in Chisinau, and Shchors was removed in Kyiv.
    3. +5
      5 November 2023 12: 04
      Quote: Luminman
      completely immersed in vineyards and other agricultural crops

      Now the republic is mired in intrigue.
      The government doesn't care about farmers.
      They can no longer sell their products in the Russian Federation, but they still can’t sell them in the EU.
      We have to sell our apples and grapes almost individually on other continents.
      The rest is distributed free of charge on the side of the road or thrown in gardens and fields...
      Orchards and vineyards are being cut down to try to grow more profitable crops.

  6. The comment was deleted.
  7. +4
    5 November 2023 07: 53
    I was pleased with this article, even though Moldova is not yet at war with its own history. And, as stated in the recent article “The Bright Life and Tragic Death of Sergei Lazo,” the estate of the family of this Red commander, who died in the Far East, has even been restored in Moldova.
    1. +4
      5 November 2023 12: 09
      Quote: vet
      at least in Moldova they are not yet at war with their own history

      They are fighting.
      And with history, and with the St. George ribbon, and with monuments.

  8. -1
    5 November 2023 09: 33
    If the Soviet communists and their supporters were very respectful of the centuries-old history of our country, and created the history of their Soviet period,... starting with the October Revolution, their enemies, who captured the republics of the USSR, rejected the entire centuries-old history of their country before their capture of the USSR, and never created the history of their anti-Soviet period, including the fact that they simply threw out their Perestroika from the history of their anti-Soviet period.
    1. +5
      5 November 2023 10: 39
      If the Soviet communists and their supporters were very respectful of the centuries-old history of our country

      Reading your comments Tatra, I get the idea that you live in a different ecumene. Only in my small hometown, during the years of the “Soviet communists,” a monument to Alexander II and one temple were demolished. The second one was rebuilt into a bakery. After 91, the democrats already destroyed the monuments to Lenin and Kirov. In my unenlightened opinion, both of them showed their not very good qualities, breaking their history.
      1. +1
        5 November 2023 11: 26
        I have a twofold attitude towards monuments: 1) I appreciate the beauty in them and therefore do not justify the humiliation of beautiful monuments, no matter who they were erected to. Another thing is that there are terrible blocks of cement and metal
        In our city, there is such a block: “man is a creator,” but there is nothing close to aesthetics or Tsereteli’s gigantism. He has aesthetics, but gigantism has “strangled” it
        2) before you destroy something, you need to think 10 times
        I read about the Eiffel Tower, when it was installed, there was a universal cry: “tear it down.” The authorities showed wisdom: they collected 100 sketches, with and without a tower. As a result, we decided to leave
        1. +1
          5 November 2023 15: 04
          Quote from lisikat2
          I have a twofold attitude towards monuments: 1) I appreciate the beauty in them and therefore do not justify the humiliation of beautiful monuments, no matter who they were erected to. Another thing is that there are terrible blocks of cement and metal
          In our city, there is such a block: “man is a creator,” but there is nothing close to aesthetics or Tsereteli’s gigantism. He has aesthetics, but gigantism has “strangled” it
          2) before you destroy something, you need to think 10 times
          I read about the Eiffel Tower, when it was installed, there was a universal cry: “tear it down.” The authorities showed wisdom: they collected 100 sketches, with and without a tower. As a result, we decided to leave

          Aptly noted, I subscribe to your every word! hi
  9. +3
    5 November 2023 10: 56
    Thanks to the author for the interesting material.
    An expressive monument.
    It’s curious how the Chisinau authorities justify the presence of the monument or pretend that it does not exist?
    1. +6
      5 November 2023 12: 22
      Quote from lisikat2
      Thanks to the author

      You are welcome!
      Quote from lisikat2
      How do the Chisinau authorities justify the presence of the monument?

      Complex issue...
      It may be difficult to tear down and there is nothing to replace it with.

      By the way, the other day in Chisinau they completed the arrangement of the territory in front of the Lazo monument.
      The pedestal of the monument was also updated.
      They say Lazo has influential descendants in France.
      So they influenced the Moldovan authorities.



      The estate of the Lazo family in the village of Piatra, Orhei district, was also restored in 2020.

  10. +7
    5 November 2023 13: 04
    In 2019, my wife and I stayed at the Cosmos Hotel, which is behind the monument described above. A unique architectural monument and museum of life of the late USSR Yes My wife was delighted with this excursion into history.
    1. +6
      5 November 2023 14: 12
      Museum of Life of the Late USSR
      "- Son, do you want to go on an excursion to the Museum of Soviet Life?
      - Fuck you with your dacha!!!"
      1. +7
        5 November 2023 14: 22
        with your dacha!
        Good morning! There (at the hotel) really nothing has changed since the 80s. A huge granite lobby, a stainless steel elevator (and large enough for a passenger car), chandeliers of the same design. The complete feeling of traveling in a time machine. If they didn't skimp on lighting and cleaning, it would look better than many modern five-star hotels.
        1. +3
          5 November 2023 14: 57
          Hi Alex!
          10 years ago in the Pushkin Mountains I stayed in the same hotel, it’s called “Druzhba”. It was impossible to pay by card, only cash.
          1. +4
            5 November 2023 15: 07
            It was impossible to pay by card, only cash.
            This is more likely to optimize taxation Yes As far as I remember, the card was accepted even at the Hilton Chernobyl laughing - a shady hostel in Chernobyl, from where they were taken to Pripyat, and as security there was a pack of homeless, good-natured mongrels.
            1. +2
              5 November 2023 16: 57
              This is more likely to optimize taxation
              No, in 2013 in PushGory you could pay with a card only in two places, the bungalow-hotel "Arina R" and one chain store. Everything else is cash only.
              1. 0
                5 November 2023 17: 16
                cash only.
                In God we trust - the rest pays cash
                I had cash in my hands three months ago sad ON THE WAY TO THE DIGITAL CONCENTRATION CAMP belay .
                1. +1
                  5 November 2023 17: 54
                  The funny thing is, 2 years later I encountered exactly the same situation in Rhodes. On the entire island only in 3-4 places it was possible to pay by card. Well, we also rented a car using the card.
                  The Greeks were then planning to leave the European Union against the backdrop of the financial crisis; local credit cards were being cashed out at €300 per month.
              2. +2
                5 November 2023 17: 40
                Hello guys, I encountered problems with bank transfer payments in the capital of the Urals. In the city Frisbee and at Russian Post.
                1. +1
                  5 November 2023 17: 53
                  I encountered problems with payment by bank transfer
                  I am inclined to think that this is for banal tax evasion. Communication seems to be everywhere now. I don’t believe in the version of protest against the “digital concentration camp” and total control, although evidence of this - blocking the accounts of people distinguished by their civic position - has already taken place in England.
                  1. +1
                    5 November 2023 18: 09
                    I am inclined to think that this is for banal tax evasion.
                    We have other schemes for tax evasion, for example, “gray” salaries.
                    In addition, the checks are still punched, and with them the fiscal tape. And if you try not to punch this check, one call to the tax office and you will be very sick.
                2. +1
                  5 November 2023 17: 58
                  at Russian Post.
                  Alex doesn't like Royal Post either. laughing
                  Hello, Vlad!
                  1. +1
                    5 November 2023 18: 08
                    Alex doesn't like Royal Post either.
                    Royal Mail - normal guys Yes .
                    1. +1
                      5 November 2023 19: 19
                      Yes, of course, Royal Mail, I'm stupid after work. As for “normality”, 1,5 years ago you had a slightly different opinion...
                      1. +1
                        5 November 2023 19: 53
                        As for “normality”, 1,5 years
                        Everything has been going well lately. Probably after moving to another area.
                      2. +1
                        5 November 2023 19: 58
                        By the way, I forgot to ask, where did you move?
                      3. -1
                        5 November 2023 20: 26
                        where did you move?
                        North East London, E4. Forest park with parrots.
                      4. The comment was deleted.
  11. +1
    6 November 2023 02: 16
    For me, the author of the most outstanding monument to the commander and his horse is “Song of the Prophetic Oleg”, only not the first one, but Vladimir Semenovich Vysotsky.
    It is surprising, however, that there is no monument to this amazing historical character himself - after all, it was he (and not Rurik) who created the first image of the Russian state, capturing Kyiv for Igor, Rurik’s son.
    1. 0
      6 November 2023 07: 46
      You are right, perhaps his origin failed him? Still, he is a newcomer, not of indigenous, so to speak, nationality, although he is certainly worthy.
  12. +1
    6 November 2023 10: 54
    It’s not entirely clear with the pacer. As you know, the pacer simultaneously moves his legs on one side (other horses move diagonally). And if you look at the monument, he is a pacer on his right legs, but not on his left (back is back, front is forward).
    That is, the horse in motion is simply depicted incorrectly. Perhaps due to the need to correctly provide support without recalculating the entire monument during the design process.

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