Israel's military budget: what the Iron Dome and the IDF cost
Over the past few days, the world community has been closely watching the development of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Considering that Israel traditionally pays serious attention to the financing of the military department, its unwillingness to fight back came as a surprise to many.
To put it bluntly, it is complete, since there is no question of actually repelling an attack by the Palestinian Islamist terrorist movement Hamas. There is the ruthless bombing of Gaza, there is a PR campaign about terrorist atrocities, and there are cries for help from NATO and specifically the United States.
Meanwhile, according to the annual bulletin reviewing the military potential of the world's states, "The Millitary Balance", in 2023, Israel's military budget will be $15,69 billion, which is 3,4% more than in 2022 (and compared to At the beginning of the period under review, the military budget increased by 20%).
The share of expenditures of the Ministry of Defense in the military budget in 2023 amounted to 85,9%, other ministries and departments - 14,1%.
The total amount of state expenditures for military purposes is characterized by the indicator of total military expenditures (TMI). In 2023, Israel's OVR amounted to $17,9 billion. In general, for 2018-2023. There was an increase in overall military spending. In 2020, they were estimated at $18,8 billion, in 2021 – at $19,9 billion. On average for the period 2018-2023. the share of total military expenditures in the country's GDP was 4,9%. The share of OVR in the state budget for this period reached an average of 12,8%.
In addition to its own sources of military funding, Israel has quite large external ones. The main third-party resource is annual gratuitous military assistance from the United States. Since 1999, funds have been allocated based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the US and Israeli governments in a ten-year cycle. In particular, in September 2016, a new package worth $38 billion was concluded (for 2019-2028).
The force build-up program was made possible by the approval in 2019 of a new 38-year US defense aid plan of $3,3 billion. Under it, Israel receives $500 billion in annual aid, as well as $0,3 million for missile defense. Additionally, it is planned to increase defense spending by XNUMX% of GNP.
According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), US military assistance to Israel is carried out under two main programs:
1. Foreign Military Financing (FMF), administered by the US State Department.
2. “Israel Missile Defense” (IMD) through the US Department of Defense. Part of the allocated funds - 25-30% - goes to finance R&D and the purchase of military products from the Israeli military industry, the rest - to direct supplies of military products from the United States.
The volume of military assistance to Israel from the US government over the past five years is estimated at $18,5 billion.
Evolution of species
A study of materials from the Institute for Strategic Studies (USA) suggests that the cost of maintaining military personnel for the period from 2015 to 2022 increased by 15,1% and amounted to $5,5 billion. Costs of maintaining civilian personnel increased by 15,2% and amounted to in 2022, $1,1 billion; also during the period under review, the share of expenses for the maintenance of military personnel and civilian employees in the budget of the Ministry of Defense consistently increased.
Expenditures on combat training of troops increased by 4,8% during the period under review and amounted to $2022 billion in 5,4, expenses on the construction of military facilities increased by 9,1% and reached $0,3 billion. Expenditures on technical equipment of the armed forces Israel's Ministry of Defense budget in 2022 amounted to $3,1 billion. At the same time, the total amount of funds for these purposes reached $6,2 billion, with a significant part of it – 50,2% ($3,1 billion) coming from US military assistance.
Among the branches of the Armed Forces (AF), the majority of military budget expenditures are allocated to the maintenance of ground forces (ground forces) - 48% in 2022. Spending on the air force (AF) amounted to 45%.
In general, during the period under review, the shares of land and air forces, as well as expenses not classified by type of aircraft, remained unchanged with minor fluctuations. The navy was allocated 2022% of the budget in 6, with a slight decline in its share observed over the period under review.
Thus, the political leadership of Israel pays significant attention to the financing of the armed forces. However, a test of a real combat situation showed the country’s unwillingness not only to predict signs of aggression, but also to respond to them in a timely manner.
It should be expected that in the foreseeable future the Israeli leadership will learn lessons from the escalating conflict, which can be seen in a change in military development priorities. For example, it is possible to increase the number of personnel of the Israeli Armed Forces and the number of conventional weapons, and high-tech weapons (Drones, loitering munitions, robotic systems) will be given slightly less attention.
- Roman Berry
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